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from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis, and is the Porto Caucasia of Strabo and the Dariallan of Oriental authors.

ject of a tragedy, and so also has the English poet Stephen Phillips (q.v.) in his Paolo and Francesca.

DA'RIEN. A city and port of entry, and the county-seat of McIntosh County, Ga., 50 miles (direct) south by west of Savannah, on the Altamaha River, 12 miles from the ocean, and on the Georgia Coast and Piedmont Railroad (Map: Georgia, E 4). It exports large quantities of pine lumber, cross-ties, roofing tile, rice, fish, and garden produce. Settled in 1736, Darien was incorporated as a town in 1816, and was chartered as a city in 1818. It is governed by a board of five persons selected by the grand jury and confirmed by the Governor of the State, one of these five being chosen as chairman and ex-officio mayor. Pop., in 1890, 1491; in 1900, 1739.

DARIEN'. An open-mouthed gulf of the Caribbean Sea on the western part of the north coast of South America, separating the two Colombian departments of Panama and Bolivar (Map: Colombia, B 2). Its southern extension,

called Gulf of Urabá, affords good anchorage. The rainy coastland is hilly and thickly overgrown. The chief affluent is the Atrato (q.v.). The name Darien was also applied to the Isthmus of Panama (q.v.) and to a province in the Republic of New Granada, corresponding to the present State of Panama in Colombia. One of the earliest Spanish settlements on the mainland was in Darien, the region being then also called by the Spaniards Castilla de Oro ('the Golden Castile') and forming the best-known part of

their Tierra Firme. In 1513 Balboa, Governor of the Darien settlement, crossed the Isthmus with 290 men, and on September 25 first caught sight

of the Pacific.

DARIEN SCHEME. A scheme projected by William Paterson (q.v.) in 1695, for the purpose of forming a settlement on the Isthmus of Darien for controlling the trade between the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. It was one of the most disastrous commercial speculations in history. Nine hundred thousand pounds were quickly subscribed, a large part of it by Scottish merchants, and in 1698 1200 colonists, recruited in Scotland, proceeded to the Isthmus to lay the foundations for their prospective commercial centre 'New Caledonia.' Their number was rapidly reduced, however, by starvation and disease, and in June, 1699, the survivors returned. Soon afterwards the Scotch sent out another company, of 1300, but this likewise was soon forced to return, and a third company, which arrived in February, 1700, was almost immediately driven away by the Spaniards. For a brief account of the enterprise, consult H. H. Bancroft, History of Central America, vol. ii. (San Francisco, 1883).

DA RIMINI, då rẽ'mê-né, FRANCESCA (?1288). A woman of extraordinary beauty, daughter of Guido da Polenta, Lord of Ravenna. She was married to Gianciotto Malatesta of Rimini, a cripple, who, detecting her in criminal relations with his brother, Paolo, killed them both. The story has formed a favorite theme for poets. forms the basis of one of the most famous episodes of Dante's Divina Commedia (Inf., v., 73142); Leigh Hunt wrote a poem, the Story of Rimini (1819); Silvio Pellico, G. H. Boker, and D'Annunzio have each found in the tale the sub

DARI'US. The name of several Persian kings, and, like the Egyptian Pharaoh, titular and not personal. According to Herodotus (6, 98), Aapeños signifies one who restrains; but the old Persian form, Dāraya-va (h) uš shows that it signifies upholding what is good. The most famous of the name is called DARIUS I., or DARIUS HYSTASPIS, from his father's name. (See HYSTASPES.) He was born B.C. 558, and was a Persian and of the Achæmenian line. On the death of Cambyses (B.C. 522), he leagued himself with six other nobles to murder Smerdis the Magian, who had usurped the throne. The conspirators were successful in their plot, and Darius was chosen King. An account of these occurrences is given in the great Behistun inscription, which serves to supplement or correct the narrative of Herodotus. His position at first was very insecure, but his caution, skill, and energy enabled him to govern his vast dominions for thirty-six daughter of Otanes, who had been the head of years. To strengthen himself, he married the the conspiracy, and likewise took three wives from the royal household-viz. two daughters of Cyrus and one of Cyrus's son, Smerdis. He then divided his empire into twenty satrapies, and determined the exact amount of the taxation to be borne by each. In some of the remoter provinces great confusion seems to have prevailed after the death of Smerdis the Magian; and a proof of how little Darius could effect at first is afforded by the conduct of Orates, the Governor of Sardis, who for some time was quite Darius contain the account of no fewer than defiant of his authority. The inscriptions of nine or ten rebellions against his sway. Babylon also revolted, and Darius besieged the city unsuccessfully for two years. At last, however, it was taken by an extraordinary stratagem of his general, Zopyrus (516). It is more likely, however, that the account of the conquest of Babylon, as given by Herodotus (3, 150), belongs to the first siege of the city. In the year B.C. 514 Darius is thought to have begun the great rock inscription of Behistun, which records the events of his reign. In 513 Darius, with an army of 700,000, crossed the Bosporus by a bridge of boats, marched to the mouths of the Danube, crossed the river, and advanced against the Scythians. The expedition proved a failure. Darius retreated, but detached from his main force an army of 80,000 men, under Megabyzus, to conquer Thrace, while he himself returned to Asia, whence he extended his authority in the east as far as the Indus. About 501 B.C. the Ionian cities rose in revolt against Persian dominion. They were unsuccessful, the final victory of the Persians being achieved in the naval battle at Lade and the taking of Miletus (494). The assistance given by the Athenians and Eretrians to the Ionians, and the part which they had taken in the burning of Sardis, determined Darius, who was also influenced thereto by the banished Hippias, to attempt the subjugation of the whole of Greece. In 492 he sent Mardonius with an army into Thrace and Macedonia, and at the same time dispatched a fleet against the islands. The former was routed by the Brygi in Thrace, the latter was shattered and dispersed by a storm when rounding the promontory of Mount


Athos. In 490 he renewed his attempt. fleet committed great ravages in the Cyclades, but his army was entirely defeated at Marathon by the Athenians, under Miltiades, the tyrant of the Chersonese. In the midst of his preparations for a third expedition, Darius died B.C. 486, and was succeeded by his son Xerxes. His tomb is still to be seen at Nakshi-Rustam. Darius was an able ruler, and he organized and wisely administered the kingdom which Cyrus had founded. His liberality to the Jews in connection with the rebuilding of the Temple at Jerusalem is referred to in the Bible. For the inscriptions of Darius, consult: Rawlinson, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain, vol. x. (London, 1847); Spiegel, Altpersische Keilinschriften (Leipzig, 1882); Weissbach and Bang, Altpers. Keil. (Leipzig, 1893); Tolman, Old Persian Inscriptions (New York, 1893); Justi, in Grundriss der iranischen Philologie (Strassburg, 1897). See ACHEMENES; CAMBYSES; CYRUS; PERSIA.

DARIUS II., called, before his accession to the throne, Ochus, and after his succession Nothus, the Bastard. He was one of the seventeen bastard sons of Artaxerxes I., Longimanus. When Sogdianus, another of the bastards, had murdered the rightful King, Xerxes II., and assumed for himself the regal power, Ochus declared war against him, slew him, and secured the diadem for himself (B.C. 424-23). He now

Empire, that had so long dominated Asia, caneto a close. Consult Justi, Grundriss der iranischen Philologie (Strassburg, 1897).


called himself Darius. His reign was ignoble. He showed himself to be completely under the control of his eunuchs and his cruel step-sister and spouse, Parysatis. Rebellions were stantly breaking out among his satraps, all of which, however, were crushed except that of Amyrtæus, Satrap of Egypt, who made himself independent in 414. It was during the life of Darius, and chiefly through the craft of Tissaphernes, Satrap of Asia Minor, and of his successor, Cyrus the Younger, son of the King, that the Persians exercised so great an influence over the affairs of Greece in the last years of


the Peloponnesian War. Darius died B.C. 405-04. DARIUS III., called before his accession Codomannus; a monarch noted for his mild disposition, handsome and courageous spirit. He was great-grandson of Darius II., and was raised to the throne through the help of Bagoas, after the murder of Arses (B.c. 336). But in spite of his superior qualities he could offer no solid opposition to the advance of the Macedonians. At the battle of Issus, in 333, his mother, wife, and three children fell into the hands of Alexander; the victory of Gaugamela, near Arbela (q.v.), in 331, opened to the latter the way to Susa and Persia proper. Darius now fled to Ecbatana, in Media; and, on the approach of his opponent, fled from there to the northern provinces, where he was seized by Bessus, Satrap of Bactria. Alexander, in a fit of generosity, hurried to deliver Darius. Bessus then prepared for flight; but Darius, refusing to follow, was stabbed by the barbarian and left. The scouts of Alexander's cavalry found Darius dying, and administered to his last necessities. Thanking the Grecian King for his magnanimity, and commending his family to his care, he expired (330). Alexander sent the dead body to Sisygambis, mother of Darius, to be interred in the tomb of the Persian kings. With him the Achæmenian line and the Persian

DARIUS THE MEDE. The son of Ahasuerus, and conqueror of Babylon, according to the biblical narrative of the Prophet Daniel (Dan. v. 31; vi. 28; ix. 1; xi. 1). His age is given as sixty-two years at the time of the taking of the city. There is great difficulty in identifying this ruler, whom Daniel speaks of as "Darius the son of Ahasuerus, of the seed of the Medes, which was made King over the realm of the Chaldeans" (Dan. ix. 1). Some scholars have suggested an identity with Cyaxares II. (q.v.), or more likely with Gobryas, Governor of Gutium, who actually took the city of Babylon as chief in command for Cyrus. (See CYRUS THE GREAT.) But much uncertainty on the whole subject prevails. Some suggestions may be gained from Horner, Daniel, Darius the Median, Cyrus the Great (Pittsburg, 1901).


DARJILING, där-jēl'ing, DOR-JILING (Tib. Dar-rgyas-glin, land of the diamond thunderbolt-i.e. of the Lama's sceptre). A Popular sanitary station of Bengal, British India, capital of a district of the same name, in the Sikkim Himalayas (Map: India, E 3). It is situated 7200 feet above the sea, on the side of a great hollow or basin, in which flows the Runjit, a branch of the Tista. It commands a magnificent view of the Himalayas to the north and west, and is on the Darjiling and Himalayan Railway, a road remarkable for its elevation. Notwithstanding frequent heavy rains and a great annual rainfall, the climate is very salubrious. Mean annual temperature, 54° F. Darjiling has good bazaars, a fine sanitarium, beautiful botanical gardens, two Anglican churches, an excellent water-supply, and is, especially during October, the fashionable Indian health resort. Tea-growing is the principal industry of the district. Fifty thousand acres are devoted to its cultivation, and as much as 8,000,000 pounds has been produced annually. Darjiling is about 36 miles from the Plain of BenIt was gal and 308 miles north of Calcutta. obtained by the British Government from the Rajah of Sikkim in 1835, in order to be made a sanitary station. Population, including the adjacent cantonment, 14,100.

DARK AGES. A name formerly applied either to the whole or the earlier part of the Middle Ages (q.v.).

DARK AND BLOODY GROUND, THE. A name given to the State of Kentucky as the scene of frequent Indian warfare in the days of the early settlers. The phrase has also been said to be a translation of the Indian word Kentucky.

DARK CONTINENT, THE. Africa, the least known of the earth's great divisions. The term is also explained as referring to the color of the inhabitants.

DARK DAY. Any day in which the sunlight appears to be remarkably dim or altogether absent. In New England the term is specifically applied to May 19, 1780, also known as Black Friday; but many similar dark days are also on record in other parts of the world. Other notable dark days in the United States were those of October 21, 1716, and October 19, 1762. Stygian darkness often prevails during erup

were typical 'dark horses' of the Democratic Party; Rutherford B. Hayes and James A. Garfield of the Republican.

tions of ashes from volcanoes. In recent years the months of August and September, 1881, were remarkable in the eastern part of the United States for a long series of days in which artificial light was oftentimes necessary at midday and business was generally very much interrupted. In this case the darkness is known to have been the result of a combination of ordinary cloudiness with the smoke from forest and prairie fire, and it is presumable that the same conditions must have obtained during the historical dark days of the previous century. The United States Monthly Weather Review, for September, 1881, page 27, says: "The foggy or smoky condition of the atmosphere became quite general from the first to the tenth of this month over that portion of the United States between the meridians of 67° and 87° W. and the parallels of 40° and 45° N. It reached an unusual culmination in density in the eastern portion of the Middle Atlantic States and throughout New England, where it interrupted the prosecution of business and compelled the use of artificial light. The destructive violence of prairie and forest fires throughout northern Michigan and portions of Canada has perhaps never been exceeded, and the intensity of the accompanying smoke was simply dreadful. On September 6 southwesterly winds prevailed from Tennessee northward to Lake Superior, and thence eastward to the Canadian maritime provinces, and smoke was reported as far south as Knoxville, westward to Milwaukee, northward to Rockliffe, Canada, and eastward to New Brunswick. To show the progress eastward of this condition in the atmosphere it is necessary to trace the movement of low-pressure areas over Canada and northern New England, and watch the accompanying change in wind directions." The darkness of the dark day of May, 1780, covered very much the same area, with southwest winds and occasional light rains, and was undoubtedly of the same nature, although in both cases it was attributed by the superstitious to supernatural causes. On the plains of Tibet, according to Marco Polo and other travelers, dark days are sometimes caused by clouds of dust so fine and light that it is carried to a great distance by the wind. Similar days of darkness have been caused by clouds of mingled vapor, smoke, and dust emanating from volcanic eruptions, although such clouds do not usually extend to the great distances reached by clouds

of smoke from forest fires. Cases of such vol

canic clouds occurred in connection with the eruption of Mont Pelée and La Soufrière in the West Indies in May, 1902.

DARKE, WILLIAM (1736-1801). An American soldier, born in Philadelphia. He served under Braddock; rose to the rank of colonel in the American Army during the Revolutionary War; and in 1791 commanded the left wing of Saint Clair's army, which, on November 4, was defeated by the Miami Indians.

DARK HORSE. A term familiarly used in the vocabulary of American politics, and applied to a com omparatively unknown man brought forth in a nominating convention at the supreme moment as a candidate for office in the place of a prominent rival candidate of his own party

whose nomination would incur the risk of a divided vote. James K. Polk and Franklin Pierce

DARK LADY, THE. In Shakespeare's Sonnets, the woman thought, by those who maintain that William Herbert is the dedicatee, to be Mary Fitton, one of Elizabeth's maids of honor. It is certain that Herbert and she created a scandal. Another suggestion, with fewer sup"Stella" of Sidney's sonnets. porters, is Penelope Devereux, Lady Rich, the

DAR'LASTON. A town in Staffordshire, England, four miles southeast of Wolverhampton. It has extensive mines of iron and coal, and manufactures of hardware. Population, in 1901, 15,400.

DAR'LEY, FELIX OCTAVIUS CARR (1822-88). An American painter and engraver, born in Philadelphia. He illustrated the works of Irving, Cooper, Longfellow, Hawthorne, and Shakespeare, and made 500 drawings for Lossing's History of the United States. Among his bestknown illustrations are those for the Legend of Sleepy Hollow, Rip Van Winkle, and Dickens's Great Expectations. In 1868 he published, after a visit to Europe, Sketches Abroad with Pen and Pencil. His water-color paintings of incidents in American history are full of spirit.

DARLEY, GEORGE (1795-1846). An English poet. He was born in Dublin in 1795; was graduated from Trinity College, Dublin, in 1820, and went to London, where he wrote critical papers for the magazines, and eventually joined the staff of the Athenæum, becoming famous for his caustic reviews. He died November 23, 1846. Under the inspiration of the Elizabethans, Darley produced several lyrical dramas containing passages of great beauty-Sylvia, or the May Queen (1827), and the inferior Thomas à Becket (1840) and Ethelstan (1841). As early as 1822 he had published The Errors of Ecstacie, a melodious poem in blank verse, followed by Lilian of the Vale (1826), a thrilling tale. He also wrote several treatises on mathematics, which were praised by Carlyle. For specimens of his verse consult Stedman, Victorian Anthology (New York, 1895). DAR'LING.

Australia, extending north and south for about A mountain range of western to 70 miles distant (Map: Western Australia, B 250 miles, parallel with the coast and from 20 9). It ends near Point D'Entrecasteaux. highest summit reaches 3700 feet.


DARLING RIVER (named in honor of Sir Ralph Darling, Governor of New South Wales, 1825-31), or BARCOON RIVER. An Australian stream, the most important tributary of the Murray (Map: New South Wales, B 2). It rises in southeastern Queensland, flows through New South Wales, and joins the Murray on the Victoria border. The area of its basin is about 200,000 square miles. During the dry season its course is marked by a succession of pools or small lakes; but during the winter, when it is subject to sudden floods, it is navigable by light-draught steamers for over 600 miles to

Bourke, the terminus of the Great Western Railway, from Sydney. Most of the region of the Darling is but a desert in the dry season.

DARLING, GRACE HORSLEY (1815-42). An English heroine. She was born in Bamborough,

ed Michel Bréal. In 1877 he was appointed assistant professor of Zend at the Ecole des Hautes Etudes, and in 1885 was advanced to the professorship of Iranian languages and literature at the Collège de France. In 1886 he visited India, to make special philological researches in connection with the sacred books of the Parsis, and was afterwards honored by an appointment as fellow of Bombay University. For years he had acted as secretary of the Société Asiatique de Paris, and he was likewise busily engaged as an editor of a leading political and literary periodical, La Revue de Paris, at the time of his death. His writings in the field of Avestan philology and Zoroastrianism are of prime importance, even if his theories, which are often very radical, cannot always be accepted. Among his works may be mentioned: Haurvatāṭ et Ameretat, Essai sur la mythologie de l'Avesta (1875); Ormazd et Ahriman, leurs origines et leur histoire (1877); Etudes iraniennes (1883); The Zend-Avesta (translated 1880, 1883); Essais orientaux (1883); Chants populaires des Afghans (1888-90); Les prophètes d'Israël (1892); and his most important work, Le Zend-Avesta; Traduction nouvelle (3 vols., 1892-93). A number of his literary essays have been translated into English by Helen Jastrow (Boston, 1895), and by his wife (New York, 1897).

Northumberland, the daughter of William Darling, lighthouse-keeper on Longstone, one of the Farne Islands. On the morning of September 7, 1838, the steamer Forfarshire was wrecked near the lighthouse, and all but nine of the sixtythree passengers perished. In spite of the danger of such an undertaking, the father and daughter made two trips to where the survivors lay, and rescued all of them. News of the exploit was received with great enthusiasm by the English people, and by popular subscription the sum of £750 was raised for the heroine. Consult Grace Darling: Her True Story, from Unpublished Papers in the Possession of the Family (1880).

DAR'LINGTON. A Parliamentary and municipal borough and market town in Durham County, England, on the Skerne, near its junction with the Tees, 18 miles south of Durham City (Map: England, E 2). The town is laid out in wide and regular streets, and has a spacious market-place. The parish church of Saint Cuthbert, a handsome Early English edifice, was founded about 1160 by Bishop Pudsey. Darlington sends one member to Parliament. It received its charter of incorporation in 1867. It has owned its gas and water supply since 1854, and it maintains public baths and markets. Its principal manufactures are iron and worsteds, and there are extensive locomotive works belonging to the Northeastern Railway. The first passenger railway operated by steam was opened in 1825 between Darlington and Stockton. Population, in 1891, 38,000; in 1901, 44,500. At Oxen-le-field, three miles from Darlington, are curious cavities of unknown origin, called Hell Kettles. From Anglo-Saxon times till 1867 Darlington was under the authority of the Bishop of Durham. Consult Longstaffe, History and Antiquities of Darlington (London, 1854).

DARLINGTON. A town and the countyseat of Darlington County, S. C., 70 miles (direct) east-northeast of Columbia, at the junction

of two divisions of the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad (Map: South Carolina, E 2). It carries on a considerable trade in cotton, tobacco, and grain, the principal products of the surrounding agricultural region. There are cotton-mills, tobaccofactories, fertilizer-works, etc. Population, in 1890, 2389; in 1900, 3028.

DARLINGTON, WILLIAM (1782-1863). An American botanist, born at Birmingham, Pa. In 1806 he went to India, and on returning published an account of his voyage. In 1814 he was chosen to Congress, and in 1819 was reëlected. At Westchester, Pa., he founded an athenæum, an academy, and a society of natural history. Among his publications are: Mutual Influence of Habits and Disease; Agricultural Chemistry; Agricultural Botany (1847); and Memorial of

John Bartram (1849).

DARMESTETER, därm'ste-târ', JAMES (184994). A French Orientalist, whose eminence was achieved especially in the field of Iranian scholarship. He was born, of Jewish parentage, at Château-Salins, in Lorraine. He was educated at the Lycée Bonaparte, Paris, from which he graduated with the highest honors in 1867, when he began to devote himself to Oriental philology, chiefly under the guidance of the gift

DARMSTADT, därm'ståt (Ger., city of the Darm, the river near which the city lies). The capital of the Grand Duchy Hesse, Germany, and residence of the Grand Duke, about midway between the Rhine and the Main, at the northwestern extremity of the Odenwald, and 17 miles south of Frankfort-on-the-Main (Map: Germany, C 4). It consists of an old and new town, the streets of the former being narrow and crooked, but those of the latter broad and handsome, exhibiting many imposing specimens of architecture. Its principal square, the Luisenplatz, adorned with a lofty column, surmounted by a bronze statue of Grand Duke Louis I., who founded the new town, contains the post-office, the Government building, and the old palace. The Grand Ducal Palace, surrounded by pleasant gardens, was begun in the fifteenth century, but practically rebuilt in the early part of the eighteenth. It contains a valuable library of over 478,000 volumes, an archæological collection, and a picture gallery with some good examples of the early German and the Netherlandish masters. The chef-d'œuvre is the so-called Meyer Madonna, by Holbein the Younger. Promikirche, with the handsome monument of Landnent among numerous churches are the Stadtbuilt after the Pantheon at Rome, with a lofty grave George I., and the Roman Catholic church dome supported by twenty-eight columns. Other notable features include the new palace, the palace of Prince Henry, the old and new town halls, theatre, and the Herrngarten, a fine public garden and park. Darmstadt is the seat of government for the grand duchy and for the province, and of the provincial court of appeal. The town's affairs are administered by a municipal council of 42, and an executive board of 3 members. It owns its water-supply, and operates gas-works and an electric-light plant. Its educational institutions include two gymnasia, a high school, technical school, the Municipal Victoria School, and several elementary schools. Among its charitable institutions are

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