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CROMWELL.

Professor George E. Howard. CROSS-FERTILIZATION.

Professor Alpheus Spring Packard. CRUSADE.

Professor Dana C. Munro.

CRUSTACEA.

Professor Hubert Lyman Clark and Mr.

Ernest Ingersoll. CRYSTALLOGRAPHY.

Professor William H. Hobbs.

CUBAN LITERATURE.

Professor J. D. M. Ford.

COLOR PHOTOGRAPHY.

Professor Joseph Sweetman Ames. COLOSSIANS, EPISTLE TO THE.

Professor Melanchthon W. Jacobus. COLUMBUS.

Mr. George Parker Winship. COLUMN

Professor Arthur L. Frothingham. COMET.

Professor Harold Jacoby. COMMERCE.

Dr. Roland P. Falkner. COMMUNISM.

Professor Samuel McCune Lindsay. COMPASS.

Lieutenant Lewis Sayre Van Duzer. CONGREGATIONALISM.

Dr. Williston Walker. CONGRESS.

Professor George W. Kirchwey. CONSTANTS OF NATURE.

Professor W. J. A. Bliss. COOKERY.

Mrs. Sarah Tyson Rorer. CO-OPERATION.

Professor Samuel McCune Lindsay. CO-ORDINATE.

Professor David Eugene Smith. CORNEILLE.

Dr. Benjamin W. Wells.

CURVE.

Professor David Eugene Smith. DAIRYING.

Dr. Alfred Charles True.

DAMS AND RESERVOIRS.

Mr. Moses Nelson Baker.

DANISH LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE.

Professor Daniel K. Dodge and Dr. Ben

jamin W. Wells. DANTE.

Dr. Frederic Taber Cooper. DANTON.

Professor Edwin A. Start and others. DARWIN.

Professor Charles B. Davenport and Mr.

Ernest Ingersoll.

THE NEW
INTERNATIONAL
ENCYCLOPÆDIA

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LAS/SIS (Lat., assembly). In the vols.)

-a much-used manual of homiletics, freReformed Church of Holland and quently reprinted, from the edition of Charles America, the name of an ecclesi. Siméon. His son published (Euvres posthumes de astical body, made up of minis- Jean Claude (5 vols., Amsterdam, 1688). Consult ters and elders representative of Ladevèze (Amsterdam, 1687).

churches, corresponding to a pres- CLAUDE LORRAIN, kljd lororăn. See bytery. The Classis hears appeals from the GELÉE, CLAUDE. consistories, which are the official boards of local churches, and the Synod hears appeals from the

CLAU'DIA GENS (Lat., Claudian family). Classis. The Classis also confirms and dissolves A patrician and plebeian clan in Rome, of Sabine pastoral connections, ordains and deposes minis. origin. The names of the patrician families, ters, and sends delegates to the local and general Cæcus, Caudex, Centho, Crassus, Pulcher, Regil

distinguished for their arrogance and pride, are synods. See REFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA, THE.

lensis, and Sabinus. The plebeian names are CLAS'TIC ROCKS (Fr. clastique, from Gk. Asellus, Canina, Centumalus, Cicero, Flamen, and Kdastós, klastos, broken, from klāv, klan, to

Marcellus. Consult Mommsen, “Die patricischen break), or FRAGMENTAL Rocks. A petrographic Claudier,” in Römische Forschungen (Berlin, division which includes all rocks composed of 1865). See APPIUS CLAUDIUS CRASSUS. fragmental materials. See ÆOLIAN ACCUMULAPIONS; AQUEOUS RockS; BRECCIA.

CLAU DIAN HARBOR. A harbor at the CLAT'SOP. An Amerind tribe of the Chinoo

mouth of the Tiber, two miles west of Ostia, kan stock. See CHINOOK.

constructed in the face of great natural difficul

ties by the Emperor Claudius. Its area CLAUDE, klod, JEAN (1619-87). A French

ceeded 6,000,000 square feet with a depth of 15 Protestant preacher and controversialist. He was

feet to 18 feet, and was inclosed by two jetties born at La Sauvetat-du-Droit, southwest France

2400 feet long. The massive breakwater was (ancient District of Agenais). He studied at

constructed by filling with concrete the great Montauban, became pastor at Nimes in 1654, and

ship which had transported the Vatican obelisk was also professor of theology in the Protestant

from Egypt, sinking her, and from this foundacollege there, where in 1661 he was forbidden to

tion building above the level of the water. On preach, on account of his opposition to the pro

the breakwater rose a lighthouse 200 feet high, posed union with the Roman Catholics. In the

built in imitation of the Pharos of Alexandria. Dext year he obtained a post at Montauban, but

In time the Claudian harbor became inadequate was removed from it also. He then went to

to the needs of the city and an inner harbor was Paris, and was pastor at Charenton from 1666

constructed by Trajan, now two miles inland. until 1685. On the revocation of the Edict of

The Claudian harbor, which is now inaccessible Nantes (1685), he was ordered to leave France

on account of the marshes, is depicted on a bas. within twenty-four hours, and being welcomed

relief discovered in 1863. by William of Orange, preached at The Hague until his death, January 13, 1687. He was the CLAU'DIA'NUS, CLAUDIUS. A Latin poet greatest leader of the French Reformed churches, who lived in the end of the fourth and the betheir ablest disputant, their favorite preacher, ginning of the fifth century, born at Alexandria. and their truest representative.

He is espe

He came to Rome in the year 395 and there cially notable for the polemiche carried on secured the patronage of Stilicho and, through against the school of Port-Royal. His works in- him, of the Emperor Honorius. For the great clude: A Defense of the Reformation (1671, Vandal leader the poet entertained a love and English translation, 1815), written in reply to admiration which is voiced in a number of his an attack on the Calvinistic faith by Pierre minor poems. He wrote first in Greek, which Nicole, the celebrated Jansenist writer; Com- appears to have been his native tongue (though plaints and Cruel Prosecutions of the Protestants he was originally of Roman extraction); but, (1686; English translation, 1707); and especial- as Gibbon says, he "assumed in his mature age ly, as more familiar to English readers, Essay the familiar use and absolute command of the on the Composition of a Sermon (1778-79, 2 Latin language; soared above the heads of his

feeble contemporaries; and placed himself, after (Lyons), B.C. 10. Being naturally sickly and an interval of 300 years, among the poets of infirm, his education was neglected, or left to be ancient Rome.” His poems brought him into cared for by women and freedmen. His supsuch repute that, at the request of the Senate, posed imbecility saved him from the cruelty of the emperors Arcadius and Honorius erected a

Caligula; but Claudius, in his privacy, had statue in his honor in the Forum of Trajan. made considerable progress in the study of hisThe productions of Claudianus that have come tory, and wrote in Latin and Greek several exdown to us consist of two epic poemsThe Rape tensive works now lost. After the assassination of Proserpine, and the incomplete Battle of the of Caligula, Claudius was found by the soldiers Giants, besides panegyrics on Honorius, idyls, in a corner of the palace, where, in dread, he had epigrams, and occasional poems. Claudianus concealed himself. The Pretorians carried him displays a brilliant fancy and rich coloring, with forth, proclaimed him Emperor, and compelled variety and distinctness in his pictures; but his recognition by the Senate and many citizens he is often deficient in taste and gracefulness. who had hoped to restore the Republic. By his There are several manuscripts of The Rape payment of the troops, who had raised him to the of Prosperine, of which two, from the twelfth and throne, Claudius I. gave the first example of the thirteenth centuries, are in the Laurentine Li- baneful practice which subjected Rome to a milibrary at Florence. The best editions are by Birt tary despotism under the succeeding emperors. (Berlin, 1892) and Koch (Leipzig, 1893). A The first acts of his reign seemed to give promise poor English translation was executed by Haw- of mild and just government; but in the year 42, kins (London, 1817). Consult Hodgkin, Claudian; when a conspiracy against his life was detected, The Last of the Roman Poets (London, 1875). his timidity led him to yield himself entirely to

CLAUDIANUS MAMER'TUS ( ?-c.474). the guidance of his infamous wife, Messalina, A Christian poet and philosopher. A younger who, in concert with the freedmen Pallas and brother of Saint Mamertus, Bishop of Vienne, he Narcissus, practiced cruelties and extortions was consecrated by the latter to the priesthood, without restraint. Claudius meanwhile lived in and became his assistant. He systematized the retirement, partly occupied in studies, and exliturgy, and was the author of the hymns known pended enormous sums in building, especially in as the Small Liturgies, sometimes heard in

the construction of the famous Claudian AqueCatholic churches during the services preceding duct, Aqua Claudia. This great work occupied Ascension Day. The hymns Contra Poetas

30,000 laborers during 11 years. Abroad, the Varios and Pange lingua gloriosi lauream cer

armies of Claudius were victorious. Mauretania taminis have also been ascribed to him. In his

was made a Roman province, the conquest of famous philosophical treatise, De Statu Anime Britain was commenced under the personal com(published by Mosellanus, Basel, 1520, and, with mand of the Emperor, and some progress was notes, by C. Barth, Zwickau, 1655), he shows made in Germany. After the execution of Mesthat “thought is inseparable from the essence

salina, Claudius married his niece, Agrippina of the soul, and that its spiritual activity is in

(q.v.), who exercised as unlimited influence over destructible” (Neander, History of Dogmas).

him as had his former wife. C'nder her inspiraHis complete works were edited by Engelbrecht,

tion he deprived his son Britannicus of the sucand published in Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesias- cession to the Imperial power and adopted ticorum Latinorum, vol. xi. (Vienna, 1885).

Domitius Ahenobarbus Nero, the son of AgripConsult Engelbrecht, Untersuchungen über die pina by Gnæus Domitius Ahenobarbus. When Sprache des Claudianus Mamertus (ib., 1885).

Claudius showed some inclination to deprive CLAU'DIA QUIN’TA. A Roman woman who Nero of the succession Agrippina caused him to disproved the charge of unchasteness brought

be poisoned with a dish of mushrooms. After against her, when the ship carrying the image of

his death, Claudius was deified, giving occasion Cybele was brought to Rome from Pessimus in to Seneca's bitter satire, Apocolocyntosis, or B.C. 204. The vessel grounded on a shoal at the

Gourdification. mouth of the Tiber, and when the soothsayers CLAUDIUS II. (MARCUS AURELIUS CLAUdeclared that it could be moved only by a pure DIUS, better known as Claudius Gothicus) (214woman, Claudia came forward and, seizing the 270), Roman Emperor (268-270). He had been rope, towed the ship to Rome.

Governor of Illyria, and, after the death of GalCLAU’DIO. (1) In Shakespeare's Juch Ado lienus, in 268, was proclaimed Emperor by the About Nothing, a young Florentine lord. He soldiers. In the same year he overthrew his is in love with Hero; but his affection is not rival, Aureolus, and conquered the Alemanni; in strong enough to prevent his believing the scan- the following year he defeated a great host of dal against her. (2) In Shakespeare's Measure Goths that menaced Mæsia, and 50.000 of them for Measure, the lover of Juliet.

perished in battle, whence the title Gothicus. CLAU’DIUS. (1) In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Claudius died of the pest, at Sirmium, April, 270. the King of Denmark, who poisons his brother, CLAUDIUS, ARCH OF. A triumphal arch at Hamlet's father, and marries the widow. He is Rome, erected in A.D. 43 on the Via Lata, to comslain by Hamlet, when the Queen, by mistake, memorate the victories of Claudius in Britain. It drinks the poisoned wine. (2) A servant whom was destroyed in the seventeenth century. Brutus accuses of calling out in his sleep, after CLAUDIUS, MATTHIAS (1740-1815). A Gerthe appearance of the ghost of Cæsar, in Shake

man poet and author, known as 'Asmus,' or speare's tragedy Julius Cæsar.

'Der Wandsbecker Bote,' born at Reinfeld, CLAUDIUS I. (TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS NEBO Holstein. He studied from 1759 to 1763 at Drusus; officially Ti. CLAUDIUS CÆSAB Au- the University of Jena; from 1771 to 1775 was GUSTUS GERMANICUS) (B.c. 10-A.D. 54.) Roman editor, under the name of “Asmus,' of the newly Emperor (A.D. 41-54). He was the youngest established Wandsbecker Bote (whence his surBon of Nero Claudius Drusus, stepson of the names), and in 1776 of the Landzeitung, at Emperor Augustus, and was born at Lugdunum Darmstadt. In the following year he returned

succes

to Wandsbeck, where he henceforth lived. He He studied the natural sciences in Giessen, under was appointed in 1778 auditor of the provincial Leuckart; in 1863 became professor of zoology bank of Altona, by the Crown Prince Frederick in Marburg, in 1870 in Göttingen, and in 1873 in of Denmark, who also, in 1785, granted him a Vienna. He was also director of the zoological small annuity. His collected works, published station at Triest. He was very active in the inin 1775-1812 (eight parts), with the quaint vestigation of the Crustacea, and is also widely title Asmus Omnia Sua Secum Portans, were in known because of his Tert-Book of Zoology. Of great part taken from his contributions to the his numerous works, the following are important:. Wandsbecker Bote. His prose is shrewd, apho Die freilebenden Copepoden (1863) ; Beiträge zur ristic, with a certain naïve humor; his verse, now kenntnis der Ostracoden (1868) ; Grundzüge der buoyantly merry, now patriotic, now in the best Zoologie (1868); Ueber den Bau und die Entsense religious, is always fresh, simple, and sin- wicklung der Cumuceen (1870); Die Metamorcere. Many of his lyries, such as Der Mond ist phose der Squilliden (1872); Ueber die Entwickauigegangen and the Rheinweinlied ('Bekränzt lung, Organisation und systematische Stellung mit Laub'), have continued to be popular favor- der Arguliden (1875); Lehrbuch der Zoologie ites throughout Germany. He also translated (6th ed., 1897; trans. into English, under the into German Fénelon and other writers, French title of Text-Book of Zoology, by Claus and Sedg. and English. The collected works have been ex- wick, London, 1897). cellently edited by Redlich (12th ed., Gotha,

CLAUSEL, klo'zěl', BERTRAND (1772-1842). 1832). For his biography, consult Herbst A French marshal, born at Mirepoix, in the De(Gotha, 1878) and Gerok (Darmstadt, 1881).

partment of Ariège, December 12, 1772. He enCLAUDIUS CÆCUS, APPIUS. A Roman pa- tered the army at an early age, and commanded trician of the fourth and third centuries B.C. a brigade in the Italian campaign of 1799. He When censor, in B.C. 312, he gained many ad- was made a general of division of the Army of herents by invading the traditional rights of the the North, in 1804; distinguished himself in the patricians, and admitting men of low birth to campaign of 1809 against Austria and subsesenatorial rank; but his nominations were quickly quently in the war in Spain, where, after the set aside. He is more memorable for having battle of Salamanca, July 22, 1812, he succeeded at the same time undertaken the construction of Marmont in the chief command. He conducted the great Appian Way from Rome to Capua, the very dillicult retreat from Portugal, with and also of the first aqueduct (Aqua Appia) to the greatest circumspection, fighting a bring a supply of water into the city. In order sion of battles. Although he stood by Napoleon to complete these works, he arbitrarily continued to the last, Louis XVIII., in 1814, named him his censorship beyond the legal limits. He was inspector-general of infantry. When Napoleon elected consul in B.C. 307 and 296, and met with returned to France in 1815, Clausel immesuccess in several campaigns against the Samnites diately declared for him, was made a peer, and and Etruscans. When Pyrrhus of Epirus sent received the command of the Army of the PyreCineas to Rome with terms of peace unfavorable

On the return of the Bourbons he was to Roman greatness, it was only the eloquence of declared a traitor. He escaped to the United the aged Claudius that prevented the Senate from States, and lived several years at Mobile, where accepting them. In his old age Claudius is said he wrote his Exposé justificatif. During his abto have become blind, whence his cognomen, sence he was condemned to death, but was sub“Cæcus." Consult: Mommsen, “Die patrici.. sequently permitted to return to France, was schen Claudier," Römische Forschungen, vol. i. elected Deputy in 1827 and 1830, and after the (Berlin, 1864); also article “Claudius,” Pauly. July Revolution was put commal of the Wissowa, Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Alter troops in Algeria. For his services in that catumsuissenschaft (Stuttgart, 1899).

pacity he was made marshal of France in CLAUDIUS CRAS'SUS, APPIUS. See APPIUS

1831, but was soon afterwards recalled. He

was appointed Governor-General of Algeria in CLAUDIUS (RASSUS.

1835, and once more recalled in 1837.

He reCLAUDIUS NERO. See NERO.

turned to France and defended himself. though CLAUDIUS OF TU'RIN (Lat. Claudius

not quite successfully, both through the press Turinensis) ( 2-839). A Spanish-Italian bishop. and from the tribune, against the attacks made At first a preacher at the Court of Louis the upon him. He died near Toulouse, April 21,

1912. See ALGERIA. Pious, he became Bishop of Turin in 820. He was one of the most radical iconoclasts of his CLAUSEN, klou'zen, THOMAS (1801-85). A time, and protested against the use of images, German astronomer, born at Nübel, in Schleswig. the invocation of saints, and the veneration of He early devoted himself to the study of astron. relics. His attitude kept him in constant con- omy, was for several years assistant at the ob. troversy with Pope Paschal I. Claudius wrote an servatory of Altona, and from 1842 to 1872 was Apologeticum, directed against the Abbot Theode- connected with the Observatory of Dorpat (now mir, of the Convent of Psalmody, near Nîmes. Yuryev), first in the capacity of observer, later The abbot's part was taken by Dungall, an Irish as director. During his scientific career Clausen scholar and teacher, who called upon the King made many important contributions to astron: to "crush the tail of the serpent in Claudius, oy, and carried out elaborate calculations of as Charlemagne had so well crushed the head in the paths of comets. his master, Felix of Urgel.” Jonas of Orleans,

CLAUSENBURG, klou'zen-bụrk. See KLAUat the request of the Emperor, also wrote against Claudius, but both Louis and Claudius died before the publication of his work.

CLAUSEWITZ, klou'-ze-vỉts, KARL

(1780-1831). A Prussian general and eminent CLAUS, klous, KARL FRIEDRICH WILHELM military writer, born at Burg. He entered the (1835-99). A German zoölogist, born in Cassel. army in 1792, took part in the campaigns on

nees.

SENBURG.

VON senau.

the Rhine in 1793-94, and attended the Berlin established a series of teachers' courses. In this Academy for young officers in 1801-03, when he way he encouraged the revival of working-schools attracted the attention and won the favor of for boys, his primary aim being the mechanical Scharnhorst. He was adjutant to Prince Augus- development of the hand and of the eye in assotus in 1806, was captured with him by the ciation with mental training. He conducted a French at Prenzlau, and, after being exchanged, number of training-schools in Saxony, and introserved until 1812 as major in the Prussian Gen- duced a course of modeling and drawing in the eral Staff, being employed after 1809 in the Min- institution for the blind at Dresden. istry of War, under Scharnhorst. In 1810-12 he

CLAUSTHAL, klous'tål (Ger., closed valwas also military instructor to the Crown Prince ley, from Lat. clausum, p.p. of cludere, to close of Prussia, and to Prince Frederick of the Nether. + Ger. Thal, valley). “An important mining lands. At the outbreak of the Russian War in town in the Prussian Province of Hanover, sit1812, he entered the Russian service, and aided uated on a plateau of the Upper Harz, about Diebitsch in concluding the convention of Tau

1800 feet above sea-level, and 25 miles northeast roggen. He accompanied Blücher as Russian of Göttingen (Map: Prussia, D 3). Among its staff officer during the campaign of 1813, the his public buildings the most noteworthy is the tory of which he wrote, at the instance of Gnei. Church of the Holy Ghost, the largest structure

He reëntered the service of Prussia in of its kind in the world. The mines of Clausthal 1814, was appointed chief of staff under Thiel- yield silver, lead, copper, iron, and zinc, and are mann in the following year, and remained in among the most valuable and productive in that position at Coblenz until 1818, when he Germany. In 1903 they employed 3270 miners. was made major-general and director of the They are owned and operated by the Prussian ‘Allgemeine Kriegsschule.' Finally, he was ap- Government which has established in connection pointed, in 1831, chief of staff to Field-Mar- therewith a mining academy, with an experishal Gneisenau, and served first in Berlin, then mental laboratory, model workshop, and a library on the Polish frontier. His writings are of of over 30,000 volumes; the number of its stugreat value, and have led to a considerable dents in 1905 was 160. The greater portion of the change in the theory of war. They were published male population finds employment in the mines after his death as Hinterlassene Werke, über and smelting-works, while the women are occuKrieg und Kriegführung (10 vols., 1832-37), of pied in the knitting-mills. Population, in 1909 which the most noteworthy are: Vom Kriege; 8565; in 1905, 8632. Clausthal was founded by Der Feldzug von 1796 in Italien; Uebersicht des the Dukes of Brunswick, in the Sixteenth Century. Feldzuges von 1813; Der Feldzug von 1815; Ueber das Leben und den Charakter von Scharnhorst,

CLAVA'RIA (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from Lat. CLAUSIUS, klou'ze-ys, RUDOLF JULIUS

clava, club). A genus of fungi of the division

Hymenomycetes, subdivision Clavati. The spores EMANUEL (1822-88). A German physicist, born at Köslin. In 1855 he became professor in the The species are numerous, some of them simple

are produced equally on all parts of the surface. Polytechnic Institute of Zurich, in 1867 pro- and club-shaped, some branched. Clavaria botry. fessor in the University of Würzburg, and in 1869 professor at Bonn.

tis, a species common in oak and beech woods in

Clausius is one of the founders of the modern science of thermo- Germany, growing on the ground among moss, dynamics (q.v.), and in a paper before the Ber

grass, heath, etc., is gathered when young, and

used as food, having a very agreeable sweetish lin Academy of Sciences (1850) stated the sec

taste. It ceases to be edible when it becomes ond law of thermodynamics, that “heat cannot

old. Another German species, Clavaria flava. of itself pass from a colder to a hotter body."

which grows on sandy ground in fir-woods, is The theory of electrolysis advanced by Clausius

used in the same way. Other species appear to has also played a conspicuous part in electricity. He assumed that the ions are not in complete them to contain the saccharine substance called

possess similar properties, and Liebig found union, but that a part of them are free to unite

mannite. Clavaria botrytis is the Keulen pilz, with other ions. These uncombined ions, accordingly, are brought together under the action of the Germans. See Colored Plate of EDIBLE

and Clavaria flava the Ziegenbart (goat’s-beard) of the current at the anode and cathode. Clau

FUNGI. sius was one of the most celebrated mathematical physicists of the nineteenth century, and his

CLAVERACK, kláv'-ēr-ak. A town in Coresearches and writings in heat, electricity, and lumbia County, N. Y., 30 miles south of Albany, molecular physics were of the greatest value. and 3 miles east-southeast of Hudson, its banking His most important works are: Die mechanische point, on the Boston and Albany Railroad. Wärmetheorie (1876); Die Potentialfunktion Among the points of interest are a Dutch Reund das Potential (1859); and Ueber das Wesen formed church, built in 1767, and an old courtder Wärme, verglichen mit Licht und Schali house, erected in 1784. The chief industries are (1857). For a biography of Clausius, consult agriculture and the manufacture of flour and Riecke, Rudolf Clausius (Göttingen, 1889).

farm implements. Settled as early as 1660,

Claverack (named Klauver Rachen, "clover CLAUSON-KAAS, klou'zön-käs', ADOLF VON .(1826–). A Danish promoter of manual train reaches,” by the Dutch) was organized as a town ing. He was born near Altona, Prussia, of 1806. The government is administered by town

in 1778, and was the county-seat from 1786 to Danish parents, and after serving in the Danish

meetings, held every two years. Population, cavalry devoted himself entirely to the advancemien of education. In 1870° he founded the 1900, 4416; 1905, 4459. Danish Clubs for Home Industry. On the oc

CLA VERHOUSE. See GRAHAM, JOHN. casion of th international expositions of 1873 CLAVICHORD, kláv'i-kôrd (Fr. clavicorde, and 1878, he gave a series of public lectures on Med. Lat. clavichordium, from Lat. clavis, key + manual training in several cities of Germany, chorda, string). An instrument of the harpsiHolland, Russia, France, and elsewhere, and also chord family, and an important step in the evo

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