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scriptions are not often to be depended into his mind before which his soul upon; but this tombstone is as much a trembled. They pointed to erring wisverity as the man whom it commemo- dom in order to elevate infallible authorates. Andrew Marvell was one of the rity. They worked on the modest sense worthiest of the old English worthies. of his own weakness, to induce him to The friend of Oliver Cromwell and of repose upon the bosom of the Church John Milton, he shared the firm ad- which had endured for ages. They herence to a settled purpose of the one, painted the new form of worship as a and the stern truthfulness of the other, dark cloud which would pass away from to which he added those lighter quali- the sky of faith and leave it bright and ties which make men as lovable in serene as ever; and they appealed to private life as high virtue makes them the chivalrous feeling of which he was estimable in public.

full, colouring the sacrifice which would It is worth while to try to look into attend a change of religion, with the the heart of such a man; to know what tinge of noble self-devotedness to right. he thought and how he lived—to dis. It was probably this last consideration tinguish from the broad stream of life which proved most effective. Not that the current of his existence, and to Andrew Marvell had not doubts as to trace in the great web of history the the paths in which he was treading: threads which he wove into it. To Every earnest, inquiring spirit has had begin at the beginning, then, ANDREW them. Few who have thought on such MARVELL was born at Kingston-upon- subjects, but have propounded quesHull, in the year 1620. His parents tions to their own hearts to which they were in good circumstances, and his could give no satisfactory answer. Few boyhood passed off without distinction. but have shrunk before the mysteries Quick, versatile, and playful, he passed hidden among Revelation, and longed through the earlier stages of education for some oracle which could not err, to with credit, but without exciting suspi- interpret their hidden meaning. But, in cion of coming greatness. The first his case, we refer the success of the folstage of learning passed, Andrew Mar-lowers of Loyola rather to that charm vell

, at the age of eighteen, entered Tri- which self-sacrifice has for the impulsive nity College. At this time, the clergy and generous; for it was certain that of the Romish Church had somewhat Marvell's change was one resting upon revived from the stunning-blow they sentiment rather than upon reason. received at their overthrow. They

The conversion of the young proselyte looked for brighter times, when kings was not made public. It was the policy should bow their heads beneath the pas- of the Jesuits to work in the dark, and toral crook, and princes walk bare- to keep the results of their efforts secret headed in their processions. With that till they had gathered power enough to startling vitality which has ever marked brave the Protestant spirit of England. the propagandists of that faith, abro- Young Marvell silently left the college, gated by our forefathers, they had risen abandoned his studies, and entered upon from their defeat like a cork, for a mo- the discipline of the order. Upon how ment submerged by the whelming fine a thread hang the destinies of indi

With that persevering, self-de-viduals and of the world. When Cromvoting energy which has ever charac- well had embarked on board a ship in terized their efforts, they were seeking the Thames to join the pilgrim fathers to weave their meshes round the young of America, if Charles had suffered that minds of the age. Moving stealthily, then obscure man to depart in peace, he under one disguise or another, the Je- might never have bared his neck to the suits were in the universities spreading axe at Whitehall. If Marvell's father their snares around. The agents of this had not sought him out and found him society fastened upon Andrew Marvell; among the neophytes of Rome, instead and, in youth, his was a nature fitted of standing in the front of freedom's for them to act upon. Joined to a clear battle, he would have wasted his enerintellect he had a sensitive temperament gies in the ineffectual attempt to rechain and an impulsive nature. His devo the liberated souls of men. Thus it is tional feelings were strong, and his that small circumstances are to great poetic instincts led him to love that events, what the rudder is to the shipwhich was venerable. Young, ardent, they serve to guide the bark of time and inexperienced, they infused doubts over the ocean of progress.




Great was the grief of old Marvell, at escaped. This satire was followed by Hull, over the loss of his son, and another, also upon an ecclesiastic. The earnest were the efforts made to track him pursuits of the graphiologists of our out. At last a clue was discovered and day only illustrate the adage, that, the father proceeded to the place of his " there is nothing new under the sun.' concealment. It does not seem that any The Abbot de Manitan, of Paris, like stern exercise of parental authority was the gentlemen and ladies of to-day who necessary to reclaim the youth. Andrew discover firmness in a down-stroke, in. had already learned a lesson which told stability in an up-stroke, and levity in upon his future life.

He had been a long-tailed letter, pretended to progtaught that in his new vocation, he nosticate people's dispositions from must smother those deep sentiments their hand-writings, and Marvell lashed which bound him to his kind, and make him much as the satirical writers of the human bond of sympathy which Punch do the impostors of our own day. binds man to man, an instrument to At this period there is a dark space serve a coldly-calculated end. He had in the life of Marvel. For some years found too that to be rid of doubt he we know nothing certain of him. An must give up freedom; that when he ex. uncertain rumour fills up the blank by changed half-darkened reason for blind saying that he accompanied a mission faith, he must cease to think. The to the Turks, as secretary, but reliable safety that was offered to him was in a evidence is wanting. What is known dungeon without light, and his was a is that he reappeared in 1653, when he mind to prefer danger beneath the open was appointed tutor to Cromwell's nesky. In fact, he was disenchanted of phew, and in 1657 was advanced to the the romance which prompted his change. post of Latin secretary to the pretender. He was like the traveller who looks Shortly after this Andrew Marvell may from a distance upon the mountains be said to have commenced his public bounding the horizon. They are tinged life. In 1658, when he was thirtywith the blue of the firmament. The eight years old, he was elected to represetting sun casting on them his slanting sent his native town in Parliament, rays bathes them in liquid gold. They and now having fairly got him upon the seem an earthly paradise. He reaches open stage of life, let us try to realize them, and instead of verdant dells and what manner of man he was, both phyembowered groves, vast chasms yawn sically and intellectually. Nature had and jagged peaks raise up their barren written her letter of recommendation heads. Hé learns that imagination upon his person. His appearance was clothes the remote with unreal attrac- altogether in his favour. With a thin tiveness.

graceful figure, he had a handsome face. So young Marvell had seen both The brow was open. The nose and aspects. He had been drawn through chin classic and finely cut. The mouth distance and repelled by closeness. He softly sensuous, rather than firm; the left the Jesuits without a pang, and, dark eyes bright and full of vivacity; like a man who wakes from a benumb- the dark hair in keeping with a clear ing dream, returned to his old studies brown complexion, curled gracefully with an added zest. His college course down to his shoulders. In him there ended, young Marvell went upon the was perceived none of those tokens of Continent to enlarge his knowledge of stern determination which sits on the men and manners. It is believed that rugged features of Cromwell; none of it was in Italy he first met Milton, and that rigid self-command, which marks began that friendship which lasted the intellectually beautiful face of throughout his life. The first literary Milton. He had not event of Marvell’s life took place in That vast girth of chest and limb, assigned Rome, and it serves to show that he So oft to those who subjugate their kind. had become more than indifferent to The body was, as it often is, the corthe Jesuits; that he was inimical to rect indicator of the nature of the mind them. His first effort was a satire upon it enshrined—He gained much of the Richard Flecknoe, an English Jesuit of harder portions of his character from some notoriety. It is a critique full of the circumstances in which he was pungent humour and biting sarcasm, placed. His was no hand to lift itself and at once gained for him the undying first against a monarchy. His was a enmity of those from whose toils he had mind which sought for gradual reform

'Tis madness to resist or blame

Into another mould.

But those do hold or break

rather than violent revolution. He And there are some other lines which looked to gentle means rather than to seem to settle a disputed point in hisforce, and had it not been that there tory, about which rival writers are even was at the bottom of his kindly nature now contending. When Charles es. à fixed regard for right, he would caped to Carisbrooke Castle, and these have been more likely to have clung to fell into the hands of an adherent of the fallen fortunes of the monarchy, the Protector's, it is asserted on one than the rising hopes of the Republic. hand that Cromwell so intrigued as to That which stronger men regarded as give the King an opportunity of apcapable of being prevented, he some parently escaping, and so planned as times regarded with the eye of the fa- that he should be led to direct his flight talist as inevitable, and thought, to to Carisbrooke, where preparations were quote his own words,

already made for his capture. The mo

tive assigned is that he wished to irriThe face of angry Heaven's flame. tate the army and the nation against

Charles. On the other side the tale is But though he could not have emu

be lated Cromwell's deeds, and would not

regarded as a fabrication, not have imitated them if he could, he looked Whichever may be true, Marvell who

charged against Cromwell's memory. with that admiration which most men wasin the secret of the time, gives ground accord to the powerful, as one who

for inferring the truth of the accusation, Could by industrious valour climb

In the same poem (referring to Cromwell)
To ruin the great work of time,
And cast the kingdoms old

he says

And Hampton shows what part

He had of wiser art; He evidently views strength as the arbiter, when he says,

Where twining subtle fears with hope,

He wove a net of such a scope, Though justice against fate complain,

That Charles himself might chase And plead the ancient rights in vain ;

To Carisbrooke's narrow case.

That hence the royal actor borne,
As men are strong or weak.

The tragic scaffold might adorn,

While round the armed bands And looks upon its successes as a con

Did clap their bloody hands. sequence of incurring natural law,

Here then we have an avowal, in
Nature, that hateth emptiness,
Allows of penetration less,

poetry it is true—but still an express
And therefore must make room

avowal by a republican, who was at Where greater spirits come.

once Cromwell's Latin Secretary, adApart from this, however, he regarded mirer, and friend, that he prompted the triumph of Republican principles Charles to escape so that he might come as the triumph of right, and while he to the block. That one would think looked upon the death of the First would almost suffice to settle the conCharles as necessary, accorded to the troversy. The admirers of Cromwell fallen monarch his pity and respect.

will regret to see this dark stain of

treachery fixed upon his character, but He nothing common did or mean, Upon that memorable scene ;

regard for historic truth is of more But with his keener eye,

consequence than partiality for an inThe axe's edge did try:

dividual, however great he may be. Nor called the gods, with vulgar spite,

We have already said that Marvell
To vindicate his helpless right!

was sent to parliament in 1658, and
But bowed his comely head

with the exception of three years, when Down, as upon a bed.

he was Secretary to the Embassy to If we may take Marvell's ode on Russia, he continued to represent Cromwell's return from Ireland, from Hull till 1675, when the parliament which we have quoted, as an authority, was prorogued. It was not until after we may presume that in some minds the death of Cromwell and the restorathere was an expectation that Cromwell tion of the monarchy, that Marvell's would carry

" the sword of the Lord and true character fully shone out. Then, of Gideon” into other countries, in de- when so many of the adherents of the fence of the persecuted Protestants. Protector paid their court to the reAs Cæsar, he, ere long, to Gaul,

stored Prince, his consistency would To Italy as Hannibal,

not allow him to change, nor his in-
And to all states not free,
Shall climacteric be,

tegrity to deny, the principles he con

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scientiously held. He was as he had Charles's extravagant expenditure left been a republican, and despite the dan- him to spare, £1,000 was found to bribe ger of persecution and a threatened as- Marvell. The Treasurer went with it sassination, he gloried in and avowed where he lodged at the top of a house the fact, and stood boldly forth for the down a court in the Strand, and placed people's rights. Macaulay speaks bit- it before him. Marvell was poor, he terly of that time as “a day of servi- had that very morning been compelled tude without loyalty, and sensuality to borrow a guinea of a friend-to satisfy without love, of dwarfish talents and present necessities. What comforts and gigantic vices, the paradise of cold luxuries there were in that heap of gold. hearts and narrow minds, the golden But no, his virtue was not to be shaken age of the coward, the bigot, and the —he went on as he had begun, claiming slave. The principles of liberty were religious liberty for all, denouncing the the scoff of every grinning courtier and excise, which he alleged was fettering the Anathema Marantha of every fawn- industry and enterprise, and demanding ing dean.” In bright relief against the that parliaments should be held fredark background of this pandemonium quently and the people fairly represtands the figure of Andrew Marvell in sented. In the reaction of that period, bright relief, looking at the darkness of when the strictness of puritanism had the period, he seems like one of a few, given way to the gross demoralization very few, glorious stars gemming a sky of an age without faith, it is owing of murky blackness. His adherence to mainly to Andrew Marvell that any his principles rebuked the political cor- traces of public or private morality ruption which festered around him, and were preserved. And his example was the blameless purity of his life cast all the more effectual as he was devoid added shame upon the hideous profli- of that overstraining pretension to sancgacy which, nurtured in the court, tity and affectation of austerity of life, spread downward, demoralizing all which had done so much to bring disranks. He fully deserved the name credit upon puritanism. he won, of the “ British Aristides.” The As a controversialist, Marvell was boldness with which he reproved wrong perhaps in his day held in higher estiin the highest quarter, and incurred no mation than Milton himself. It is pos-. small danger, may be inferred from the sible that, while he never neglected fact that the finest of his satirical wri- principle, he dealt in a spirit of biting tings is a parody on the speeches of satire with the men he opposed. The Charles II., in which he exposed, with satirist seldom lives much beyond his no sparing hand, and in no measured own age, because the persons whom he terms, the private vices of the king, satirizes are forgotten, and his gibes lose and his gross violation of public the application which gives them point. pledges. Most other men would have The game of the controversialist is often suffered for this, but Marvell had a per- equally short lived, but the pamphlets sonal as well as political interest. The ele- of Milton have, apart from their immegance of his manners, the amiability diate objects, so much dignity of style of his demeanour, his polished wit, and and depth of argument, bearing upon his finished education, procured for him the highest principles, that the world is consideration and respect even from a not likely to let them die. One of Mardebauched king and a profligate court, vell's works of that kind is still, howand though Charles deeply felt the sting ever, much admired. Dr. Parker, the of his pen, he could do nothing but high churchman, who led the persecujoin in the laugh against himself. tion of the non-conformists, supported

Marvell was not, however, suffered to the power of Government to stereotype pursue his honest course unmolested. a faith, and impose it upon a people on What those whom he opposed dare not the ground that “princes may with less compass by persecution was attempted hazard give liberty to men's vices and by temptation. Many efforts were made debaucheries than to their consciences.". to win him over. The king compli- Marvell answered this with a cutting mented him, Rochester praised him, the satire. The Dr. replied, and the reply frail beauties of the courts offered him drew forth a rejoinder in which, while their blandest smiles and their most the argument wascompletely disposed of, honied flatteries, but “ Aristides was the poor Doctor was handled with such proof against all. Little money as savage wit, that he was glad to retire

by bad.”

from town to escape the ridicule which a poem entitled “Eyes and Tears ” we was showered upon him from all sides. take the following stanzas, which are This brought upon Marvell a threat of characteristic of the tender, thoughtful assassination from one of Dr. Parker's nature of the man. adherents. So great was the rage of How wisely nature did agree, the party that there is little doubt Mar- With the same eyes to weep and see,

That having viewed the object vain, vell’s life was in danger; but he heeded

They might be ready to complain, the threat as little as he had the blandish- And since the self-deluding sight ments of the Court. He was as much

In a false angle takes each height;

These tears, which better measure all, above fear, as he was above prudence. Like watery lines and planets fall. He went on his way ever ready to de

Happy are they whom grief doth bless, fend the right, and as his monument

That weep the more, and see the less; tells us--“beloved by.good men, feared And to preserve their sight more true,

Bathe still their eyes in their own dew;

So Magdalen, in tears more wise, The end of Andrew Marvell did not Dissolved those captivating eyes disgrace his life. Up to the last be Whose liquid chains could flowing, meet

To fetter her Redeemer's feet. was in the performance of his public The sparkling glance that shoots desire, duties. He died “with harness on his Drench'd in those tears doth lose its fire. back.” In 1768, being then forty-eight

Yea, oft the Thunderer pity takes, years of age, he attended a popular And there his hissing lightning slakes. meeting of his constituents at Hull. The incense is to heaven dear,

Not as a perfume, but a tear; At that meeting he died. His health And stars shine lovely in the night, had been remarkably good, and there

But as they seem the tears of light.

Ope then mine eyes, your double sluice, appeared nothing to account for his

And practice to your noblest use; sudden decease. Suspicion pointed to For others, too, can see and sleep,

But only human eyes can weep. poison as the cause of his death. There is no proof that it was brought Such were the works of Andrew about by that means; but the character Marvell—such was his life—such was his of the age, his own prominence and sudden, early death, before the prime ability as a champion of the people, the of manhood was past. Fearless of danfear and hatred of his enemies, and the

ger—not to be tempted or bought-keen suddenness of the event, all lend a of perception, and strong in argument, colour of truth to the supposition. We pure in life, and ever ready to stand have omitted to touch upon the charac- nobly for the right, he is one of Eng. ter of Marvell as a poet. His poems land's noblest worthies—a man whose were rather an amusement than an works and acts are wedded, occupation, and written in hurried

Like perfect music unto noblest words. moments snatched from the bustle of his busy political life. Nevertheless If there have been greater men, some of them have considerable merit, there have not been many better; and and are full of beautiful thoughts and he does what few do—he justifies the quaint images enough to set up a whole eulogy which his tomb-stone records. tribe of small modern poetasters. From

R. H.

Partridge and Oakey, Printers, Paddington.

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