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to the spirit of the Slavic languages. Among the inflectional peculiarities of the language the following are most noteworthy: In declension of nouns-loss of dual; confusion of various stems; confusion of case-endings; change of quality and quantity of the root-vowels. In conjugation it comes very close to the primitive Slavic, retaining both the infinitive and the supine. All past tenses are periphrastic, and the forms of the future are either periphrastic-in verbs of incomplete or imperfective action-or are represented by the present in verbs of completed or perfective action.

From the point of view of euphony, the Czech language stands lower than the Russian or Polish, although superior to the latter in some particulars, as in the comparative rarity of sibilants and the absence of nasal vowels.

SLOVAKIAN. Along with the Czech language must be mentioned the Slovakian language, spoken by 2,500,000 persons in northwest Hungary and in America. Its literature is only a century old, and its independent development was entirely due to the great wave of national reawakening that swept over Europe at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. The movement, communicated to the Czech language, spread to the kindred Slovakian. In spite of the serious opposition on the part of such prominent Bohemians as Havliček, Šafařik (q.v.), and Kollar (q.v.), himself a Slovak, a Slovakian literature was established. The pioneer of the movement was Antonin Bernolák (1762-1813), whose Dissertatio Philologica-Critica de Literis Slavorum, Grammatica Slavica (Presburg, 1790), and Lexicon Slavicum Bohemico - Latino - Germanico - Hungaricum (6 vols., Buda, 1825-27) supplied the foundation for Slovak literature. The other great names are: the poet Jan Holly (1785-1849), Ljudevit Stur (1815-56), Josef Hurban, and Michael Hodž, who brought the language to its high standard of literary perfection. Among the more recent writers the following deserve especial mention: the famous Martin Hattala, one of the foremost of Slavic linguists; Svetozár Hurban Vajansky, son of Josef Hurban; the lyric poet Orsag Hvězdoslav, and the novelist Kukučin, a powerful portrayer of popular life and manners. language in the works of these writers, though closely kindred to the Czech, exhibits many welldefined peculiarities which justify its classification as a separate branch. There are numerous works that are not found in the Czech language, and many features bring it nearer to the Russian, Polish, and Servian than to the Czech. Ethnographically considered, the Slovaks are yielding before the march of the stronger and politically dominant Hungarian nationality; but Sloaoak literature has received too strong a start to allow of any doubt as to its future development.

The

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Grammars of the Czech language: Dobrovský, Lehrgebäude der böhmischen Sprache (Prague, 1819); Hattala, Srovnávací mluvnice jazyka českého a slovenského (ib., 1857); Gobauer, Hláskosloví jazyka českého (ib., 1876); id., Mluvnice česka pro školy střední (ib., 1890), excellent; id., Historická mluvnice jazyka českého (ib., 1894, 1896-98),-in all four volumes are promised by the author of this epoch-making work; Vymazal, Böhmische Grammatik für deutsche Mittelschulen und Lehrer

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CZECH or BOHEMIAN LITERATURE. Among the Slavic literatures the Czech is inferior to the Russian or the Polish (qq.v.), although chronologically it precedes them both.

First Period (to 1410).-The earliest literature of the Czech language came into existence with the introduction of Christianity in Bohemia, in 865, by Cyril and Methodius, the apostles of the Slavs. The earliest extant monument is the Kyrie Eleison Hospodine pomiluj ny (Lord, have mercy upon us). Greek Christianity and the Cyrillic alphabet (see KIRILLITSA), however, gave way to Latin Catholicism and Roman script. The famous Grüneberg manuscript (eighth or ninth century), the Judgment of Libusha, and the Königinhof manuscript (thirteenth or fourteenth century), discovered by Hanka in 1817, are the only remains in the native tongue which belong to this period, and their authenticity is somewhat doubtful. The influence of the Teutonic knights was growing rapidly among the natives, and the result was that until about the fourteenth century vernacular literature was entirely superseded by Latin. At the end of the thirteenth century a Czech translation of the Latin Alexandreis of Gualterus de Insulis (Philip Gaultier de Châtillon) was made, and to the early years of the following century belong Czech versions of two episodes from the Arthurian legend Tristram, according to Eilhart of Oberge and Gottfried of Strassburg, and Taudarias and Floribella, after Pleier. Original works in Czech are the famous Rhymed Chronicle of Bohemia, by Dalimil, of 1314, and the romantic story Tkadleček (The Weaver), written in strikingly beautiful prose about the end of the fourteenth century. Other works that contrib uted to the development of the literature were translations of the travels of Marco Polo and Sir John Mandeville. The original writers of the period are: Thomas Štitný (1325-1410), one of the first alumni of the University of Prague, which was founded in 1348; Andrew of Duba, and the poet Flaška. Štitný exercised a great influence over religion and literature in Bohemia, and, properly speaking, paved the way for the later Hussite movement. Andrew of Duba is the reputed author of The Book of the Old Lord Rosenberg and The Exposition of the Law of the Bohemian Land. Smil Flaška, Lord of Pardubitz, composed didactic and satirical poems— Father's Advice to His Son; Contest Between Water and Wine; Disp Between Body and Soul; New Council; and The Groom and the Scholar. They abound in local allusions, and are a rich mine of information for the culture history of the country.

in the anonymous Old Bohemian Annals, embracing the period of 1378-1527. Adam Veleslavin (1545-99), whose Historical Calendar is his bestknown work, represents the highest type among these historians. Vaclav Hájek (?-1553) is the author of a Chronicle more interesting than accurate. Jan Blahoslav, who has been mentioned above, wrote an excellent history of the Moravian Brethren, of whom he was a bishop. He is also famous for his supervision of the Czech translation of the Bible from the original tongues, which is for the Czech what the King James Version of the Bible is for the English. Blahoslav did not live to see his work printed; it was published in six volumes in 1579-93, at the expense of Jan of Zerotin, a Moravian patron of letters, and is known as the Kralitz Bible. The unusual vigor displayed in the domain of prose and the widening of the intellectual horizon were naturally communicated to the field of poetry. Prince Hynek Poděbrad (1452-92) wrote his May Dream and other poems which won favor. Nicholas Dačicky (1555-1626) composed a satirical poem, Prostopravda, and many works of an historical character. Among the religious poets Jan (1500-72), a Moravian bishop, deserves special mention. The greatest poet of the latter part of this period, which is known as the 'Golden Age,' was Simon Lomnický (1552- after 1622). His works include didactic and satirical poems and sacred dramas. Chief among them are the satire Cupid's Arrow, for which the King, Rudolph II., ennobled him and granted him an annuity; and the didactic Short Precept for a Young Householder, which is full of valuable allusions to the manners and customs of the time.

Second Period (1410-1620).-The Golden Age of Czech literature.

The reformer John Huss, who, by the religious movement which he inaugurated, contributed so powerfully toward the assertion of nationality by the Czechs, gave an immense impulse to the development of Czech literature, and 1410-the year of his open breach with Rome-is commonly considered the beginning of a new era. Though a master of the Latin tongue, Huss preferred Czech for works which were designed for the people as a whole, and the language received at his hands a perfection which it had never before attained. Since his time the Czech has undergone comparatively little change from a linguistic point of view. Huss adopted as the basis the speech in actual use around Prague. He contributed, moreover, to the development of the language by grammatical works like his Czech Orthography (pub. lished in 1857 by Sembera). After the death of Huss the Moravian Brethren assiduously culti vated the spirit of nationalism, and directed their energies to developing their native idiom. Among these champions of the people, the following names are the most noteworthy: Petr Chelčický (1390-1460), a pupil of Huss, was the theoretical expounder of his master's doctrines. In his works, such as The Net of Faith and Book of Expositions of Sunday Lessons, various religious and political questions are treated in a surprisingly liberal manner. Other writers of distinction of this period are Victorin Cornelius Všehrd (1460-1520), the author of Nine Books of Laws in Bohemia, and Ctibor Cimburg (1437-94), who wrote the famous Tovačov Book-only two out of a long line of famous jurists, who devoted their time and labors to the scientific exposition and systematization of Bohemian law. Their works are written in masterly style, and contributed much to the progress of the Czech juridical language. These two, with several others, constituted the Hussite minority among the humanists who made their appearance in Bohemia with the Renaissance. The other, more numerous faction of the humanists, was, strange as it may seem, solidly opposed to the doctrines of Huss. Among these were Bohuslav of Lobkovic (1462-1510) and Řehoř Hrubý of Jelení (1450-1514). Lobkovic collected the most remarkable library of his time, wherein he was greatly helped by the introduction of printing in Bohemia in 1468, when the Trojan Chronicle, the first book to be printed in the Czech language, appeared at Pilsen. Lobkovic and his contemporaries laid all subsequent Bohemian literature under deep obligations. They translated Greek and Latin classics, as Cicero, Seneca, Isocrates; wrote Latin poems; compiled lexicographical works, like the Lexicon Symphonum, of the Czech, Greek, Latin, and German languages, by Siegmund Hrubý (1497-1554), son of Řehoř Hruby. Grammatical studies of the Czech language were embodied in Jan Blahoslav's (1523-71) Czech Grammar (1571). It contains disquisitions on the subject of how to translate idiomatically various words, phrases, constructions, etc. Literary and scientific activity was at its height, and men of science, like Tycho de Brahe and Kepler, made Bohemia their home. The Bohemian historians of this period combined with their patriotic zeal a scientific preparation and seriousness of purpose which made their work especially valuable and reliable. They found their prototype

Third Period (1620-1774).-In the battle at the White Mountain in 1620, the Bohemians lost their political independence, and Ferdinand I. of Austria, seven years later, made Catholicism the State religion of Bohemia. The works of the Protestant writers that had made the 'Golden Age' so brilliant were now seized everywhere and destroyed. Nevertheless, it was during the opening years of this period that Czech literature reached its highest stage of purity and finish in the works of Karl Zerotin and Jan Komenský. Karl Žerotin (1564-1636), great as are his polemical and historical writings, acquired a lasting fame through his enormous correspondence, in which he stands in the very first rank with the few famous letter-writers of the world. Jan Amos Komenský (see COMENIUS) (1592-1670), who became one of the greatest authorities on questions of pedagogy, spent his life in exile, like Karl Zerotin. His Magna Didactica; Janua Linguarum Reserata Aurea; and Informatorium, form his permanent contributions to the domain of pedagogy, philosophy, and religious controversy, and they advanced materially the stylistic standard of Czech literature. His purely literary work, Labyrinth of the World and Paradise of the Heart, is more important as a product of pure literature. All the other writers of this period are of little importance. The systematic efforts of the Hapsburgs to crush the Czechs were successful. Higher society became Germanized, the Czech language was heard only in out-of-the-way hamlets, and Czech books became a great rarity. The works of the Jesuit writers of the period, who employed the Czech language for religious propaganda among the

masses-Sturm, Berlička, Steyer, and Koniaš are full of barbarisms, monstrous forms and words. In 1774 Maria Theresa enforced by a decree the use of German in the intermediate schools as the language of instruction.

Czech language, and his numerous prose works, among which that On the Literary Reciprocity Between the Families and Dialects of the Slavic Nation (1831) advocated literary Panslavism (q.v.). Šafařik (1795-1861) was one of the greatest philologists the Slavic countries have produced. Among his works, his Slavic Antiquities (1837) and editions of many literary monuments have all been of importance. Palacký (1798-1876) is an historian, whose History of Bohemia (5 vols., 1836-67) is an ideal combination of critical judgment, profound erudition, and striking style. Along with them may be mentioned Hanka (1791-1861), who discov ered the manuscripts of Grüneberg and Königinhof, and published a number of other important remains of Czech antiquities. The greatest poet of the period is František Ladislav Čelakovsky (1799-1852), whose Echoes of Russian and Czech songs, and the long poem The Rose of a Hundred Leaves, together with the poetic works of Kollar, were most responsible for the reawakening of the poetic spirit of the nation. Other names of importance are those of the lyric poets Jablonský and Vinařický, the epic writers Wocel, Marek, Hollý, and Erben, and dramatists like Klicpera and Tyl. Poetry seems to have absorbed all the best energies of the nation at that time, and the novel, which holds the chief place of honor in the literature of all other nations, did not reach any high level of development. Most works of fiction dealt with themes from Bohemian history. The most noted novelists are Chocholoušek, Tyl, and especially Božena Němcova (1820-62), whose themes are simple country life. The masterpiece of the latter, Babička (Grandmother), has been translated into English.

Fourth Period-Renaissance (1774 to the present day). The forcible suppression of the native tongue in the common schools of Bohemia produced results entirely opposite to those which were expected, and met a vigorous protest. Count Kinsky published in German a plea for the Czech language under the title Erinnerung über einen hochwichtigen Gegenstand (1774), which was followed in 1775 by Balbin's Dissertatio Apologetica Lingua Slovenica, published by Pelzel. Pelzel himself (1734-1801) was one of a number of young scholars who devoted themselves to the study of their native tongue and the history of their country. Thus appeared Fr. Thomsa's Böhmische Sprachlehre (1782) and K. I. Thám's Kurzgefasste böhmische Sprachlehre (1785), which laid the foundations for the study of the language. Pelzel's own contributions were: Typus Declinationum Linguæ Bohemica Novo Methodo Dispositarum (1793); Grundsätze der böhmischen Grammatik (1795); and especially his historical works, of which the New Bohemian Chronicle was chief. These latter works awakened interest in their own history among the Czechs. A chair of Czech language was established at Prague in 1793 (Pelzel). The greatest name of this period of Czech literature is that of Josef Dobrovský (1753-1829) (q.v.), the 'patriarch of Slavic philology.' In his works on grammar and literary history he gathered enormous lexical materials, and the historical and comparative method brought him to the discovery of the richness of the ancient classical language, to which his main interests were devoted. It is true that he made a Collection of Czech Proverbs in 1804, but all his works were written in German. Such men as Prochazka, Rulik, Puchmayer, Jan Nejedlý, V. Nejedlý, Hněvkovsky, and others wrote pamphlets for the instruction of the people, compiled dictionaries and grammars, translated the classics of European literature, published periodicals, composed plays for the theatre, and even poetry in the sentimental style of the idyls of Gessner. These attempts met with very serious obstacles, owing to the imperfect state of the language, which was practically the old language of the classical period, and which naturally lacked terms for new ideas and concepts that had come into vogue during the third period. The language was brought to its final state of perfection in the works of Jungmann (q.v.) (1773-1847), the most illustrious name of the early renascence. His translation of Paradise Lost (1811), an almost incredible tour de force, widened the horizon of poetical speech; his Czech Dictionary contained the vocabulary of the language; while his History of Czech Literature presented a complete survey of all the literary remains. He was particularly happy in coining new words, and whenever this expedient was found insufficient he borrowed from other Slavic languages, especially Russian and Polish. The four other names that are most closely linked with that of Jungmann as leaders of the renascence of Bohemia are Kollar, Šafařik Palacký, and Hanka. Kollar (q.v.) (1793-1852), poet and scholar, is famous for his Daughter of Slava (1824), one of the poetic masterpieces of the

The reorganization of the Austrian Empire on a constitutional basis in 1860-61, which allowed the people of Bohemia scope in the development of political life, and the furtherance of national aspirations, marks the beginning of the modern period in Czech literature. The foundation of a new national theatre at Prague and the establishment of a Czech university by the side of the old university (1882) gave a great stimulus to literary activity. Little by little the narrow 'national' current gave way to cosmopolitanism, with Mácha as the leading representative of Byronism. The recognized head of the young generation is Viteslav Hálek (1835-74). The greatest living poet is Vrchlický (born 1853), whose A Year in the South; Pilgrimages to Eldorado; and the historical dramas Brothers and Drahomira, as well as translations from European classics, are specially noteworthy. Equal in popularity is the poet and novelist Svatopulk Čech, whose best-known work is Arabesky. Zever, Heyduk, Arbes, Vlček, and the ladies Eliška Krásnohorská (born 1847) and Karolina Světlá (born 1830) are the most popular novelists of the present day. Great activity has also been exhibited in the departments of science, philology, and literary history, the most important names being those of Jireček, Šembera, Gebauer, and Patera.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. In Bohemian: J. Jungmann, Historie literatury české (Prague, 1825); K. Sabina, Dějepis literatury českoslovanské (Prague, 1863-66); J. Jireček, Rukovět k dějinám literatury české (Prague, 1874); A. Šembera, Dějiny řeči a literatury české (4th ed.,

Vienna, 1874); K. Tieftrunk, Historie literatury české (3d ed. Prague, 1885); Fr. Bayer, Siručné dějiny literatury české (Olmütz, 1879); Bačkovský, Zevrubné dějiny českého pismenictvi doby nové (Prague, 1888). German: Pypin and Spasovich, Geschichte der slawischen Litteraturen, bd. 2, abt. 2 (Leipzig, 1884). English: Francis, Count Lützow, A History of Bohemian Literature (New York and London, 1899).

CZEGLÉD, tse glad. A market-town of Hungary, about 46 miles southeast of Budapest (Map: Hungary, F 3). The inhabitants are chiefly employed in agricultural pursuits, the surrounding country being particularly adapted to the raising of grain and fruit. Considerable red wine is produced. Population, in 1890, 27,549; in 1900, 29,905.

CZEKANOWSKI, chě ká-nov'skê, ALEXANDER (1832-76). A Russian explorer. He was born in Volhynia, and studied at Kiev and Dorpat. Banished to Siberia in 1863 because of his participation in the Polish insurrection of that year, he was five years later permitted to settle at Irkutsk. Here, as the agent of the Imperial Geographical Society, he began a series of geological investigations extending along the Lower Tunguska, the Olenek, and the Lena, the results of which were published chiefly in Petermann's Mitteilungen (1874 et seq.). Amnestied by the Government, he returned to Saint Petersburg, where, during an attack of melancholy, he committed suicide.

CZELAKOWSKY, chě'lå-kôv'ske. See CELA

KOVSKY.

CZENSTOCHOWA, chěn ́stô-Kð’vå. A town of Russian Poland in the Government of Piotrkow, situated near the left bank of the Warthe, on the Warsaw-Vienna Railway. It consists of the old and the new town, and is of considerable industrial importance. There are a number of large cotton-mills, iron-foundries, paper-mills, breweries, flour-mills, etc. Population, in 1900, 53,650. Czenstochowa owes its fame to the adjacent monastery of the Order of Saint Paul the Hermit, situated on the Warthe and visited annually by over 200,000 pilgrims. The chief attraction is the picture of the Virgin, made of dark wood and known among the Catholics of Poland and Russia as the Black Virgin. It is supposed to be of Byzantine origin and to have been brought to the monastery at the end of the fourteenth century. The monastery was formerly fortified, and in 1655 withstood a siege of thirty-eight days by the Swedish troops.

CZERMAK, chĕr'måk, JAROSLAW (1831-78). A Bohemian painter, brother of Johann Nepomuk Czermak, the physiologist. He was born in Prague, and studied in that city under Christian Ruben, in Antwerp under Gallait, in Brussels, and finally in Paris under Robert Fleury. His early paintings treated chiefly subjects from the history of Bohemia, but later he devoted himself more and more to genre scenes. After a journey in 1858 through Hungary, Croatia, Bosnia, DaÏmatia, and Montenegro, when he made abundant studies in national types and costumes, the life of the southern Slavs became his favorite field. Among his most noteworthy pictures are: "Murder of Wallenstein's Companions at Eger," "Slavonian Emigrants," "Norman Fishermen in a Boat Reading the Bible" (1850); "The

Court Poet of Rudolf II. Begging on the Bridge of Prague" (1854); "Hungarian Swineherd" (1854); "Montenegrin Woman and Child" (1861); "Rape of a Herzogovinian Woman by Bashi-Bazouks" (1867); "Return of Montenegrins to Their Devastated Village" (1877).

CZERMAK, JOHANN NEPOMUK (1828-73). A German physician, born in Prague. He studied at the universities of Vienna, Breslau, and Würzburg, and was appointed a lecturer on physiology and microscopic anatomy at the University of Prague. Subsequently he held a professorship of zoology and comparative anatomy at Graz (185556), and of physiology at Cracow (1856-58), Pest (1858-60), Jena (1865-69), and Leipzig (186973). At Leipzig he erected at his own expense a laboratory and an auditorium specially arranged for demonstrations in experimental physiology. He is best known for having made notable improvements in the laryngoscope and for having been the first systematically to employ that instrument. His publications include Der Kehl kopfspiegel und seine Verwertung für Physiologie und Medezin (1860; 2d ed. 1863). Consult the biography by Springer in the Gesammelte Schriften (2 vols., Leipzig, 1879).

CZERNOWITZ, chěr'nô-vits (Ruman. Cernăuz). The capital of the Austrian Crownland of Bukowina, situated on a hill near the right bank of the Pruth, about 164 miles east-southeast of Lemberg, not far from the Rumanian and Russian frontiers (Map: Austria, J 2). Most of the public buildings are quite modern. Among the more noteworthy ones may be mentioned the Archiepiscopal Palace, a handsome Byzantine structure, the Greek Oriental Cathedral, copied from the Church of Saint Isaac in Saint Petersburg, the Armenian Church, and the sumptuous Jewish synagogue in Moorish style. Czernowitz is the seat of a Greek Oriental archbishop. Its educational institutions include a university founded in 1875 (638 students in 1905), with a library of 94,000 volumes, a gymnasium, industrial and trade schools. It has manufactures of machinery and oil, sawmills and breweries. Population, in 1890, 54,171; in 1900, 67,622, of whom 34,441 were Germans, 13,030 Ruthenes, 9400 Rumanians, and 8601 Poles; the 21,587 Jews having been counted with the Germans or the Poles according to the language used by them. Up to 1774, when it was occupied by the Austrians, who made it the capital of the province of Bukowina, Czernowitz was an unimportant village.

CZERNY, KARL (1791-1857). An Austrian pianist and composer, born in Vienna. He was at first instructed by his father, Wenzel Czerny (1752-1832), then studied under Beethoven, with whom he was a great favorite, and under Clementi. At the early age of fifteen he was in great demand as a teacher and also rapidly won high reputation as a virtuoso. Among his pupils

were Liszt, Thalberg, Jaell, and Kullak. He left over 1000 compositions, of which his instructive works for the pianoforte are of permanent value. They are "Die Schule der Geläufigkeit," op. 299; Virtuosen," op. 365; "Die Schule der Finger"Tägliche Studien," op. 337; "Die Schule des fertigkeit," op. 740; and others.

CZERNY, VINCENZ (1842-). An Austrian surgeon, born at Trautenau, Bohemia. He stud

as

ment for contracting a secret marriage in 1844, he resigned his vicariate in Silesia, and founded an independent community of Catholics, known the 'Christlich-Apostolisch-Katholische Gemeinde.' Although he maintained his own views, he participated in the struggles of the German Catholics, and upon their downfall devoted himself to quiet religious activity. His most important work is the Nachlass des sterbenden Papstṭums (12th ed., 1870). He defended his defection from the Orthodox Church of Rome in the work entitled Rechtfertigung meines Abfalles von der römischen Hofkirche (1845).

ied at Vienna, and until 1871 acted as Billroth's assistant. In the latter year he was made professor of surgery at Freiburg-im-Breisgau, and in 1877 at Heidelberg. He introduced important improvements in operative surgery and published the following works: Ueber die Beziehungen der Chirurgie zu den Naturwissenschaften (1872); and Beiträge zur operativen Chirurgie (1878).

CZERNY (chĕr'nê) GEORGE (i.e. Black George) (1766-1817). The leader of the Servians in their struggle for independence, generally known as KARA (Turk. kara, black) GEORGE. He was born December 21, 1766, in the neighborhood of Belgrade. In 1787 he was involved in a rising against Turkish rule, but later settled down as a cattle-dealer. In August, 1801, a band of Janizaries broke into his dwelling and plundered it, and in retaliation he collected a band of malcontents, and entered upon a course of guerrilla warfare. Gradually his followers increased; in 1804 he captured the fortress of Shabatz, and subsequently invested Belgrade. In the beginning of 1806 he routed the Turks at the rivers Drina and Morava, and captured Belgrade in December, 1806. The cause of Servia was aided by the war which at this time broke out between Russia and Turkey. After the Treaty of Slobosic (July 8, 1808), Czerny George was elected Governor by the people, and recognized as Prince of Servia by the Sultan. The French invasion of Russia in 1812 compelled the latter country to let Servia shift for itself. Hostilities recommenced; the Turks were successful, and Czerny had to flee to Russia. He afterwards went to Austria, where he lived for some time. Meanwhile the freedom of Servia was secured through the leadership of Milosh Obrenovitch, and in July, 1817, when Kara George returned, intending, as some suppose, to rally his partisans round him for the furtherance of his ambitious schemes, he was murdered at the instigation of Prince Milosh. This was the beginning of a feud between the families of Obrenovitch and Karageorgevitch which lasted into the Twentieth Century. Kara George's second son, Alexander Karageorgevitch, was Prince of Servia from 1842 to 1858, but was

finally expelled and the Obrenovitch family

held the throne till 1903 when after the assassination of Alexander I. (q.v.), Peter Karageorgevitch, grandson of Czerny George, assumed the crown as Peter I. (q.v.). See SERVIA.

CZERNYSCHEWSKY, chèrʼni-shěv'ske. See

TCHERNYSHEVSKI,

CZERSKI, cher'skê, JOHANNES (1813-93). A German divine, one of the founders of German Catholicism. He was born at Warlubien, West Prussia, and was educated at the Priests' Seminary at Posen. Sentenced to penitential confine

CZOLGOSZ, chŏl'gosh, LEON (1873-1901). A Polish-American anarchist, the assassin of William McKinley, twenty-fourth President of the United States. He was born at Detroit, Mich., and was by trade an iron-worker. He was tried before the criminal term of the State Supreme Court at Buffalo, N. Y., on eptember 23-24, 1901, and convicted of murder in the first degree. No witnesses were summoned for the defense, but ex-Judge Lewis, of counsel for the prisoner, made a brief address to the jury. The assassin was killed by electricity in the State prison at Auburn, N. Y., on October 29, 1901. See MCKINLEY, WILLIAM.

CZÖRNIG, cher'nîK, KARL, Baron von Czernhausen (1804-89). An Austrian statistician, born at Czernhausen, Bohemia. He studied at Prague and Vienna, and in 1841 became director of the bureau of administrative statistics at Vienna. In 1859 he was appointed chief of the section of railway affairs in the Ministry of Commerce. In 1863-65 he was president of the central statistical commission, organized by himself. He published an ethnographic chart of the Empire (with text), 1855, and other works.

CZUCZOR, tsoo'tsôr, GERGELY (1800-66). An Hungarian poet and linguist. He was born at Andód (county of Neutra), became a member of the Benedictine Order, and from 1825 to 1835 was a professor successively in the gymnasia at Raab and Komorn. In 1835 he was appointed second secretary and archivist of the Hungarian Academy,

by which he was commissioned in 1844 to prethe great lexicon of the Hungarian lanpare guage (6 vols., 1861-74). Four volumes were edited by him, the remaining two by János Fogarassy (q.v.). His disregard of the historical and comparative method in philology often impaired the scientific value of his work as a lexicographer, particularly in connection with ety mologies. He was imprisoned in 1849 for the publication of his Riado, a poem calling Hungarians to action on behalf of their liberties, but obtained his release under the amnesty of 1850. His poems appeared collected in 3 vols. at Pest in 1850.

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