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ghar, and Thaja, new fortresses built submitted. Amongst these, fear natuby Abd-el-Kader; had taken Mascara ; rally spread, and they repaired to bad driven away the flocks, and destroyed General Lamoricière and supplicated the crops of the hostile tribes, and had him to assist them. He answered that by his agents occasioned many defec- they must defend themselves, and that tions in the ranks of the Emir. In the he had more important work in seeking following campaign in 1842, he placed to disperse the remnant of the army General Lamoricière in occupation of which was still faithful to the Emir. Mascara, who having fortified it, sallied Engaged in this, the two armies met from thence on every side. The enemy almost accidentally at Isna, in Novemwas reduced to the defensive, and in ber, 1842, and Abd-el-Kader was again the speech from the throne in the same defeated with great loss, and narrowly year, Algeria was pronounced to be escaped being taken captive, the very

henceforth and for ever a territory of horse which he rode falling into the France."

hands of the French. From this time Abd-el-Kader was The indefatigable chieftain, escaped treated, not as a sovereign prince, but from this danger, found a new element as a rebel. But his genius and his of resistance amongst the mountaineer courage seemed to grow stronger than tribes of the Kabyles of Borgia. But ever in this last contest. Towards the Bugeand, aided by the Duc d'Aumale, middle of 1842 he had, after a vigorous penetrated in the middle of the winter resistance, lost five-sixths of his terri- to the mountainous regions of the Jurtory, all his forts and military depots, jura, and dispersed the enemy. The nearly the whole of his regular army, French also kept up incessant razzias and what was even of more consequence, on the tribes who yet withheld their that faith which the Arabs before had submission, occasionally inflicting unin his courage and his fortune. But heard of cruelties, and perpetrating such still undaunted, he went from tribe to barbarities as were a disgrace to any tribe endeavouring to relight in the nation calling themselves civilized, and hearts of his countrymen the spirit of a stigma on Christianity itself. One of resistance. “ Would

you abandon,” these razzias ended in smothering the cried he, to the reluctant and wavering remnant of a tribe, consisting of uptribes, “the faith of your fathers, and wards of ninety persons, men, women, deliver yourselves, like cowards, to the and children, who had taken refuge in Christians ? Have you not sufficient a cave. The French heaped faggots courage to support for a few more months and straw at the entrance, and with the the evils of war? Resist your enemies points of their lances forced back the but for a short time longer, and you shrieking wretches, who strove to break shall crush the infidels which soit our through the burning heap. Such mealand. But if you are not of the True sures as these struck terror into the Believers, if you shamefully abandon hearts of the tribes, and after the combat your religion, and all those rewards of Oned-Malah on Oct. 11, 1843, wherewhich the Prophet has promised you, in the Emir lost the flower of his indo not think that you will obtain repose fantry, and his bravest lieutenant, the by this cowardly and unmanly weak- one-eyed Sidi Embarek, Abd-el-Kader

As long as I have breath in this was forced to leave his country, and to body, I will make war on the Christians, take refuge on the frontiers of the emI will follow you like a shadow. I will pire of Morocco. reproach you for your cowardice, and I But even in exile the brave Emir will break upon your slumbers by the was not at rest. He fermented a war sound of my cannon, pointed against between Morocco and France, which your Christian protectors."*

was, however, soon brought to a close the rapidity of his movements the by the successes of Marshal Bugeaud at Emir seemed to multiply himself, and Isly, and of Prince de Joinville, by sea, to his enemies and to the submitted at Tangiers and Mogador. tribes to be in two places at a time. After the battle of Isly, there were Wherever he was least expected there two courses open to the French, either he appeared, carrying away the cattle to leave the capture of their great enemy and decimating the tribes which had to chance, or to force the Emperor to

deliver him up; trusting on the antagou* Moniteur Algérien, 5th July, 1842,

ism in the characters of the Emperor



and the Emir, they chose the former. This, diverting the attention of the senAbd-er-Rbaman, the Emperor, had for tinels and alarming the whole camp, Abd-el-Kader few feelings of love, but gave time for the rapid approach and on the contrary, plenty of hatred, defi- charge of the Emir. But however sucance, and distrust. Although of that cessful he might be in his stratagem, faith which obliges all its believers to the attack failed, he was overpowered fight against the Christians till they are by numbers, and after fighting bravely exterminated, the two had no one other he was obliged to recross the river bond between them. Abd-er-Rhaman Malonina, on the banks of which the had an empire to lose; Abd-el-Kader Emperor had encamped, and to seek one to conquer. One was safely seated safety in the plains of Triffna. Placing on his throne, the other had just been the wives and children of his comdriven from it; nay, even if the Em- panions in the midst of his devoted peror had wished to carry on the war, band, the Emir succeeded in making all the glory would have redounded to the passage without losing a mule, the man who was equally with himself passed over to the territory of the descended from the Prophet, and who French, and followed by what few of had for so long a time borne a reputa- his men remained, sought safety with a tion as a saint not inferior to his fame remnant of the friendly tribe of Bénias a leader.

Snassen, which alone remained faithful Under these circumstances it is not to his cause. to be wondered at, that a misunder- He remained with this tribe for a standing soon arose between Abd-er- short time, and thence hoped to gain Rhaman and his guest, and the latter the South, but the vigilance of General endeavoured, first by negotiation and Lamoricière prevented him. The Genethen by force, to accomplish one of ral thus relates the capture of the celethose revolutions, which are not unfre- brated Arab Chief. quent amongst the Mahommedans, and “I had been informed that the Emir which would dethrone the Emperor, and had gained the country of the Béniplace himself at the head of the Moors. Snassen, and that he was desirous of

Thus, alone and without resources, in escaping thence, for the faction of the the midst of a hostile people, in open tribe the best disposed towards him, quarrel with the recognised head of his was precisely that whose territory apreligion, wandering from place to place, proached nearest to our own. like a lion tracked by hunters, with no which opens on the plain of the Béniseat but his horse, no shelter but his Snassen, has its issue about a league tent, no kingdom but the desert, the and a half from the frontier. I deindomitable Emir yet inspired terror in termined to watch his passage, and I the hearts of his enemies, and obliged was decided in this by a letter from the them to keep on foot an army of 24,000 brother of the Kaid d'Ouchda, which men for the sole purpose of watching had been written that very evening to him. He resolved upon a night attack tell us to keep close watch in that direcupon the Emperor of Morocco, which tion, for by it the Emir would, without he trusted would at once overthrow him, doubt, endeavour to pass. It was necesand leave the throne vacant for himself. sary to take this step quietly, so as not Having gathered together the remains of to awaken the suspicions of the tribes his shattered army, he laid his plans who were enca

ncamped on the route. and waited for the night. His inten- For this end, two detachments of tion being to throw the camp of the Em- picked spahis, clothed in white bournous, peror into confusion, he made use of the were sent forward. The first took up following cruel but ingenious stratagem. its position at the pass itself, the second, He caused some horses to be covered at one intermediate point between that over with pitch and to be loaded with and our camp."* tow, dry grass, and other combustible Besides taking these precautions, Lamaterials. They were then led, on the moricière had the whole of his men unnight of the 11th of December, 1843, to der arms at two o'clock in the morning, the camp of the Emperor by picked and having calculated the probable route men, who had been well paid for the of the Emir, held the troops in readiness enterprise beforehand. The tow, &c., to march on the frontier. These precauwas then fired, and the frightened and tortured animals driven into the camp.

* Moniteur, 2 January, 1848.

The pass


tions were successful. Abd-el-Kader, 1848, he was transferred from Pau to finding that escape was impossible, sent the Chateau d'Amboise, near Blois. forward two of his most devoted adher. His family and himself were treated ents to apprise the general that he would with great attention, but the Desert submit to him. The lieutenant who Chieftain was evidently sinking under commanded the first detachment of his confinement, when he was released spahis, spoke with the Emir himself, | by the present Emperor of France, when who delivered to him a piece of paper President, on his return from a tour with his seal attached to it, but the through France, in October of last year. wind, the rain, and the darkness of the This prince, we are told, had pronight had prevented him from writing mised the Marquis of Londonderry that anything upon it. He demanded a he would at an early period liberate the letter of safe conduct from the General, ex-Emir, and had actually said to him, for himself and for his companions, but "Tôt ou tard, je le mettrai en liberté ;" the reasons which prevented the Emir he kept his word. The Moniteur of Oct. from writing also prevented Lamoricière, 17th, 1852, thus records the act: the General therefore sent him his sabre “ The Prince has marked the end of and a seal, as a token that his request his tour by an act of justice and natural was granted.

generosity, he has restored Abd-el-Kader Such is the account of the surrender to liberty. In returning to Paris, the of Abd-el-Kader, from the general who Prince stopped at the Chateau d'Ameffected his capture. On the 23rd of boise, and having seen Abd-el-Kader, December, the Emir personally yielded informed him of the end of his captihimself and family to the "generosity vity in the following terms:of France.” On the 24th he was re- * Abd-el-Kader,-I come to inform ceived at the Marabout of Sidi Brahim, you of your liberation. You are to be by Colonel Montaubay, who was soon taken to Broussa, in the states of the afterwards joined by the Generals La Sultan, as soon as the necessary premoricière and Cavaignac. He was then parations shall have been made, and taken to Djemma-Gazouat, where he you will receive there, from the French was presented to the Governor-general government, an allowanceworthy of your of Algeria, the Duc d'Aumale. The former rank. You are aware that for a Governor-general ratified the promise length of time your captivity bas caused of safe conduct given him by Lamori- me real affliction, for it incessantly recière; a promise which declared that minded me that the government which Abd-el-Kader should be conducted to preceded me had not observed the Alexandria or to St. Jean d'Acre, “with engagements entered into towards an the firm hope that the French Govern: unfortunate enemy, and nothing in my ment would sanction that promise." eyes is more humiliating for the governOn the 25th of February, Abd-el-Kader ment of a great nation than to misunembarked at Oran; from Oran he pro- derstand its force to such a point as to ceeded on board a French ship of war fail in its promise. Generosity is always to Toulon, where he arrived on the 29th the best counsellor, and I am convinced with his family and suite. On his ar- that your residence in Turkey will not rival at Toulon, the pain of captivity prove injurious to the tranquillity of was increased by being kept for some our possessions in Africa. Your religion, time in quarantine. When landed he was like ours, enjoins submission to the transferred to Fort Lamalgue, whence he decrees of Providence. But if France was sent for some time (with his suite) is mistress of Algeria, the reason is, to the castle of Pau, and although he that God willed it to be so, and the supplicated the Government to remem- French nation will never give up that ber the promise of the Duc d'Aumale, conquest. You have been the enemy he was confined without hope of release. of France, but I am not the less willing On the revolution of February he re- to do justice to your courage, your chaminded the new Government of the racter, and to your resignation in mispromise made at the time of his sub- fortune. This is the reason why I mission, and of the conditions upon consider it a point of honour to put an which he did so; but the answer he re-end to your captivity, having full conceived was, that all they could do at the fidence in your word. time was to make his captivity as little “ These noble words deeply moved rigorous as possible. November, the Emir. After having expressed to


his Highness his respectful and eternal May God reward you! and also his gratitude, he swore on the Koran that happy Lordship, the President of the he never would attempt to disturb our Republic, and his Lordship the Minisrule in Africa, and that he would sub- ter of War, whose generosity procured mit, without any ulterior design, to the me the honour of your visit and the will of France. Abd-el-Kader added, favour of your letter. that it would be quite to mistake the “Beginning of Redjib, year 1267. spirit and the letter of the law of the “This is written according to my inProphet, to imagine that it allowed any tentions, violation of engagements towards Chris- | “ABD-EL-KADER BEn Makai Eddin." tians, and he pointed out to the prince The above will give some idea of the à verse in the Koran 'which formally style of the Emir's conversation, which, condemns, without any exception or like that of all those of Eastern origin, reservation, who ever violates sworn is ornamented, and abounds in imagery, faith, even with unbelievers. In the parable, and metaphorical expressions. opinion of all intelligent Arabs, the You perhaps suffer from cold?” said conquest of Africa is a fait accompli; the prefect who received him. they see in the constant superiority of no,” said the Emir, “ the warmth of our arms a marked manifestation of the your friendship has dispersed the cold." will of God. A royal and generous

After his release from Amboise, and policy is the only one that befits a great pending the negotiations which were to nation, and France will be thankful to transfer him to the dominions of the the prince for having followed it. Abd- Sultan, he visited Paris, where his preel-Kader will remain at the Chateau sence created quite a furore. The ladies d'Amboise until all the necessary mea- of Paris, as we learn from the newssures have been taken connected with his papers, vied with each other in sending removal, and his residence at Broussa." | to the Arab chief, various little presents

The liberation of Abd-el-Kader pleased and billets doux. He visited the opera, the French nation, and not less so be- saw many reviews got up in his honour, cause the President had, by his secrecy, received presents from the Emperor rendered it almost another coup d'étåt. elect, and was the lion of the day. In It was only a few moments before the return for his liberation he acted a * interview at Amboise that Louis Napo- somewhat theatrical part in claiming leon had communicated to General St. the right to vote, and in throwing his Arnaud, minister of war, that he was "oui," into the electoral urn. Probably going to set Abd-el Kader at liberty on some thought the part was too ridiculous the spot. The long confinement of the and dramatic, but Abd-el-Kader, an Emir had aroused sympathy in England, absolute monarch himself, would cerand one noble Marquis had often tainly look upon the acts of the present pleaded with the President for his Emperor with a very different eye than liberation.

we do. In him, with his peculiar noThe following is the copy of a letter tions of French manners and customs, addressed by Abd-el-Kader to the Mar- the act should perhaps be regarded as quis of Londonderry, who had interested a token of gratitude. Be it as it may, himself particularly in endeavouring to it clashed with preconceived opinions obtain his release.

of the stern desert chieftain.
He is now forty-five years


in personal appearance is somewhat re“To his Lordship the Cid, General Mar- markable. His countenance is pale,

quis of Londonderry! Irishman by and of a handsome regularity of feabirth, dwelling in England, -greet- ture, and is habitually clothed with a ing!

grave and melancholy aspect. The dark "I have received a copy of the letter stain which he wears upon the edges written to you by his happy Lordship, of his eye-lids, gives his eyes an expresthe source of good, his Lordship the sion of fatigue and suffering. Small and President, chief of the French Republic, thin moustaches, and a black beard, orand also a copy of that which you for- nament his face, which is surrounded merly wrote to him.

by a silken veil depending from his Our brother, the Cid Captain Bois- turban, which is made of a large kerchief sonet, has also communicated to me the rolled, and twisted three times round letter which transmitted your greetings. his head. His outward garment is a


long kaik of brown serge, which allows chieftain passed the rest of the time in his bare arms to be visible.

reading or in meditation. The zmala (family and suite) of the Such is Abd-el Kader. In releasing Emir, on his arrival in France, num-him Louis Napoleon acted wisely. He bered ninety-six persons, that is thirty- drew a marked contrast, which the nafour men, thirty-two women, and thirty tion felt, between the conduct of the children. The whole suite had to ob- English towards Napoleon, and his own serve the greatest economy, having but towards his captive. Set at liberty in their own clothes and a few livres. The the manner he has been, and arrived in Emir brought with him into France a Broussa, on friendly terms with the few thousand francs, the produce of Sultan, he may probably forward the the sale of his horses. Yet from this designs of the Emperor, or he may lead small sum he gave on quitting Pau the armies of the Sultan against Russia, three hundred francs to be distributed should a disturbance between those amongst the

of the town. Each powers ensue.

But these are mere speday at three o'clock, his suite and him- culations; certain it is, that he is less self performed their devotions in com- dangerous when free and on parole, mon, the prayer is followed by a portion than when incarcerated at Amboise. of the Koran being read aloud. The



In the earlier half of the fourteenth cen- / both interested and vindictive, than by tury the condition of Italy presented genuine patriotic feeling, we need not one of those anomalous phenomena marvel that the whole country, became which sometimes arise in the history of a prey to all the horrors of intestine nations. While it was the wealthiest, warfare. So much was this the case, the most commercial, and the most en- that the roads and rivers throughout lightened of all the kingdoms of Europe, the entire peninsula were impassable it was at the same time the most dis- to travellers who should venture to traturbed and the most distracted, inter- verse them without a powerful military nally, of any. A prey to two contend- escort. The castles of the powerful ing factions, the Guelphs and the barons who fought on either side, inGhibellines (terms Italianized from the stead of being garrisoned by disciplined German words “Wolf,” and “Waiblin- soldiers, in regular pay, were in the gen,”) it had become the arena of every hands of a savage banditti, who as the species of dissension and violence. The sole recompense for their services in Guelphs, in some degree, zealous for the war, were permitted to levy contribuindependence of their country, fought tions upon all, of whatever party or prounder the papal standard, while the fession, who were so unfortunate as to Ghibellines flocked round the German fall into their hands. Violence, rapine, eagle, the imperialists having usurped and murder passed unpunished and the titles and prerogatives of the empire unjudged, unless indeed the victim of of Charlemagne, which the French, outrage had friends or partisans suffithrough their weakness and pusillani- ciently powerful to avenge his wrongs, mity, had been unable to retain. Per- because both the judicial and executive haps, had the patriotism of either party powers were at the disposal of the very been sincere, the conflict would have parties against whom they ought in been brought to a decisive issue, and the justice to have been directed. Even in power of the various states might have Rome itself the barons had fortified been permanently consolidated under all the strong places and castles of the one rule—whether papal or imperial it ecclesiastical states, and had taken forwould have signified but little to the cible possession of all the palaces beharassed population. As it is plain, how- longing to the popes. The papal court, ever, that the adverse factions were sway- it will be remembered, was, by Clement ed infinitely more by personal motives, the fifth, removed to Avignon in 1309,

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