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both translated. He died at Leyden, April 28, Dactylic verses consist of dactyls and equivalent 1860. feet. See HEXAMETER.

DAC/TYLIS. See ORCHARD GRASS.

DACTYLOL'OGY (from Gk. dáктuλos, dakty los, finger + -λoyla, -logia, reasoning, from Méye, legein, to say). The art of communicating thought by the fingers. See DEAF MUTE.

DACTYL'OMAN'CY. See SUPERSTITION.

DACRES, da'kērz, JAMES RICHARD (17881853). An English naval officer, born at Lowestoft. He entered the navy in 1796, accompanied the expedition sent against Ferrol, and in 1806 was placed in command of the sloop Bacchante. After distinguished service, he was in 1811 transferred to the Guerrière. Upon the loss of that vessel in the famous contest with the Constitution, he was taken aboard the latter, and subsequently paroled at Boston. By the courtmartial assembled in 1812 at Halifax, he was honorably acquitted of all blame for the surrender of his vessel. In 1815, while commanding the Tiber, he captured the Leo, an American privateer. He became a rear-admiral in 1838, and in 1845 commander at the Cape of Good Hope.

DACRES, Sir SYDNEY COLPOYS (1805-84). An English admiral. He was captain of the flagship of the Channel fleet under Sir Charles Napier from 1847 to 1849, and as commander of the Sans Pareil took a prominent part in the bom bardment of Sebastopol. As rear-admiral, to which position he was appointed in 1859, he later commanded the first ironclad squadron. He was second in command on the North American station during the controversy over the Trent affair (1861). In 1868 he was appointed senior lord of the admiralty, and in 1872 commander of Greenwich Hospital.

DACRYDIUM (Neo-Lat., from Gk. daкpú dov, dakrydion, dim. of dáкрv, dakry, tear; referring to the drops of gum exuded by the tree). A genus of lofty trees of the natural order Taxaceæ, which has the male and the female flowers on separate individuals. The species are chiefly natives of Australia and New Zealand. Dacrydium Franklinii is called Huon pine, although rather a yew than a pine. Its timber is harder than any Baltic pine, and is excellent for spars for naval purposes. The tree attains a height of a hundred feet, and a diameter of six feet. The wood is light, tough, and very durable. It is said to be one of the best Australian woods for carving. Dacrydium cupressinum and Dacrydium Kirkii are two species occurring in New Zealand, where they are large trees of considerable economic value. The drupes of both species are edible. The young twigs of Dacrydium cupressinum are sometimes used for making a kind of beer. Closely related are the species of Podocarpus, of which there are a score or more species in Asia and through the islands of Australia. Podocarpus totara is the most valuable timbertree of New Zealand, where it attains a height of 60 to 100 feet and a diameter of 6 to 8 feet. The bark is extensively used for roofing houses. Podocarpus spicata and Podocarpus excelsa are other species of value.

DACTYL (Lat. dactylus, Gk. dáкTUλos, daktylos, finger). The name of a measure or 'foot' in Greek and Latin versification. It consists of one long and two short syllables, as in the word ōmnibus, and was so called from its resemblance to the finger, which consists of three joints-one long and two short. The same name is applied to a trisyllabic measure in English verse, consisting of one accented syllable and two unaccented syllables, as in destiny. (See VERSIFICATION.)

DACTYLS, DACʼTYLI, DAKTYLOI. In Greek legend, a supernatural folk who dwelt on Mount Ida in Phrygia. They were the discoverers of copper and iron, and were deeply versed in the metal-working arts. The legends later transferred them to the Cretan Mount Ida, and identified them with the Corybantes. They were originally three in number-Kelmis, the Smelter; Damnameneus, the Hammer; and Acmon, the Anvil; then were increased to five, ten, fifty-two, and at last one hundred.

DADAYAG, dä'då-yäg'. A head-hunting Malayan people in the mountains of Cagayan Province, Luzon. Their dialect is Igorote. See PHILIPPINES.

DADDY-LONG-LEGS. (1) In the United States, the long-legged, spider-like creatures of the arachnid family Opilionidæ. (See HABVESTMAN.) (2) In England, the flies of the family Tipulidæ, which includes the crane-flies-big, long-legged insects, resembling exaggerated mosquitoes, that swarm in late summer in grassy and bushy places. The eggs are not known. The larvæ of some live in damp earth, decaying wood, etc., and of others in the water, feeding on vegetable material, diatoms, etc. One curious wingless genus (Chionea) contains the 'snow-insects' occasionally seen in swarms on the surface of snowbanks. Some of the earth-inhabiting forms injure the roots of grain and other grasses. More than a thousand species have been de

scribed.

DA'DO (It., a die). In architecture, the term applied to the cubic block which forms the body of a pedestal. It is also applied to the plane face and the series of moldings which, in the interiors of buildings, form, as it were, a continuous pedestal. The ordinary modern interior dado is formed of wood, and, running round the bottom of the walls of a room, serves to protect the plaster or paper from injury. It is generally about three feet in height, and surmounted by a narrow cornice. It is also called a wainscot, though this name is more properly applied to a paneled dado.

DADOX'YLON (Neo-Lat., from Gk. dás, das, torch + úλov, xylon, wood). Fossil wood of Paleozoic age, found in the Devonian rocks of Europe and America, and having a microscopie structure like that of Cordaites wood and Araucaria wood. See CONIFERE; CORDAITES.

DÆD'ALUS (Lat., from Gk. Aaldados, Daida los, literally 'the cunning worker'). The mythi cal sculptor, placed by Greek legend at the begin ning of native art, to whom were attributed many early wooden statues, apparently of the type of the early nude male figures, such as the "Apollo of Orchomenos." The early forms of the legend seem to have made him a native of Crete, and there seems to have been an early school of Cretan artists, the Dædalidæ, who claimed him as their ancestor. Under Athenian influ

ences, however, the more common forms of the myth arose. Daedalus was a descendant of the Athenian royal race, the Erechthidæ, and having killed his pupil Talos, fled to Crete, where he was received by King Minos, for whom he built the Labyrinth for the Minotaur, and for Pasiphaë (q.v), the wooden cow. To escape the wrath of Minos, he fitted wings to his son, Icarus, and himself, and fled across the sea. Icarus flew too near the sun, the wax which fastened the wings melted, and he was drowned in the Icarian Sea. Dædalus escaped to Italy, where he built the Temple of Apollo at Cuma, and then crossed to Sicily, where local legend attributed to him many architectural works. It seems useless to seek any historical basis for the story of Dædalus, though it is very probable that Crete exercised an important influence on early Greek art. Consult: Kuhnert, Dædalus (Leipzig, 1886); Pottier, in Daremberg and Saglio, Dictionnaire des antiquités (Paris, 1873); and Robert, "Die Daidaliden," in Archäologische Märchen (Berlin, 1886).

DEDALUS OF SICYON, sish'i-on. A Greek sculptor, who lived in the first half of the fourth century B.C., probably the son and, according to Pausanias, also a pupil of Patrocles of Sicyon. His earliest work mentioned was a "Trophy," erected at Olympia by the Eleians to commemorate a victory over the Lacedæmonians. His other productions include the "Cowering Venus," probably the prototype of the familiar copies in the Louvre and Vatican Museums, the figures of "Two Boys Using the Strigil," and the portrait statues of several of the victors in the Olympian games.

DÆD'ICU'RUS. See GLYPTODON.

DÆMON'ELIX (Neo-Lat., from Gk. Saluwv, daimon, demon + Mış, helix, spiral). A problematic fossil found in great numbers in the sandstones of the Loup Fork Tertiary of northwestern Nebraska and adjacent portions of Wyoming, and known to the ranchmen of the vicinity by the name of 'Devil's cork-screws.' The fossil ranges through a thickness of about 250 feet of sandstones and varies in form from delicate

fibrous structures in the lowermost beds, through cylindrical, spherical, cake-like, and irregularly twisted forms in successively higher horizons, till in the uppermost beds it assumes the form of a vertical left or right-handed spiral spring, 2 to 10 feet high, with or without a central axis, and usually with a more or less curved fusiform or cylindrical trunk,' 3 to 20 feet long, that rises obliquely from the base of the spiral. The fibrous forms penetrate the sandstone and are also found traversing the surfaces of skulls and bones of fossil mammals entombed in the

same beds. The spiral screws are wonderfully regular in their proportions, both as to the angle of pitch of the spiral and as to the increase in diameter of the same from bottom to top. The whole mass of the fossil consists of an aggregation of twisted plant-fibres, which on examination with a microscope prove to have a simple cellular structure like that of parenchyma tissue. This cellular structure has been found in all parts of the fossil, and clearly indicates its vegetable nature. The beds in which the Dæmonelix is found are of lacustrine origin, and it is possible that the fossil is of algal affinity. Prof. E. H. Barbour, the discoverer of Dæmonelix, has

described it fully in a paper on the "Nature, Structure, and Phylogeny of Dæmonelix," in the Bulletin of the Geological Society of America, vol. viii. (Rochester, 1897).

DAENDELS, dün'děls, HERMAN WILLEM (1762-1818). A Dutch general. He was born at Hattem, Gelderland, where he practiced law and took part in the revolutionary disturbances in France, he rendered important service to Duthat broke out in 1787. Compelled to seek refuge mouriez in 1793, in the latter's campaign against Holland, was made brigadier-general, and, after the proclamation of the Batavian Republic, entered its service as lieutenant-general. In 1799 he commanded a division of the Republican army, which compelled the Anglo-Russian forces to surrender. Hostile intrigues induced him to leave the service in 1803, but at the outbreak of the war in 1806 he was reinstated in his former rank by the King of Holland, and served against and became successively Governor of Münster, the Prussians. He now occupied East Friesland, commander-in-chief of the Dutch cavalry, marshal of Holland, and Governor-General of the Dutch East India possessions. This last office he held from 1808 to 1811, and discharged his duties with great ability and prudence. He partici pated in the Russian campaign of 1812-13, and distinguished himself by his stalwart defense of Modlin. On the overthrow of Napoleon, his services were secured by the new King of Holland, William I., who intrusted him with the organization of government in those colonies on the west coast of Africa which had been restored to the Dutch. In this capacity he labored with energy and success until his death. The work he published (1814) on his administration of Java was knowledge of that island. an important contribution to our

DAET, dä-ät'. A town of Luzon, Philippines, in the Province of Ambos Camarines. It is situated near the coast, 60 miles northwest of Nueva Cáceres. Population, in 1903, 13,423.

DAFFODIL. See NARCISSUS.

DAGAMI, då-gä'mê. A town of the island province Leyte, Philippines, 25 miles southwest of Tacloban. It is in a plain, near the eastern coast of the island. Population, in 1903, 12,591.

DAGE, däʼge, EDUARD (1805-83). A German painter, born in Berlin. He received his artistic training at the Academy of Berlin and under

Wachs. From 1861 until his retirement in 1875

he was acting director of the Royal Academy at Berlin. He executed some religious works, including frescoes in the chapel of the Schloss in Berlin. But he was more successful with genre and ideal subjects, such as "The Discovery of Painting" (1832; National Gallery, Berlin) and "The Compassionate Monk" (1836).

DAGGER (Icel. daggardr, dagger, from Ir. daigear, Welsh dagr, dagger, from Bret. dag, OGael. daga, knife). A short sword, or twoedged, sharp-pointed knife. It is one of the oldest forms of the arme blanche, and has its modern representative in the infantry swordbayonet. (See BAYONET.) In the Middle Ages soldiers often fought with sword or rapier and dagger, the latter being held in the left hand. (See FENCING.) The dagger proper has ceased to be part of the modern military equipment,

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DAGGERWING. One of the small, slender-tailed North American butterflies of the nymphalid genus Timetes.

DAGHESTAN, dä'ge-stän' (Pers., place of mountains, from Turk. dagh, tagh, mountain + Pers. stan, OPers. stāna, place, from stā, Skt. sthā, to stand). A province of Transcaucasia, Russia, bounded by the Caucasian Province of Terek on the north, the Caspian Sea on the east, Baku on the south, and the Caucasus mountain chain on the west (Map: Russia, G 6). Area, 11,332 square miles. A large portion of the territory belongs to the region of the Caucasus Mountains. The coast land is mostly level. Numerous short mountain streams cross Daghestan and fall into the Caspian Sea. There are a number of hot springs. The climate is moderate. In the lower portions of the territory some grain and fruit are raised. The mountains are well wooded. Sulphur is practically the only mineral worked. Cattle-raising receives much attention. The commerce is insignificant, and the transportation facilities inadequate. The population, in 1897, was 571,154, consisting mostly of Lesghians, Avars, and other Caucasian tribes. The Turkish Tatar element is, however, not unimportant. The Russians number about 10,000, and the Jews are about equally numerous. The natives are chiefly Mohammedans, and the educational facilities are very

meagre.

The seat of the provincial government is TemirKhan-Shura, and the chief commercial centres are Derbent and Petrovsk (q.v.), both on the coast. Until 1812 Daghestan formed a province of Persia, although the inhabitants enjoyed partial independence under native khans, and manifested their opposition to Persian rule by periodic revolts. It then passed into the nominal possession of Russia, whose authority was not established until after a fierce struggle of many years. Daghestan still continued to be ruled by native khans until 1868. The last outbreak of the natives against Russian rule occurred during the RussoTurkish War in 1877.

DAGNAN-BOUVERET, då'nyän' bōō'v'rå', PASCAL ADOLPHE JEAN (1852-). A French painter, born in Paris, January 7, 1852. He studied under Gérôme, and won his first important success with his Salon picture of 1870, "A Wedding at the Photographer's." In 1882 appeared "The Nuptial Benediction," and in 1884 "The Horse Pond," "The Consecrated Bread" (1886), which is in the Luxembourg, admirably displays his management of light in interiors, and the subject of the picture is painted with a sentiment that is poetic, yet quiet and serene. Bouveret was made Chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1885, and received the first medal at the Salon of 1899 fr his "Breton Women at the Pardon." "Madonna," is in the Munich Pinakothek (1900); and another is in the Met

ropolitan Museum. His work is characterized by a fine color sense and patient execution. Consult Modern French Masters, Van Dyke, (New York, 1896).

DAGO, dä'ge, or DAGDEN, däg'den. An island in the Baltic Sea, belonging to the Russian Government of Esthonia. It lies north of the island of Osel, is quadrilateral in shape, and covers an area of 370 square miles (Map: Russia, B 3). The surface is mostly low land, partly covered with marshes. Fishing and farming are the main industries. Population, in 1897, about 14,000, composed of Esthonians, Swedes, and Germans. Dagö belonged to Denmark until 1645, when it was acquired by Sweden, and was annexed to Russia in 1721.

DA'GO. A name originally given by sailors to Spaniards, Portuguese, and Italians in general. It is asserted to be a corruption of the Spanish name Diego, equivalent to the English name 'James,' or 'Jack. By others it is a title given exclusively to those born of Spanish parents. By others, again, it is thought to be purely a corruption or nickname derived from hidalgo, which came to be applied to any for tion of the word may have been, it is applied eigner from Latin Europe. Whatever the derivachiefly to the lower class of Italian immigrants in America.

DAGʻOBERT, Fr. pron. då'gô′bâr', I. ( ? 638). King of the Franks, son of Clotaire II. He ruled in Austrasia from 622 to 632, and in Neustria and Burgundy from 628 to 638. In 632 he gave Austrasia to his son Sigibert.

DAGOBERT, CHANSON DU ROI (Fr., song of King Dagobert). A French song, in which the characters are King Dagobert and Saint Eloi, his counselor. It became very popular as a political song, the couplets being altered to fit different political conditions. A notable version which sprang up in 1814, aimed at Napoleon, was suppressed by police regulations.

DA'GON. A god of the Philistines, and perhaps also of the Phoenicians. The references to this god in the Old Testament are too few and our knowledge of Philistine religion too scanty to enable us to identify the god. There was a temple dedicated to him at Gaza (Jud. xvi. 23) and another at Ashdod ( I. Sam. v. 2, etc.). From the description in the latter passage it would seem that Dagon had a head and hands, but the shape of his lower extremities is in doubt. Kimchi says that he was half man, half fish, but this may be due to the etymological explanation of Dagon from Hebrew dag, fish. Dagon, however, can also be compared with dagan, corn, and the god would thus become an agricul tural god, which is much more probable. It has been supposed by some that the man-fish figures on Assyrian monuments represent Dagon, but there is no warrant for this hypothesis. The figure in question is the Assyro-Babylonian god Ea, a water deity whose seat of worship was originally at Eridu, on the Persian Gulf. There is, however, a god Dagon who is associated with Anu, the god of heaven. It is not impossible that Dagon is a foreign deity introduced into Assyria and whose original character is there lost sight of. I. Sam. v. 5 mentions that the priests and worshipers never stepped on the threshold of the temple of Ashdod. Consult:

Menant, "Le mythe de Dagon," in the Revue de l'histoire des religions, vol. xi. (Paris, 1886).

by which means it is coated with a thin film of metallic gold, and thereby rendered so permanent that it requires a chemical solvent for its removal. It may be mentioned in conclusion that though Daguerre published in 1839 the first practicable process for taking pictures by the agency of light, his experiments would seem to have been suggested by the researches of Niepce, who, about 1820, obtained impressions on silver plates rendered sensitive by being coated with asphaltum saturated with oil of lavender. See PHOTOGRAPHY.

DAG'ONET, SIR. King Arthur's fool, in the "Round Table" legends. The Elizabethan dramatists frequently allude to him as a type of the court jester.

DAGUERRE, dåʼgâr', LOUIS JACQUES MANDÉ (1789-1851). A French painter and physicist, born at Cormeilles, Seine-et-Oise. He first became a scene painter under Degoti, and was so successful in this art that he began to paint extensive panoramas, and finally evolved the diorama, which attracted much attention. About 1829 he began to interest himself in the discoveries which became famous under his name. He entered into a correspondence with Nicéphore Niepce, who had been studying in the same direction since 1814. Together they invented the art of photography on metal, the well-known daguerreotype process, the improvement of which was to result in modern photography. Before the completion of their experiments Niepce died. In 1839 the discovery was made known, and immediately its value was appreciated. Daguerre was given a pension of 6000 francs and made a member of the Legion of Honor. While he was still laboring to bring his work nearer perfection he died suddenly at Petit-Brie-sur-Marne, near Paris. He wrote the following volumes descriptive of his inventions: Historique et description des procédés du daguerréotype et diorama (1839) and Nouveau moyen de préparer la couche sensible des plaques destinées à recevoir les images photographiques (1844). Consult Ernouf, Les inventeurs du gaz et de la photo graphie (Paris, 1885). See DAGUERREOTYPE PROCESS; PHOTOGRAPHY.

DAGUERREOTYPE (då-ger'ô-tip) PROCESS (Fr. daguerréotype, from Daguerre + Gk. TÚTOS, typos, impression). The original photographic process, as introduced by its inventor, Daguerre, in 1839. The pictures are positive or direct, though they appear as negative when viewed at certain angles, and are the result of the successive action of the vapors of iodine, bromine, and mercury upon a highly polished surface of chemically pure silver. The manipulations involved in conducting the process are: (1) Cleaning and polishing the plate; (2) rendering the plate sensitive; (3) exposing it in the camera; (4) developing the latent image; (5) fixing the picture.

A copper plate of moderate thickness is first coated with silver by electro-plating and polished as highly as possible; it is then exposed first to the vapor of iodine, and then to the vapor of bromine for a length of time, ascertained in practice by watching the succession of prismatic colors which begin to appear with the first contact of the vapor. The plate is then exposed in a camera, and the development of the latent image, which is the next operation, is effected by subjecting the plate to the action of the vapor of mercury, which attaches itself to the various parts of the picture in proportion as it has been acted on by the light. Those portions of iodide and bromide of silver unaffected by light are next removed by immersing the plate in a solution of hyposulphite of soda; and the picture is subsequently fixed and intensified by pouring over its surface a solution of hyposulphite of soda and chloride of gold, and applying heat;

D'AGUESSEAU, då'gè'so'. See AGUESSEAU. DAGUPÁN, dä'goo-pän'. A town of Luzon, Philippines, in the Province of Pangasinan, situated eight miles from Lingayen, near the Gulf of Lingayen (Map: Luzon, C 2). It is the terminal of the Manila-Dagupán Railway. surrounding region, generally level, is very fertile. Population, in 1903, 20,357.

The

DAHABEAM, dä ́hå-bē'à (Ar. dhahabiya, from dhahaba, to go). The name given to barges on the river Nile, much used by tourists, to whom they are hired by the week. They resem ble in their conveniences and comforts the houseboats so popular on English rivers.

1857). A Norwegian landscape painter, born at
DAHL, däl, JOHANN KRISTEN CLAUSEN (1788-
His parents wished
Bergen, February 24, 1788.
him to enter the Church, but he was determined
to tudy art, and in 1811 entered the Academy
at Copenhagen. In 1818 he entered the Acad-
emy at Dresden, and in 1821, after his return
from Italy, he was made professor there. He
was a pioneer in Norwegian landscape. Though
very rugged in style, he painted with a hard and
dry effect. In spite of this, he stood in the front
rank of his contemporaries, especially between
the years 1820 and 1830. He died at Dresden,
October 14, 1857. Among his most prominent
works are: "Danish Coast by Moonlight” (1828);
"Storm at Sea" (1823); "Great Norwegian
Landscape” (1850); and "Winter Landscape."
Consult Aubert, Maleren Professor Dahl 1788-
1857 (Christiania, 1892-94).

DAHL, VLADIMIR IVANOVITCH (1801-72). A Russian author, born in Lugansk (Government of Ekaterinoslav). He was educated at Dorpat, and in 1828-31 accompanied the Russian army in a medical capacity in the Turkish and Polish campaigns. Subsequently he was a Government official at Orenburg. His studies in Russian ethnography and philology are valuable, in particular his Dictionary of Existing Russian Dialects (4 vols., 1861-68; 2d ed. 1882). His works in belles-lettres were collected at Saint Petersburg in 1860-61 (8 vols.).

DAHLAK, då-läk', or DAHALAK, då håläk'. An archipelago (a dependency of Italy) just off Massowah, Abyssinia, consisting of a number of islands of coral, rock, and sand (Map: Africa, H 3). Three only have a permanent population. The entire area is about 420 square miles, the larger portion of which is taken up by the main island, Dahlak-el-Kebir, 32 miles long and 18 wide. The chief occupation is fishDomestic animals ing for pearls and sponges. are raised to some extent. The permanent population is about 1500, mostly Abyssinians.

DAHLBERG, däl'běrg, ERIK, Count (16251703). A Swedish military engineer, born in

Stockholm. Under Charles XI. he became director of fortifications. He rebuilt most of the works then existing with such skill as to be called the 'Vauban of Sweden.' He was appointed a royal councilor, a field-marshal, and in 1696 Governor of Livonia. Consult Schlözer, Schwedische Biographien (vol. i., Altona, 1760).

DAHLGREN, däl'gren, FREDRIK AUGUST (1816-95). A Swedish poet, born at Nordmark, August 20, 1816. He is the author of many popular dialect songs and ballads (3 vols., 1876) and of some successful dramas, of which Vermlåndingarne (1846) is most noteworthy. He was also a facile translator for the theatre and wrote a history of the Swedish stage.

DAHLGREN, dăl'gren, JOHN ADOLF (180970). An American naval officer, prominent on the Federal side during the Civil War. He was born in Philadelphia of Swedish parentage; entered the United States Navy as a midshipman in 1826; cruised for a time on the Macedonian and the Ontario; and from 1834 to 1838 was engaged in the United States Coast Survey work, for which his aptitude and training in mathematical studies had well fitted him. In 1837 he was promoted to the rank of lieutenant, but in the same year was forced by failing eyesight to leave the active service, and did not resume his duties until 1842. After a cruise of two years in the Mediterranean on board the Cumberland, he was assigned to the Ordnance Department, which absorbed the greater part of his energies from this time on, and of which he was twice chief-in 1862-63 and in 1868-70. In his many years of service he greatly increased the efficiency of the department and became espe

cially well known through his invention (1850) of the Dahlgren gun, which proved of the utmost value to the Government during the Civil War. In April, 1861, on the defection of Franklin Buchanan (q.v.), he succeeded that officer as commandant of the Washington Navy Yard, a position which he held until the fall of 1862, when he became chief of the Bureau of Ordnance. In February, 1863, he was raised to the rank of rearadmiral, and in July replaced Admiral Dupont as commander-in-chief of the South Atlantic blockading squadron, the greater part of which was engaged in the siege of Charleston, S. C. Soon after taking command, he, in coöperation with General Gillmore, the commander of the Federal troops near Charleston, succeeded in capturing Morris Island, silencing Fort Sumter, and completing the closing of the port. Finally, in February, 1865, Charleston was evacuated by the Confederates, and Dahlgren occupied Charleston Harbor, while General Schimmelpfennig took possession of the city. Soon afterwards he resigned as commander of the South Atlantic squadron, and from 1866 to 1868 commanded the South Pacific squadron. After finishing his second term as chief of the Bureau of Ordnance, he was placed in command, at his own request, of the United States Navy Yard in Washington, where several months later he died. In addition to many reports and magazine articles, he published: Thirty-two-Pound Practice for Ranges (1850); Systems of Boat. Armament in the United States Navy (1852); Naval Percussion Locks and Primers (1852); Ordnance Memoranda (1853); Shell and Shell Guns (1856); and an uncompleted volume entitled Notes on Maritime and

International Law was published posthumously in 1877. Consult Madeleine V. Dahlgren (his widow), Memoir of John A. Dahlgren (Boston, 1882).

DAHLGREN, dälʼgren, KARL FREDRIK (17911844). A Swedish humorist and poet whose ballads and songs are widely sung. He was born near Norrköping, June 20, 1791. Descriptions of natural scenes and the burlesque idyll are his fortes. Like Hood, whom in many ways he resembled, he published for some years an annual, The Muses' Almanac, as a receptacle for his stories and comic sketches. His sole novel, Nahum Fredrik Bergströms krönika (1831), is excellent. He died at Stockholm, May 2, 1844.

DAHLGREN, dăl'gren, MADELEINE VINTON (1835-98). An American author, wife of Admiral J. A. Dahlgren, born in Gallipolis, Ohio. Under the name of "Corinne," and later that of "Cornelia," she wrote many sketches and poems. She was one of the founders of the Literary Society of Washington, and at one time its vice-president. A list of her works includes the following: Idealities (1859); South Sea Sketches (1881); Etiquette of Social Life in Washington (1881); South Mountain Magic (1882); and Lights and Shadows of a Life (1886). She also rendered from the Spanish Donoso Cortes's Catholicism, Liberalism, and Socialism, and from the French the Pius IX. of Montalembert and the Executive Power of De Chambrun (1874), with a preface by James A. Garfield.

DAHLGREN GUN. The type of gun designed by Admiral Dahlgren after a series of experiments to determine the pressures at different parts of the bore. They were introduced into the Civil War. See BALLISTICS; GUNS, NAVAL; the Navy in 1852 and were in general use during

ORDNANCE.

A

DAHLIA, däl'yȧ or dal'yȧ (Neo-Lat.). genus of large perennial herbaceous plants of the natural order Compositæ, natives of Mexico. Most of the varieties in cultivation are derived from the species Dahlia variabilis and Dahlia Juarezii, the latter being the parent of the caetus forms. Dahlias were first brought to Madrid by Spanish botanists in 1789. The name was given in honor of Dahl, a Swedish botanist. The dahlia varies greatly under cultivation. Some 3000 varieties have been catalogued. Most of these have been the showy and fancy kinds with spherical, symmetrical flowers differing mainly in color. The cactus or decorative types are more chrysanthemum-like in form. Their introduction within recent years has done much to increase the popularity of the dahlia. The dahlia possesses a wide range of colors and lacks practically only sky-blue and kindred shades. It is propagated by division of the root, cuttings, and seed. The first method is that of the amateur, the second that of the commercial grower, and the last is used in the production of new varieties. In gardens the roots are planted 18 to 36 inches apart in any good soil and require ordinary cultivation. In the fall the roots are dug and stored in the cellar like po

tatoes.

A beetle injurious to dahlias (Diabrotica 12punctata) is illustrated under CORN-INSECTS.

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