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DAHLMANN, däl'mån, FRIEDRICH CHRISTOPH (1785-1860). A German historian and statesman, born May 13, 1785, at Wismar. His earlier studies in Copenhagen and Halle were devoted to archæology and philology, but his attention was subsequently directed to political science and history. In 1812 he was made a professor in the University of Kiel, and in 1815 became secretary of the permanent committee of the Schleswig-Holstein clergy and nobility, in which capacity he opposed the Danish policy concerning those duchies. He published several historical works, and in 1829 was appointed professor of political science in Göttingen, where he

published his valuable work, Quellenkunde der deutschen Geschichte (1st ed. 1830; reedited by Weitz, 1875, and subsequent editions). missed from the university in 1837, with six of his colleagues, by King Ernest Augustus, on account of their protest against the abrogation of the Hanoverian Constitution, he went to Leipzig

and afterwards to Jena, where he wrote his admirable Geschichte von Dänemark (Hamburg, 1840-43). In 1842 he became professor of history and political science at Bonn, and later on took a prominent part in the political affairs of Germany. At the outbreak of the Revolution, in 1848, he was appointed deputy of Prussia in the Germanic Diet, and was the principal member of the committee appointed to draft a new German constitution. He exerted his influence in the Frankfort Parliament in favor of an hereditary German empire, the dignity to inhere in the King of Prussia, but his views were not accepted, either by King Frederick William IV. or the majority of the Parliament. After a less conspicuous parliamentary activity at Erfurt and Berlin, Dahlmann returned to his academic duties, to which he devoted himself till his death, December 5, 1860. Besides the works mentioned above, he was the author of important histories of the English and French revolutions, of a work in two volumes on early Germanic history, and the editor of the Ditmarsh Chronicle. Consult: Springer, F. C. Dahlmann (Leipzig, 1870-72); Nasse, F. C. Dahlmann, an inaugural lecture (Kiel, 1885).

DAHLONEGA, dä'lô-ne'gå (from American Indian Taulauneca, yellow gold. A town and the county-seat of Lumpkin County, Ga., about 60 miles (direct) north-northeast of Atlanta (Map: Georgia, B 1). It is situated among the foothills of the southern portion of the Blue Ridge Mountains in a gold-mining region, and has goldmills, concentrators, and an extensive chlorination plant. Until the Civil War, a United States branch mint was situated here. Dahlonega is the seat of the North Georgia Agricultural College, a department of the State University. The Cherokee Indians called the place Dah-lo-ne-ga, meaning yellow money. Settled in 1831, it was incorporated in the following year, and is governed by a mayor and a city council. Pop., in 1890, 896; in 1900, 1255.

choose bad models, the Silesian poets of the school of Lohenstein and the Italians of the school of Marini. But their florid pomposity could not always smother his true poetic fire, and his "Elegy on the Death of Charles XI." (1697) (Kungaskald) is sometimes sublime, while his "Goth's Battle Song" (1701) is an admirable popular ballad, an exulting defiance of the Russians, whose triumph at Poltava Dahlstjerna could not survive. He was a man of varied gifts, distinguished as a cartographer, and as the author of a number of scientific papers. He died in Pomerania, September 7, 1709.

DAHLSTJERNA, däl'shĕr-nå, GUNNO EURELIUS (1661-1709). A Swedish poet, born at Ohr, September 7, 1661. He was an intense patriot, and beguiled the tedium of surveying expeditions in Sweden, Livonia, and Pomerania, by composing songs that are at times the best of his epoch, and again nearly the worst in their pathetic puerility. He had the misfortune to

DAHN, dän, FELIX (1834-). An historian,

jurist, and novelist. He was born in Hamburg, February 9, 1834. His parents were celebrated actors, his early training was classic. He studied history and law in Munich and Berlin, became privat-docent in Munich in 1857 and professor of law there in 1862. He has since occupied the same position in Würzburg (1863), Königsberg has contributed Die Könige der Germanen (1861(1872), and Breslau since 1888. To history he 97) and Urgeschichte der germanischen und roDie Vernunft im Recht (1879); to poetry, colmanischen Völker (1878 et seq.); to jurisprudence, lections of Poems, Ballads, and Songs (1857, 1873, 1875, 1878, 1892, 1900). He has also written many dramas, of which Markgraf Rüdeger von Bechelaren (1875) is typical. Dahn is most widely known, and deservedly, for his historical novels, which deal mainly with the primitive Germanic peoples, from the Vikings of Norway to the Goths of Italy, and from prehistoric times to the Crusades. Of these there are more than twenty, the chief of which are Odhins Trost (1880) and the longest and best of all, Ein Kampf um Rom (1876). This latter work has an epic breadth and an artistic unity that makes it one of the most strikIt is ing historical novels of recent times. an epitome of the history of the German invasion of Italy, involving immense learning, borne so lightly by the author that it never oppresses the reader. The period is that of Justinian and Theodora, of the Gothic kings Theodoric, Totila, Vitiges, and Teja. Through the four volumes the interest never flags, and the dread of impending fate increases to the tragic close. There are also shorter stories of the migration, Felicitas (1883), Fredigundis (1885), Attila (1888), and Stilicho (1900). Later publications are Sigwalt und Sigridh (1898), Herzog Ernst von Schwaben (1902), and Die Germanen (1905).

DAHOMEY, då-ho'mi or då'ho'ma'. Formerly a negro kingdom of West Africa, now a French colony, comprising with its dependencies all the French possessions in the region bounded by the military territories of French Sudan on the north (near latitude 14° N.), the British colonies of Nigeria and Lagos on the east, the Gulf of Guinea on the south, and the German colony of Togo on the west (Map: Africa, E 4). The total area is estimated at about 65,444 square miles, the territories of Kwala and Say having been added in 1900. There are 70 miles of coast. The surface is low and sandy along the Gulf, which is bordered by lagoons. The country is very hilly in the northern and more extended part, which includes the Mahé highlands. In the interior there are savannas, and large districts having a rather luxuriant flora; and

finally, the extreme north is characterized by bare tracts of desert, forming part of what is called Upper Dahomey. The only river of importance is the navigable Weme, which traverses the eastern part of the country. Monc, however, borders on the west, and the Niger on the north

east.

on the north and to the Slave Coast on the south (1772). There they came into contact with the Europeans and succeeded in obtaining control of a large part of the slave trade, which was then carried on actively by the English, the French, and Portuguese. With the cessation of the slave traffic, the prosperity of the country came to an end. France secured a firm footing on the coast in the second half of the nineteenth century. Between 1878 and 1885 it obtained possession of Kotonu, Porto Novo, and Grand Popo, and after a bloody contest in 1890 forced King Behanzin to acknowledge its title to the coast region. War broke out again in 1892, and resulted in the taking of Abomey, the deposition of Behanzin (since retained as prisoner at Fort-deFrance, Martinique), and the establishment of a virtual French protectorate. Since then the French have been actively engaged in extending their authority over the region to the north, so as to bring Dahomey into touch with their possessions in the Sudan. In 1897 and 1898 they concluded treaties with the Germans and the English, and the sphere of influence claimed by each was determined.

The climate is unhealthful in the low coast lands, being both hot and moist, but is favorable in the interior. The rainy season is in summer. A large part of Dahomey is covered with thick forests abounding in rubber-plants, and also palms which yield large quantities of oil and kernels for export. The soil is remarkably fertile, and along the coast manioc, maize, and potatoes are grown by the industrious natives, who also weave, and make pottery. Trade, which in former days was little more than an exchange of trinkets for gold and other equally precious articles, now assumed an entirely modern aspect and importance. The commerce is mostly concentrated in the Gulf towns, especially in Porto Novo, the main port of the colony. The exports, consisting almost entirely of palm-oil and palm-kernels, amounted to over 7,600,000 francs in 1905. The imports for 1905 exceeded 10,700,000 francs, and were made up chiefly of liquors, cotton, and tobacco. About one-fourth of the trade is with France. In 1902 vessels with a total tonnage of over 1,081,000 entered and cleared the ports. The port Kotonu is connected with the Niger and the Senegal by telegraph. There is regular steamship communication with Europe.

Dahomey was an absolute monarchy previous to the French occupation. There was a standing army estimated at over 15,000, consisting partly of female warriors or amazons, who were distinguished for superior physique and high skill in the use of weapons. At present the colony is locally administered by a French Governor, assisted by a council over which he presides. The council is made up of higher officials, and also two prominent residents, one of whom is native and one white. (See FRENCH WEST AFRICA.) The local budget for 1904 balanced at 5,306,218 francs. The colony is self-supporting. The population is estimated at nearly 1,000,000, composed of full-blooded Guinea Negroes, or Nigritians of the coast (Deniker). The Dahomans are tall, very long-headed (index 75.1), but not so black as the tribes of Senegal. In their own tongue, a dialect of the Ewe language, common on this part of the Slave Coast, they are called Fon or Fawin. Their religion is purely fetish, and the sacrifice of human beings, a widespread custom in former times, is still supposed to be practiced. In spite of a low standard of morality and warlike attributes and usages, the Dahomans are polite in their interThe activity of missionaries has thus far been attended with little success, except in the case of the dervishes, who are indefatigable in their efforts to spread the gospel of Islam. The capital of the colony has been removed, since the French occupation, from Abomey to Porto Novo (q.v.). Other towns are Grand Popo, Agoué, Say (on the Niger), Whydah, and Allada, an important trading point.

course.

The kingdom of Dahomey arose in the seventeenth century around the city of Abomey as a nucleus. By successive conquests the kings extended their rule to the highlands of the Mahé

Consult: Skertchley, Dahomey As It Is (London, 1874; Careb, Les territoires africains et les conventions anglaises (Paris, 1901); Touttée, Du Dahomé au Sahara (Paris, 1899); Keane, in Stanford's Africa (London, 1895); Verdier, Trente-cinq années de lutte aux colonies, côte occidentale d'Afrique (Paris, 1897); Aublet, La guerre au Dahomé (Paris, 1894).

DAIBUTSU, di'boo'tsoo (Japanese, great Buddha). A famous Japanese image of Buddha 1252 and is a unique production of Japanese at Kamakura, near Yokohama. It dates from art, wrought of bronze and silver, with eyes of gold, and measures 50 feet in height and 97 feet More ancient, even, dating in circumference. from 749, and of more gigantic proportions, but of inferior artistic merit, is the Daibutsu at Nara, in the main island of Japan.

D'AIGUEBELLE, dâg'běl'. See AIGUEBELLE. DAILLÉ, däʼyâ', or DALLÆUS, dăl-lē'ūs, JEAN (1594-1670). A French Reformed theologian, born at Châtellerault. He was tutor to the grandsons of Philippe de Mornay and traveled with them through Italy, Germany, Holland, and England in 1621-25. He became preacher at Saumur in 1625, and at Charenton in 1626, and was president of the last national synod of the Reformed Church held in France in 1659. He was one of the most learned and influential theologians of the Reformed Church in France, and wrote a considerable number of controversial works, among which the Traité de l'emploi des Saints Pères (1623) is of permanent value.

DAILY COURANT, THE. A journal called the first English daily newspaper, which first appeared March 11, 1702.

DAIMIEL, di-myâl'. A town in Spain, in the Province of Ciudad Real, 20 miles east-northeast of the city of that name, with which it is connected by rail (Map: Spain, D 3). It lies on the Azuer River, in the fertile Campo de Calatrava; it has several squares, and its principal streets, though unpaved, are wide and comparatively clean. Its chief buildings are the churches of San Pedro and Santa Maria-the former a Doric and the latter a Gothic structure

in the United States. While formerly believed to be confined by natural conditions to a limited area, known as the 'dairy belt,' it has been shown that the industry can be profitably and success · fully carried on over a wide range of country, and that, generally speaking, good butter and cheese can be made by proper management in almost all parts of North America. Dairying was formerly confined to the spring and summer months, when pasturage could be had for the cows, and it was planned to have the cows calve as far as possible in the spring; they were generally allowed to go dry during the fall and early winter, and were neither well fed nor well housed through the winter. Winter dairying was prac tically unknown, as it was not supposed to be feasible or profitable. Under the system at present followed, dairying is not confined to any season, and the cows are fed succulent fodder during the winter in the form of corn silage, and roots, in addition to hay and liberal grain rations, composed largely of bran, cornmeal, and the by-products of factories where glucose and similar products are made. Great stress is laid upon the value of succulent foods as supplements to dry feed in winter, and in all countries where dairying has attained a high degree of development succulent feeds have occupied a prominent place in the ration given throughout the year. Corn silage is extensively relied upon for this purpose in the United States, being the cheapest food which can be supplied over a wide extent of the country. There may now be said to be two general systems of summer-feeding cows, the pasturage system, and the 'soiling system, in which latter the green crops are cut for the animals. Pasturage is still extensively practiced where practicable, and it is quite customary to feed some grain to good cows on pasture. large number of cows in the eastern part of the United States are now 'kept up' during summer, such green feed as comes into condition in succession throughout the season being raised for them. This method is thought to be more economical in sections where land commands a high price. A much larger number of cows can be kept on a given area by this 'soiling' system, and the animals are found to keep healthy and do well under it. Perhaps the most remarkable advance in dairying has been in the keeping of better cows, and in giving more attention to their feeding, comfort, and general management. The introduction of the creamery and cheesefactory systems (q.v.) has caused a great revolution in dairy practice, to a large extent transferring the manufacture of butter and cheese from the farm to the factory. The invention of the Babcock test, which has made practicable the payment for milk by test and placed it within the power of dairymen to test their individual cows, has been a very potent factor in improving the grade of cows which are kept, and has probably done more than any other single thing to advance American dairying. Milk of guaranteed fat-content is now sold in most of the large cities, and cream is supplied of various degrees of richness, according to the purposes for which it is intended. The sanitary conditions of milk production have been greatly improved as a result of bacteriological and other studies which have been made, and pasteurized milk and cream are now extensively used.

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Dairying has been very greatly advanced by

-a town hall, and a hospital. One of the most important towns in the La Mancha district, Daimiel has manufactures of woolens, linens, bricks, liquors, soap, hats, etc. Population, in 1900, 11,825.

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DAIMIO, di'mê-ō (Japan., great name). term applied in Japan to a territorial feudal lord, in contrast with the kuge or landless noble of the Imperial Court. From the decay of the Mikado's power in the twelfth century, this class, numbering nearly 300, flourished until the abolition of feudalism in 1868, when they were amalgamated with the kuge, the two forming the Kuazoku, or flowery nobility. According to their former rank, wealth, power, historical or personal importance, the individual daimios have become princes, marquises, counts, barons, etc. Consult: Dickson, Sketch of the History and Government of Japan (London, 1869); and Griffis, The Mikado's Empire (New York, 1900).

DAINTY, LADY. A feminine type of fashion and frivolity in Cibber's The Double Gallant.

DAIRCELL. An Irish saint of the seventh century; the illegitimate son of a farmer at Luachair, near Castleisland, Kerry. He was born in the wilderness and would have been killed at birth by his mother, had not a dove descended from heaven to protect him, or "gather him to her in her wings;" whence his name Daircell, meaning 'a gathering.'

DAIROLLES, da'rôl', ADRIENNE. An actress of French origin, who, in England, in 1885, attracted notice as an amateur. The following year she supported Mrs. Langtry in a play called Les Brebis de Panurge. Later she appeared at the Drury Lane, Globe, and Adelphi theatres. In September, 1891, she was Noémie Nioche, in Henry James's play The American, produced at the Opéra Comique in London. In 1893 she appeared in New York at the Star Theatre. The following year she played at the Lyceum, and in the production of The Fatal Card at Palmer's Theatre, taking the part of Mercedes.

DAIRYING (ME. deyery, from deye, dairy maid, Icel. deigja; probably connected with OSwed. daggja, to suckle, Skt. duh, to milk). That branch of agriculture which has to do with the production and utilization of milk. It embraces the feeding and management of milch cows, the supplying of cream and milk, and the making of butter and cheese, etc. The term dairy husbandry is applied to a system of farming under which cows are kept and bred, and the principal crops grown with special reference to the dairy herd. Dairy was formerly used to designate the place or house where the milk was kept, cheese was made, etc. Like almost all other occupations, dairying has become in recent years divided into several distinct and special lines. These differ as to the form of the product and the manner of disposing of it. In one case milk or cream may be produced for delivery to consumers direct from the dairy, or the same product may be delivered to a creamery to be manufactured into butter and cheese, or the product of the herd may be converted into butter and cheese at home.

In no branch of agriculture has greater progress been made recent years than in dairying, and it is now regarded as among the most progressive and highly developed forms of farming

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