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ing the great struggle may for that reason be the victim of persecution, outrage, and assassination, and so that some encouragement may be offered for the removal in proper cases of political disabilities for participation in the rebellion.
8. Recommends the calling of a convention to amend theconstitution of the State.
9. Indorses the administration of Governor R. B. Hayes.
* Democratic, June 1, 1871.
1. That, denouncingtheextraordinary means by which they were brought about, we recognize as accomplished facts the three amendments to the Constitution recently declared adopted, and consider the same as no longer political issues before the country.
2. We demand that the rule of strict construction, as proclaimed by the Democratic fathers, accepted by statesmen of all parties previous to the war, and embodied in the tenth amendment to the Constitution, be rigorously applied now to the Constitution as it is, including the three recent amendments above referred to, and insist that these amend
* May 18,1871, the Democratic convention of Montgomery county, Ohio, adopted the following platform:
Whereas the Democratic party of 1871 is made up of men who previous to and during the late war, as also for a time since, entertained totally different opinions and supported totally opposite measures as to the questions and issues of those times; and Avhereas it is reasonable to assume that these same men still entertain, to a large extent, their several opinions, and would, if in like circumstances, support again substantially the same measures; and whereas a rational toleration among men resolved to unite in a present common purpose does not require a surrender, in any particular, of former opinions, or any acknowledgment of error as to measures heretofore supported:
Resolved by the Democracy of Montgomery county, 1. That, agreeing to disagree in all respects as to the past, we cordially unite upon the living issues of the day, and hereby invite all men of the Republican party who believe now upon present issues as we believe, to cooperate fully and actively with us upon the basis of perfect equality with every member of the Democratic party.
2. Tha,t, waiving all differences of opinion as to the extraordinary means by which they were brought about, we accept the natural and legitimate results of the war so far as waged for its ostensible purpose to maintain the Union and the constitutional rights and powers of the Federal Government, including the three several amendments de facto to the Constitution recently declared adopted, as a settlement in fact of ail the issues of the war, and acquiesce in the same as no longer issues before the country.
3. That thus burying out of sight all that is of the dead past, namely, the right of secession, slavery, inequality before the law, and political inequality; and further, now that reconstruction is complete, and representation within the Union restored to all the States, waiving all question as to the means by which it was accomplished, we demand that the vital and long-established rule of strict construction, as proclaimed by the Democratic fathers, accepted by the statesmen of all parties previous to the war, and embodied in the tenth amendment to the Constitution, be vigorously applied now to the Constitution as it is. including the three recent amendments above referred to, and insist that these amendments shall not be held to have in any respect altered or modified the original theory and character of the Federal Government as designed and taughtby its founders, and repeatedly in early times, in later times, and at all times, affirmed by the Su
ments shall not be held to have, in any respect, altered or modified the original theory and character of the Federal Government, but only to have enlarged the powers delegated to it, and to that extent, and no more, to have abridged the reserved right of the States; and, that as thus construed, the Democratic party pledges itself to a full, faithful, and absolute execution and enforcement of the Constitution as it now is, so as to secure rights to all persons under it, without distinction of race, color, or condition.
3. That the absolute equality of each and every State within the Union is a fundamental principle of the Federal Government; that we shall always cherish and uphold the American system of State and local government for State and local purposes, and the General Government for general purposes only, and are unalterably opposed to all attempts at centralization or consolidation of power in the hands of the General Government, and more especially when such attempts are in the form of usurpation by any department of that Government.
4. That we adhere firmly to the principle of maintaining perfect independence between
preme Court of the United States; but only to have enlarged the powers delegated to it, and to that extent, and no more, to have abridged the reserved rights of the States; and that, as thus construed, according to these ancient and well-established rules, the Democratic party pledges itself to the full, faithful, and absolute execution and enforcement of the Constitution as it now is, so as to secure equal rights to all persons under it, without distinction of race, color, or condition.
4. That the absolute equality of each and every State within the Union is a fundamental principle of the Federal Government, and that no department of that Government has power to expel a State from the Union, or to deprive it, under any pretext whatever, of its equal rights therein, including especially the right of full and complete representation in Congress and in the electoral colleges.
5. That we will always cherish and uphold the American system of State and local self-government for State and local purposes, and a General Government for general purposes only; and are unalterably opposed to all attempts at centralization and consolidation of power in the hands of the General Government; and the more especially when such attempts are in the form of usurpation by any department of that Government. And further, that we adhere firmly to the principle of maintaining a perfect independence between the coordinate departments of that Government, the legislative, the executive, and the judicial, condemning all encroachments by one upon the functions of the others.
6. That outside of fundamental law all legislation is in its nature and purposes temporary, and subject to change, modification, or repeal at the will of a majority of the people, expressed through the lawmaking power, and that the pretense that any act of Congress, not executed and spent, or any legislative policy of a party, is an absolute finality, is totally inconsistent with the whole theory of republican government; and that it is the unquestionable right of the people, of themselves and through their Representatives, at each successive election, and in each successive Congress, to judge of what legislation is necessary and proper or appropriate to carry into execution or enforce the constitutional powers, rights, and duties of the Federal Government.
7. That as an instance of eminently appropriate legislation under the fourteenth amendment, in the name of wisdom, justice, and republican government, and to secure universal political rights and equality among both the white and the colored people of the United States, to the end that we may have peace at last, we call now, as well on behalf of the coordinate departments of the Government, the legislative, executive, and judicial, condemning all encroachments by the one upon the functions of the other.
5. While the fundamental law as expressed in the Constitution is necessarily paramount until abrogated as prescribed by that instrument, all legislation is in its nature and purpose temporary, and subject to change, modification, or repeal, at the will of the majority of the people, as expressed through the law-making power, and that the pretense that any act of Congress, not executed or spent, or any legislative policy of party is an absolute finality, is totally inconsistent with the whole theory of government, and that it is the unquestionable right of the people of themselves, and through their Representatives at each successive election and in each successive Congress, to judge what legislation is necessary, proper, or appropriate to carry into execution or enforce the central powers, rights, and duties of the Federal Government.
6. That as an instance of the eminently appropriate legislation under the fourteenth
amendment we demand now of Congress universal amnesty.
7. That while we denounce all riotous combinations and conspiracies against law or to disturb peace in the South or elsewhere, and demand of all good citizens their utmost influence to put all such down, we also denounce the act commonly called the bayonet bill, recently passed by Congress, and the more recent act commonly called the Ku Klux bill, extending by its terms to every State, and enacted for no other purpose than to complete the centralization of all power in the hands of the General Government and to establish a military despotism, and thus to perpetuate the present Administration, without regard to the will of the people, and as not only inconsistent with the whole theory and character of the Federal Government, and as revolutionary and dangerous in their character, but are in direct conflict with the spirit and letter of the Constitution, including the amendments which they pretend to enforce.
8. That holding still to the good old Democratic doctrine of annexation, or the acquisi
the North as of the South, upon Congress for a universal amnesty.
8. That we are in favor of the payment of the public debt at the earliest practicable moment consistent with moderate taxation; and the more effectually to hasten the payment, we demand the strictest honesty and economy in every part of the administration of the Government.
9. That we are in favor of such revenue reform as will greatly simplify the manner of and reduce the number of officers engaged in collecting and disbursing revenue, and largely diminish the now enormous expense to the Government and annoyance and vexation to the people attending the same; and further, will make the burdens of taxation equal, uniform, and just, and no greater than the necessities of the Government, economically administered, shall require.
10. That we are in favor of a searching and adequate reform in the civil service of the Government so as to secure faithfulness, honesty, and efficiency in all its branches, and in every officer and appointee connected with it.
11. That we are in favor of a strictly revenue tariff, conformed to the theory and principles of all other just and wise tax laws.
12. That all taxation ought to he based on wealth instead of population; and that every person should be required to contribute to the support of the Government in proportion to the amount, and not with reference to the character, of his property.
13. That specie is the basis of all sound currency, and that true policy requires as speedy a return to that basis as is practicable without distress to the debtor class of the people.
14. That there is no necessary or irrepressible conflict between labor and capital ,* that without capital or consolidated wealth no country can flourish; that capital is entitled to the just and equal protection of the laws, and that all men, whether acting individually or in a corporate capacity, have the right by fair and honest means, and not for the purposes of wrong or oppression, to so use their property as to increase and consolidate it to the utmost extent within their power. But, conceding all this, we declare our cordial sympathy and cooperation with the producers and workingmen of the country, who make and move all capital, and who only seek by just and necessary means to protect themselves against the oppressive exactions of capital, and to ameliorate their condition and dignify their calling.
15. That we are totally and resolutely opposed to the grant of any more of the public lands, the common property of the people of the States, to corporations for railroad or other purposes, holding that these lands ought to be devoted as homesteads to actual settlers, or sold, in small quantities to indi
viduals at a price so low as to induce speedy occupation and settlement.
16. That holding still to the good old Democratic doctrine of annexation or acquisition of territory, we are yet totally opposed to the scheme of President Grant to acquire San Domingo, as a "job," and by the means and for the purposes evidently intended, and accept the issue he has tendered in his late message submitting the subjectto the decision of the people.
17. That the act commonly called the "bayonet bill," recently passed by Congress, amendatory to the act of May 31,1870, and a supplement to the act of July 14, 1870; each and all intended and so contrived as to interfere with and practically subvert free popular elections in all the States, subjecting them to the absolute control, through the military power, whenever called forth, of the President and Commander-in-Chief, for the time being, of theland and naval forces of the United States; and the more recent act of Congress, commonly called the Ku Klux bill, extending by its terms to every State, intermeddling with the;exclusively local concerns of every State, authorizing the President upon the existence of a condition of things to be ascertained and determined by himself, and in the exercise of his sole judgment, to suspend the writ of habeas corpus in time of peace, and to march the standing Army into any State and declare martial law therein at his own mere will and pleasure—thus subverting the entire civil power, legislative, executive, and judicial, of such State, destroying freedom of speech and of the press, and the peaceable assembling of the people, and subjecting every person thereinto military arrest, trial, and execution—were enacted for no other purpose than to complete the centralization of all power in the hands of the General Government, establish a military despotism, and thus perpetuate the present Administration, without regard to the will of the people, and are not only utterly inconsistent with the whole theory and character of the Federal Government, and revolutionary and dangerous in their nature, but in direct conflict with the spirit and letter of the Constitution, including the amendments which they pretend to enforce.
18. That the Radical party of 1871, as now constituted, is not the Republican party of the period previous to the war, nor the so-called "Union party" during the war, and is in no respect entitled to beg the public confidence as such; that it is now only an " Administration "or "Grant party," dating back to March 4,1869, and to be judged by its record since; and that upon that record, totally hostile to the doctrines and policies herein maintained, and wholly committed to the policies and doctrines herein denounced, it deserves the emphatic condemnation of the people.
tion of territory, we are yet totally opposed to the scheme of President Grant to acquire Santo Domingo, as a job, and by the means and for the purposes evidently intended.
9. That we are in favor of a strictly revenue tariff, conformed to the theory and principles of theother just and wise tax laws, and opposed to the protective theory, so called.
10. That the profligate corruption and wanton extravagance which pervade every department of our Federal Government, sacrifice the interests of labor, and aggrandize a handful of aristocrats, are a wicked deprivation of the people of their rightful heritage in public lands, which have been made' gilts to railroad and other monopolists, paying more than twenty millions premium during the administration of President Grant in Government bonds payable at par, maintenance at an annual cost to the people of nearly thirty millions, and an unconstitutional, oppressive, and extortionate system of banking, whereby money is made scarce and interest high, are abuses which call for wise and thorough remedies.
11. That we are in favor of strict economy; of a large reduction in expenditures of the Federal and State Governments; of the collection of internal revenue by the State authorities, thereby returning to honest labor myriads of tax-gatherers who afflict our land and eat up its substance; and of the speedy trial, conviction, and punishment of the thieves who have stolen the taxes paid by the people.
12. That while we reject repudiation we equally reject the proposition to pay the bondholders more than the contract with them demands; that if bondholders have rights so have tax-payers, and we insist upon justice being done to both; that the creditor is entitled to be paid in the same currency he loaned to the Government; that where he loaned greenbacks he should be paid in greenbacks, unless the contract otherwise provides, and where he loaned gold he should be paid in gold; that to guard against a too great expansion greenbacks should be made convertible into three per cent, bonds at the option of noteholders, said bonds to be redeemed in greenbacks on demand; that the true method of returning to specie payments is to make customs dues payable in legal-tender currency, whether paper money or gold; that such policy would secure uniform currency, stop gambling in gold, and thereby elevate the credit of the Government.
13. That with the watchword of reform we confidently go to the country; that we believe the interests of the great body of the people are the same ; that, without regard to political associations, they are the friends of free government; that they are equally honest, brave, and patrioticj. and we appeal to them as to our brothers and countrymen, to aid us to obtain relief from grievous abuses which wring and oppress every one except the wrong-doers and oppressors themselves.
14. Upon the State issues we resolve that we are in favor of calling a convention as pro
vided for by article sixteen, section three of the State constitution.
Republican, May 17,1871.
1. Demands a State convention.
2. They demand of Congress that the credit of the nation shall be faithfully maintained; home industry encouraged and protected; an adequate civil service system established for regulating appointments to office; taxes reduced to the lowest possible limit consistent with the steady but not too rapid extinction of the national debt; the honor of the Republic sustained at home and abroad; the rights of every man protected in all the States, and every man entitled thereto secured in the polling of one vote, and no more, at each election.
3. They declare their unalterable attachment to the principle of protection to home industry in the levying of tariff duties in accordance with the wise policy which has existed from the foundation of the Government to this time.
4. Commends the Republican national and State policy of retrenchment and reform.
5. 6, and 7. Relate to State matters.
8. Indorses Governor Geary.
9. Eulogizes President Grant's administration.
Democratic, May 34, 1871.
1. Favors revision and amendment of State constitution.
2. Rebukes the Republican party for refusal to modify provisions of the registry law relating to Philadelphia.
3. Eulogizes Democratic action upon apportionment bill and Philadelphia registry law.
4. That the force and bayonet bills recently enacted by Congress are gross attacks upon the reserved rights of the States, destructive of the elemental principles of civil liberty, intolerable to a free people, centralizing in tendency, and should be forthwith repealed.
5. That the language of Senator Carl Schurz, in his St. Louis speech, wherein he says: "I consider it one of the most pressing needs of our days that we should return to the sound practice of constitutional government. The safeguards of our common rights and liberties contained in the Constitution are too sacred and valuable a boon to be permanently jeopardized in providing for a passing emergency. It is time that the American people open their eyes to the dangerous character of this tendency, and that neither a great name nor an object appealing to our sympathies should be permitted to disguise it. As for me, I have seen the working of irresponsible power and personal government in other countries, and I may assure my constituents that while I am a citizen of this Republic I shall struggle to the last gasp against its introduction here," was but the utterance of wellknown and frequently announced Democratic doctrine.
6. That the public debt is binding upon the nation, and must be paid; and that we are unalterably opposed to any and all movements looking towards repudiation, direct or indirect; but, in justice to the laboring and producing classes, the rate of interest thereon should be reduced at the earliest practicable date.
7. That the Democratic party is opposed to the existing system of Federal taxation and finance, ruinous as it is in its effects upon the laboring, producing, rnining,and manufacturing interests of the people, and the fruitful source of "hard times," personal indebtedness, and individual bankruptcy.
8. That labor and capital have no just cause of antagonism; that we deprecate strife between these two great forces, and earnestly seek to place the laborer and capitalist on such a platform as will enable both to amicably adjust their differences; and we are unalterably opposed to the importation of a servile race for the purpose of degrading the standard and lowering the position of the laboring men of the nation.
9. That we recognize the binding obligation of all the provisions of the Constitution of the United States as they now exist, and we deprecate the discussion of issues which have been settled in the manner and by the authority constitutionally appointed.
10. That we are for a Government rigorously frugal and simple, applying all the possible saving of the public revenue to the discharge of the national debt, and opposed to a multiplication of officers and salaries merely to make place for partisans and for increasing by every device the public debt.
11. That the continuance by a Republican Congress of the income tax, when the same is at least of doubtful constitutionality, and the necessity therefor has long since ceased to exist, is an exercise of a power oppressive to the people and a gross violation of their rights and interests.
12. That the present tariff is in many of its features oppressive, and should be revised, and that we herewith request our Representatives in Congress, when the tariff shall be the subject of readjustment, to see that the immense products of the State and its industries are properly cared for.
13. Demands equalization of bounties, in lands and money, for Pennsylvania soldiers and sailors.
14. Indorses the State nominees.
^Democratic, August 15, 1871.
Resolved, That the Democracy of Texas have an abiding confidence in the devotion of the national Democratic party to the correct principles of government, and we pledge ourselves to cooperate with it, as an integral part thereof, in its future efforts to restore the Government in its administration to the principles on which it was founded.
2. That we rely upon the honesty and capacity of the people for self-government.
* This platform was not adopted by a Convention, but was officially issued in the address of the Democratic State Committee of Texas.
3. That the Constitution, as formed by the free voice of the State, is the foundation of the powers of the Government.
4. That the powers of the General Government are restricted to the express grants of the Constitution, and all powers not granted are reserved to the States and the people thereof.
5. That the regulation of suffrage and elections belongs to the respective States, and any interference by the General Government, with intent to control either, is a gross usurpation of power; and the use of the military at elections, to overawe the people and prevent a full and fair expression of their political sentiments, is utterly subversive of free government, and should be restricted by all proper means until the evil is abolished and an honest and untrammeled ballot restored.
6. That abolition of slavery, as a result of the war, is accepted as a fixed fact, and it becomes ourduty, by State legislation, to provide for the security and well being of all classes of men, native or foreign, white or black.
7. That the immigration of the white races from all quarters of the world should be encouraged, and there should be no unreasonable impediments or delay to naturalization and citizenship, the Democratic party having been uniformly in favor of a liberal policy towards persons of foreign birth who in good faith seek a home among us.
8. That we will yield obedience to the Constitution and laws.
9. That we, the Democratic party of Texas, are in favorof a judicious, liberal, and uniform system of internal improvements.
10. Attacks at great length the State Republican administration.
Republican, Septem Iber 21, 1871.
1. The Republican partyof Virginiain convention assembled reaffirm their devotion to the principles of the national Republican party of the United States, as enunciated in the Chicago platform at the last national convention. We are in favor of and support as national principles—
2. A tariff which, while securing the necessary revenue, shall give incidental protection to American industry.
3. A national banking system that shall give us safe, uniform currency, and absolute security to bill holders.
4. The policy of extending Government aid to the States in improving their rivers and harbors.
5. The absolute payment of all obligations of the Government, and a sufficient yearly reduction of the national debt to convince the world of our determination to ultimately extinguish it; while at the same time we carefully avoid burdening the people with onerous and unnecessary taxation.
6. That we heartily indorse the Administration of President Grant, and are unanimously in favor of his renomination.
Republican, August 31, 1871.
Resolved, That we refer with pride to the history of the Republican party of the United States. By its early resistance to the encroachments of slavery: by its patriotic devotion to the cause of the Union during the late civil war; by its emancipation, at the proper time, of an oppressed people from bondage; by its signal overthrow of disloyalty and treason; by its justice, firmness, and magnanimity in guarding and securing the results of the war, and giving and assuring to all citizens liberty and equality before the law j by its grateful care and just provision for the nation's defenders; by its honor and good faith toward the nation's creditors; by its wise and liberal policy in granting homesteads to settlers, and in aiding the development of the western States and Territories; by its successful advocacy of humane principles of international law, not hitherto recognized by the civilized world; by its peaceful settlement of our controversies with Great Britain on terms honorable, advantageous, and tending to secure permanent peaoe and concord between the two nations; by its judicious direction of our financial system, whereby the nation was enabled to meet the emergencies of a great war, to furnish a sound and uniform currency, and to prevent the commercial depression, revolution, and disaster usually attendant upon civil strife; and generally, by its succesful administration of national affairs during ten eventful years, it has proved, on all occasions, its fidelity to the highest interests of the country. A party, whose career has thus been signalized at every step by great triumphs of human freedom and progress, needs not to depart from the path of honor and duty in which its victories have been won, and we believe that upon its,con-tinued ascendency and a steadfast adherence to its cardinal principles, the peace, prosperity, and honor of the country depend.
2. That we regard the recent amendments to the Constitution of the United States as just and wise articles of organic law, essential at the present time to secure constitutional liberty, and ever to be zealously upheld and enforced; that under the Constitution thus amended the Federal Government posseses, and ought to exercise, whenever and wherever necessary, sufficient power to protect every citizen under our flag in the free expression of his sentiments, the free exercise of the ballot, the full enjoyment of his property, and the absolute safety of his person.
3. That we rejoice in the recuperation of the southern States under the benign influence of free labor; that we urge upon those lately in rebellion not to retard the prosperity of the South by permitting lawlessness and violence therein. We entreat them to take a bold stand for law and order, to accept the results of the war, and to cooperate with us in efforts to advance the prosperity of the whole country; and we hope that the time may speedily come when persecution and outrage of loyal men shall wholly cease, and when political
disabilities imposed for participation in rebellion maybe removed without danger to the rights of those who have remained faithful to the Union.
4. That we believe that the prosperity of the country and the stability of its monetary system, as well as its credit and influence in the family of nations, depend upon the maintenance of the public faith. To that end we favor the continued reduction of the national debt, so steadily as to prevent depreciation of our bonds and currency, so gradually as not to burden too heavily the present industries of the country.
5. That in our judgment the most efficient and satisfactory means of raising the larger portion of revenue to meet the obligations of the Government is from duties on imports; that such duties should be so laid as, first, to make sure of the amount required; second, to fairly distribute the burdens of the nation upon all sections of the country, all classes of people; and third, so as never to burden one interest that another may thrive.
6. That we commend the policy of the Government in abolishing the most burdensome taxes of the internal revenue system; that we favor a further reduction as the exigencies of the country will permit.
7. Urges the early completion of the Fox and Wisconsin rivers improvement.
8. Asks Congress to renew the Lake St. Croix and Lake Superior railroad land grant.
9. That in view of the present rapid settlement of the country the residue of the public domain should be kept mainly for actual settlers. The homestead law should be so modified that when honorably discharged Union soldiers and sailors claim the benefits of the same the period of their service shall bedeemed a part of the time of occupancy necessary to acquire title. Grants of land to aid in the building of railroads should be made only where n'ecessaryto open the country up to settlement, and under such restrictions as will facilitate the occupation of the public lands.
10. That we favor every practicable reform in the public service, State or National, in the direction of greater purity, simplicity, efficiency, and economy of administration.
11. Eulogizes the State administration.
12. Eulogizes the national Administration.
13. That we know noduty more urgent than to mature and enforce new safeguards of the purity of elections, and to effect a thorough reform of the civil service.
Democratic, August 33, 18T1.
1. Attacks the State administration.
2. That the wise restrictions enacted in the tenth amendmentto thenational Constitution, reserving to the States respectively and to the people all powers not delegated to the United States, is one of the strongest safeguards of popular freedom; that the acts of Congress and of the Federal Administration in usurping powers not delegated by the Constitution, and the breaking down of the distinctions between the powers of State governments aud