Imágenes de páginas

hesive. The stamens exhibit a number of peculiarities, in some cases having bilocular anthers; in others various modifications are shown, the anthers adhering in some and even becoming united into a column with two ring-shaped pollen - chambers in the genus Cyclanthera. The fruit, called a pepo, is peculiar; is more or less succulent, has a fleshy rind, and the seed-bearing placenta either surround a central cavity or send prolongations into it. The seeds are flat, and more or less imbedded in the pulp, which may be dry or juicy. The cotyledons are large and leaf-like. This order contains nearly 90 genera, with about 650 species, many of which produce edible fruits and are cultivated in temperate regions. To this order belong the cucumber, melon, gourd, pumpkin, squash, vegetable marrow, etc. (qq.v.). In some, important medicinal properties abound, as in bryony, colocynth, momordica, etc. (qq.v.). Telfairia pedata, a tropical African species, is cultivated for its seeds, which are used for food, and from which oil is expressed. The chief genera are Fevillea, Telfairia, Melothria, Luffa, Byronia, Cucumis, Lagenaria, Cucurbita, Echinocystis, Sicyos, Sechium, and Cyclanthera.

tory of Ashwell; and in 1678 installed prebendary of Gloucester. He died at Christ's College. Cudworth's chief work, entitled The True Intellectual System of the Universe (1678), advocates a Platonizing doctrine of philosophy, especially emphasizing the necessity of a teleological view, against the contention of the mechanists of the day, and defending the doctrine of innate ideas. From such views the remarkable group of which he was a leader obtained the name of the Cambridge Platonists (q.v.). A Treatise Concerning Eternal and Immutable Morality, which was first published by Dr. Chandler, Bishop of Durham, in 1731, champions the innate character of our moral ideas, which are held to cognize the objective reality of good and evil with the same immediateness and certainty which attends our geometrical knowledge. Consult: Martineau, Types of Ethical Theory, vol. ii. (Oxford, 1898); Lowrey, The Philosophy of Ralph Cudworth (New York, 1885); and Birch, Life, in the edition of Cudworth's works (Oxford and London, 1829).


CUDBEAR. See ARCHIL. CUDDALORE, kŭd'då-lôr', or KUDALUR, kud'a-loor'. The chief town in the southern division of Arcot, Madras, British India, on the estuary of the Southern Pennar, 15 miles south of Pondicherry and 100 south of Madras by rail (Map: India, D 6). The river, obstructed by a bar, admits only vessels of moderate size; but there is good anchorage a mile and a half off shore. There are a number of sugar-refineries, oilpresses, and paper-mills, and an extensive export trade in cotton and grain. Cuddalore was the scene of exciting struggles between the French and the English from 1758 to 1795, when it was finally acquired by the latter. Population, in 1891, 47,400; in 1901, 52,216.

CUDDAPAH, kŭd'då-pä'. See KADAPA. CUD'DY. In Spenser's Shepherd's Calendar, the shepherd to whom Colin Clout directs his arguments.

CUDILLERO, kōo'pe-lyä'rð. A maritime town in the Province of Oviedo, Spain, 20 miles northwest of the city of Oviedo. The harbor, protected by a jetty, has a lighthouse which marks its eastern point. It admits, however, only small craft. The port is engaged largely in fishing, and there are fish-curing establishments and manufactures of linen and chocolate; stockraising and agriculture also are carried on, and in the vicinity are mines of manganese. Population, in 1900 (commune), 10,160. CUDRAKA, shoo'dra-ká. The reputed author of the Sanskrit drama Mricchakatika (q.v.). See SODBAKA.

CUD WORTH, RALPH (1617-88). An English theologian and philosopher. He was born at Aller, in Somersetshire, and admitted pensioner of Emmanuel College, Cambridge, in 1632, where he took his degree of M.A. and became an eminent tutor. In 1645 he was appointed master of Clare Hall and regius professor of Hebrew; in 1654 he was chosen master of Christ's College; in 1662 appointed to the rec

CUENCA, kwan'kå. The capital of the Province of Azuay, Ecuador, situated on the Rio Matadero. 8640 feet above the level of the sea, 85 miles south-southwest of Quito (Map: Ecuador, B 4). It has straight streets, and contains, among the chief buildings, the cathedral, the high school (formerly a Jesuit college), the prison, and the Government building. It is the centre of a fertile grain, cotton, sugar, and cochineal producing region, and rich metal deposits are worked in the neighborhood. The most important manufactures are pottery, hats, and woolens, and a considerable trade in preserved fruits, cheese, and grain is carried on. Population, about 30,000. Cuenca was founded in 1557, on the site of the old native village Tumibamba, and in 1786 was created an episcopal see. There are numerous interesting Aztec remains in the vicinity. The mountain of Tarqui on the south was chosen in 1742 for determining the meridian line of La Condamine, Bouguer, and Godin. At the base of the mountain occurred the battle of Tarqui in 1828 between the Colombian and Peruvian forces.

CUENCA. A city of Spain, the capital of the province of the same name and the seat of a bishopric, about midway between Valencia and Madrid (Map: Spain, D 2). It is picturesquely situated, at an elevation of about 3000 feet, on the river Júcar, at the confluence of the Huescar, and is poorly built, with narrow, crooked streets. The walls are in ruins, and the city, once celebrated for industry and art, but faintly suggests its former prosperity. A fine bridge spans the Júcar, and there are a college and several notable churches, the most

pretentious of which is the Gothic Cathedral, with the Chapel of the Albornoces. The city has some manufacturing interests, and a trade in lumber and wine. Population, in 1901, 10,505.

Cuenca first appears in the history of the ninth century, under Saracen power. In 1177, after a long siege, it fell into Christian hands, though earlier in the century it had been captured, but retaken. It was granted the dignity of a municipality in 1257. The city was taken by the English in 1706 after bombardment, and in 1808 and 1810 was sacked and burned by the French-disasters which contributed materially

to its decline. In 1874 Cuenca fell into the power of the Carlists, who ravaged the city, infuriated by its stubborn resistance.

CUERNAVACA, kwâr'nå-vä'kä. The capital of the State of Morelos, Mexico, magnificently situated in the valley of the Cuernavaca, 47 miles south of Mexico City, and 5000 feet above sea-level (Map: Mexico, J 8). It contains a church built by Cortés, an agricultural academy, a fine Government building, a theatre (with a capacity for 2000 spectators), a hospital, and a literary institute. The city is the centre of a fertile district, and has extensive sugar-refineries and distilleries. Near by are the ruins of an Aztec temple, 400 feet high, composed of five terraces. Cuernavaca, at the advent of the Spaniards, was an old Indian village, and became, after its capture, the favorite residence of Cortés, his palace being still extant. In 1863 Maximilian made it his residence. It bears many marks of his royal favor, especially in its public gardens. Population, in 1895, 8747; in 1900, 9584.

CUERO, kwā'rð. A town and the countyseat of Dewitt County, Tex., 101 miles east-southeast of San Antonio; on the San Antonio and Aransas Pass and the Southern Pacific railroads (Map: Texas, F 5). It is in a rich agricultural belt, producing corn, rice, truck, and cotton, and has cotton gins and compresses, a cotton-mill, cottonseed-oil mills, machine-shops, a tannery, broom-factories, a creamery, etc. Population, 1900, 3422; 1906 (local est.), 4200.

CUERVO, kwâr'vo, José RUFINO (1844—). A Spanish-American author, born at Bogotá,

Colombia. He has made his home in Paris.


became an authority on the Spanish language, on which subject he published: Apuntaciones criticas sobre la lengua Bogotana (1872), and a critical edition of the Grámatica Castellana of Andrés Bello (1890).

CUESTAS, kwa'stås, JUAN LISBOA (18371905). A South American politician and a President of Uruguay, born at Paysandú. In 1879 he became collector of customs, in 1880 Secretary of the Treasury, in 1886 Secretary of State, and in 1891 Senator for Paysandú. He was appointed president of the Senate in 1897; in 1898, after the assassination of President Borda, was placed in charge of the provisional Government; and from 1899 to 1903 was President of the Republic.

CUEVA, kwā'và, HENRIQUEZ ARIAS DE SAAVEDRA, BALTAZAR DE LA (1626-86). A Spanish statesman. He was born in Madrid, and was a son of the Duke of Albuquerque. He was educat ed at the University of Salamanca, and successively became Councilor of State, Councilor of the Indies, Ambassador to Germany, and Viceroy of Peru, Tierra Firma, and Chile, in which capacity he introduced many beneficent reforms and greatly improved the condition of the


CUEVA, JUAN DE LA (1550-1607). A Spanish poet, born in Seville. Of the life of this poet very little is known. He left a quantity of works, in the form of plays, poems, letters, epigrams, romances, and histories. The plays are of the most value, as in them he departed from the classic model. and attempted a more romantic and less artificial type.

CUEVAS DE VERA, kwā'vås dâ vā'rå. A town of Spain, in the Province of Almería, 42 miles northeast of Almería (Map: Spain, D 4). the Almanzor, near its entrance into the MediIt is situated in a plain on the right bank of terranean, and is generally well built, with broad and regular streets. It has two spacious plazas, and among the principal edifices are the Incarnation, a handsome Doric structure, an old Moorish castle and the parish Church of A large number of persons dating from 1758. are employed in the silver-mines of the vicinity; agriculture and stock-raising are also important industries. There are some manufactures, principally of pottery. Population, in 1890, 20,341; in 1900, 20,603.

CUFA, kōō'få. A ruined city of Mesopotamia, in the Turkish Vilayet of Bagdad. It was founded by the Arab conquerors of Persia soon after the decisive battle of Cadesia in 636, and speedily became the political and intellectual capital of the early Caliphate. At the height of its prosperity it numbered from 150,000 to 200,000 inhabitants, for the most part of the pure Arab stock of Yemen. The schools of Cufa exercised the very greatest influence on the development of Arabian literature and theology, and its grammarians were the originators of the so-called Cufan script, which occurs frequently in Arabic manuscripts. Internal dissensions and the removal of the capital to Damascus brought about the decline of the city.


CUF FEE, PAUL (1759-1818). An American sea-captain, half Indian, half negro, born near New Bedford, Mass. He was a member of the Society of Friends, and used his wealth, acquired at sea, in the effort to encourage the colonization of his people in Sierra Leone. He carried out thirty-eight colonists on his own ship in 1815, and died while waiting for permission from England to make further settlements in the colony.

CUF FEY. A name formerly given to negroes in the West Indies, and common among the maroons of Jamaica.

CU'FIC WRITING. See KUFIC WRITING. CUI, kû'ê', CÉSAR ANTONOVITCH (1835-). A Russian composer and military engineer, born at Vilna. He studied at the gymnasium, where his father, a survivor of Napoleon's army of invasion, taught French. After studying music with Moniuszko (q.v.) for some six months at Vilna, he entered the School of Engineering and the Engineering Academy at Saint Petersburg, becoming subsequently professor of fortification in have been several grand dukes, the famous several military academies. Among his pupils Skobeleff, and Nicholas II. During the RussoTurkish War he was sent to examine the fortifications on the Danube. His report, Tour Notes of an Engineering Officer from the Theatre of Military Operations in European Turkey, was translated into several languages, and attracted considerable attention. Among his text-books the best-known are: A Short Manual of Field Fortification (7th ed. 1894), and A Short Historical Sketch of Permanent Fortification (1889). His musical studies he continued with Balakireff (q.v.), making his début with a Scherzo in F major for orchestra (1859).

body armor over buff coats. They carried swords and pistols, and their reins were strengthened with iron chains. The bodyguard of Napoleon III., Les Cent-Gardes, wore aluminum cuirasses. No cuirass is bullet-proof against a direct shot. See CAVALRY, where an historical sketch of mounted troops is given.

His opera The Prisoner of Caucasus (1857-58) and the comic opera The Mandarin's Son were performed privately, and exhibited no depart ures from established tradition. In 1864 he became musical critic of the Saint Petersburg Gazette. He championed the theories of the Young Russian school, attacking the conservative attitude of the critics, rejudging established reputations, subjecting everything to a keen and searching analysis. He received the nickname Musical Nihilist,' and his opera William Ratcliff (1869), based on Heine's drama, and embodying the new theories of 'melodic recitative,' met with severe criticism. Angelo (1876), based on Victor Hugo's drama, carried the theories even further, and met with a similar fate. In 1883 he rewrote The Prisoner of Caucasus, adding a new act, and the work had considerable success. Le Flibustier (1894), words by Richepin, was successful at the Paris Opéra Comique, and The Saracen was favorably received in 1899. His numerous songs, both to Russian and to French words, are veritable gems, while his pieces for solo instruments and for chorus enjoy great vogue. He was never fond of orchestration, and is far behind his Russian colleagues in that line, but the sincerity and passion of his works are unique. Few can equal him in delineating love in all its varied aspects. As a critic, in Russian periodicals and the French Revue et Gazette Musicale, Cui enjoys an enviable reputation. His La Musique en Russie (Paris, 1880) is the only sketch of Russian music written with authority, even though it is at times marred by the author's æsthetic views. The Russian Lied (1896) is a detailed study of all important Russian song-writers, with careful reference to both music and text. Consult: Countess de MercyArgenteau, César Cui (Paris, 1888); Pougin, Essai historique sur la musique en Russie (Turin, 1897).

CUIRASS, kwê-ras' or kwe- (Fr. cuirasse, from ML. coratium, breastplate, from Lat. coriaceus, leathern, from corium, leather). Originally a jerkin, or garment of leather for soldiers, so thick and strong as to be pistol-proof, and even musket-proof. The name was afterwards applied to a portion of armor made of metal, consisting of a backplate and a breastplate hooked or buckled together, with a piece joined to the back called a culet or garde de reines. For illustration,


CUIRASSIER, kwē'rås-sēr (Fr., from cuirasse, cuirass). In modern armies, the name given to certain soldiers of heavy cavalry. They are survivals of the troopers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, who wore helmet and cuirass. There are four regiments of cuirassiers in the Russian Army, and twelve regiments each in the German and French armies. (For illustration, see Plate of ARMOR.) The Russian cuirass is of iron, coated with copper, and weighs 30 pounds; the German is of white metal with a brass plate, and the French of steel with a brass plate, their respective weights being 13% and 16 pounds. There are no cuirassiers in the British Army, although the Life Guards and Royal Horse Guards wear dress cuirasses of steel, costing £3 6s. each, which are discarded on active service. In the time of Queen Mary there were heavy horsemen known as cuirassiers, who wore

CUISSART, kwé-särt' (OF., from cuisse, thigh, from Lat. coxa, hip). A variety of ancient armor worn by troopers. Cuissarts consisted of small strips of iron plate laid horizontally over each other round the thigh and riveted together.


CUITLAHUATZIN, kwēt-lå-wät-sēn', or An (1470-1520). Aztec prince, younger brother of Montezuma II. When the latter was seized by the Spaniards, Cuitlahuatzin was also for some time in their hands, As the acknowlbut was ultimately released. edged leader of the Aztecs after the capture of Montezuma, he led the famous attacks upon the He also directed the operaarmy of Cortés. tions of the Aztecs during the retreat of the Spaniards to the coast. He was afterwards elected to succeed Montezuma, but died of a pestilence succeeded by after his installation, and was Guatemotzin.

CUJA CIUS, properly JACQUES DE CUJAS, zhåk de ku'zhä', or CUJAUS, ku'zho (1522-90). A French jurist of the sixteenth century. After studying law, he was appointed teacher of the law at Cahors (1554), and in the following year, on the recommendation of the Chancellor L'Hôpital, gained the chair of law in the University of Bourges, after which he taught successively at Valence, again at Bourges, at Valence, at Paris, and at Bourges, at which last place he resided from 1577 till his death, October 4, 1590. He was one of the most eminent jurists of his day, and his learning was founded on the most diligent study of original manuscripts of the Roman laws. His treatment of these authorities and of the feudal system was classical and reconstructive, free from scholastic subtleties. He had in his library 500 manuscripts on Roman law, and by his emendations contributed greatly to remove the obscurities of jurisprudence. A complete collection of his works was edited by Fabrot (10 vols.), at Paris (1658), and reprinted at Venice (175883), and at Prato (1834-43). Uhl has edited separately Cujacius's Animadversiones et Observationes. Consult: Spangenberg, Cujacius und seine Zeitgenossen (Leipzig, 1882); Berriat Saint Prix, Histoire du droit romain; Histoire de Cujas (1821).

CULÁMAN, kōō-lä'mån. See MANOBO.

CULASI, kōō-lä'sê. A town of Panay, Philippines, in the Province of Antique, situated on the western coast, about 52 miles north of San Rice, cacao, fruits, and José de Buenavista. Population, in 1903, pepper are cultivated. 10,966.

CUL'DEES (OIr. ceilede, servant of God, from ceile, servant + De, gen. sg. of Dia, God). Anchorite monks who came into Scotland from Ireland in the eighth and ninth centuries, and established themselves in many places, but who in the thirteenth century had been absorbed by the regular Orders, particularly that of Saint Augustine. Their monasteries, which, on the Co

lumban model, were really villages, on Saint Serf's Island, Loch Leven, at Saint Andrews, Monymusk, Abernethy, and at Monifeith, near Dundee, are matters of record. Their abbots were often laymen. The mystery about their origin and fate gave rise to the idea that they were particularly holy, and that they retained the primitive Christian faith. So claimed Hector Boece in his Latin history of Scotland (Paris, 1516), as many, especially ardent Presbyterians, have done since. But the facts were established by W. Reeves, The Culdees of the British Isles (Dublin, 1864), and F. Kene, Celtic Scotland (3 vols., Edinburgh, 1876-80).


CULEX (Lat., gnat). A short pastoral and mock-heroic poem of 414 hexameter lines, attributed to Vergil. A sleeping goatherd is awakened by the sting of a gnat, and kills the insect, but finds that it has saved his life by rousing him in time to escape from an approaching serpent. The gnat's shade appears to him in the night, and reproaches him for its death; whereupon the goatherd builds a tomb for it and celebrates the usual funeral rites.

CULIACAN, koo'lyå-kän'. The capital of the State of Sinaloa, Mexico, on the Culiacan River, 50 miles from the Pacific coast (Map: Mexico, E 5). It is situated in a broad valley, and contains several plazas, those of Rosales and La Constitucion being notable, an ancient cathedral, a seminary, and a mint. It is an episcopal see. The city has some manufactures, principally of textiles, and a large tobacco warehouse. Culiacan was founded in 1599, with the name San Miguel. Population, in 1900, 10,380.

CULICIDÆ, kü-lis'i-de (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from Lat. culex, gnat). A family of nematocerous Diptera, the mosquitoes, with long, slender wings, the veins and body bearing flattened

scales. See MOSQUITO.

CULILAWAN BARK. The bark of a tree of the Moluccas, Cinnamomum culilawan, used like cinnamon (q.v.).

anthropology in the American Association in 1901. In addition to many minor publications, he is author of: Chess and Playing Cards (1896); Korean Games (1896); and an elaborate memoir on "Games of the American Aborigines," incorporated in the Twenty-third Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology.

CU'LIN, STEWART (1858–). An American anthropologist, born in Philadelphia, a descendant of Johan van Culin, one of the earliest Swedish settlers on the Delaware. He was educated at a Friends' school, and afterwards at Nazareth Hall. Leaving this school at the age of seventeen, he engaged in business, but soon developed a deep interest in scientific matters, and, through contact with Dr. Daniel G. Brinton, was led to take up original work in anthropology. In 1883 he was elected secretary of the Numismatic and Antiquarian Society of Philadelphia, and began a study of the Chinese in America, resulting in a series of papers on Chinese games. In 1889 he became secretary of the Archæological Association of the University of Pennsylvania, and a curator in the Museum of Archaeology; and in 1892 he was appointed director of the museum. In this capacity he represented the University of Pennsylvania at the Columbian Historical Exposition in Madrid, where he was at the same time secretary of the United States Commission. In 1888 he organized the Oriental Club in Philadelphia, of which he became secretary; in 1890 he was elected a fellow in the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He was president of the American Folklore Society in 1897, and was elected to the vice-presidency of

CUL'LEN, PAUL (1803-78). An Irish prelate. He was educated in Rome, where he became rector of the Irish College, and in 1848 of the Propaganda College. During the Revolution of that year he saved the college property by appealing to the American Minister. He became Archbishop of Armagh and Primate of Ireland in 1849, and Archbishop of Dublin in 1852. He was a man of great executive ability, piety, and zeal in the restoration and erection of churches reformatories, and hospitals. He assisted O'Connell, opposed the Fenians, forbade the clergy to take active part in politics, and advocated at the Vatican Council the definition of Papal infallibility. He was the main supporter of the Catholic University at Dublin, and in 1866 was made a cardinal, being the first Irishman to receive that dignity since the Reformation.

In 1744 he removed to Glas

CULLEN, WILLIAM (1710-90). A Scotch physician, one of the most celebrated professors of medicine in the universities of Edinburgh and Glasgow. He was born at Hamilton, Scotland, his father being factor to the Duke of Hamilton. He acquired his medical education between 1727 and 1736, under great difficulties, but fortunately secured the aid of John Paisley, a surgeon apothecary, and Monro the Elder. In 1736 he began to practice his profession in his native town, and was rapidly successful. One 1740 he received the degree of M.D. from Glasof his pupils was William Hunter (q.v.). In gow University. gow; in 1746 he began to lecture on the theory and practice of physic, on botany and the materia medica, and finally on chemistry, in Glashave lectured in Latin, but in the other departgow University. In botany Cullen seems to ments he adopted the English language as the vehicle of expression, an innovation of great importance, which permitted him to adopt a more familiar style of lecturing than had hitherto been in use. One of his original hearers records that "in the physic class Dr. Cullen never read lectures, but only used notes; in the chemistry he sometimes read, but very seldom." In 1757 he became full professor of chemistry, while continuing to teach clinical medicine in the Royal Infirmary, a duty up to this period performed by Dr. Rutherford only, the professor of medicine and botany. In 1760 he undertook also the lectures on materia medica. In 1766 Cullen was placed in the chair of institutes of medicine, vacant by the death of Dr. Whytt; and Black, the greatest chemical discoverer of the time, took Cullen's place as professor of chemistry. In 1773 Cullen was transferred to the chair of the practice of physic.

His most important works are the First Lines of the Practice of Physic (1777), in which he sets forth his system of nosology founded on his theories of nerve influence, and which was translated into many languages; Synopsis Nosologiæ Methodicœ (1785); Institutions of Medicine (1787); A Treatise of the Materia Medica (1789). His writings have been collected in two volumes by Dr. John Thomson (Edinburgh,

1827), by whom also a life was commenced, the first volume of which was published in 1832. This biography was continued by his son, and finally completed in a second volume by Dr. Craigie in 1859.

CULLERA, kōō-lyā'rå. A fortified town of Spain, in the Province of Valencia, on the Júcar River, near its entrance into the Mediterranean, 23 miles south-southeast of Valencia (Map: Spain, E 3). Its streets are irregular but level, and among the noteworthy features are a ruined castle and the chapel of the Virgen de Cullera. Fishing, agriculture, and stock-raising are the principal industries. The city is the centre of a considerable trade in grain, rice, oranges, wine, etc. Cullera was of great military importance under the Moors, by whom it was strongly fortified, and successfully withstood attacks of the Christian armies in 1234 and 1235, though later it was taken by James I. of Aragon. Population, in 1900, 11,957.



CULLO'DEN, or DRUMMOSSIE MOOR. Scottish battlefield in Inverness-shire, near the Moray Firth. The place was formerly a desolate tableland, but is now well cultivated. Here on April 16 (new style, 27), 1746, the Duke of Cumberland, with 12,000 royal troops, overwhelmed an army of 5000 Highlanders, under Prince Charles Edward, the Young Pretender, and extinguished the hopes of the House of Stuart of regaining the English crown. monumental cairn marks the spot where the battle was fiercest, and where many of the slain lie buried. At Culloden House, a mile to the north, the family seat of Duncan Forbes, the valuable historical collection of Culloden Papers, covering the years 1625-1748, was discovered in 1812. They were published in London in 1815. Consult William Augustus, Duke of Cumberland, Authentic Account of the Battle of Culloden (London, 1746).

CUL/LOM, SHELBY MOORE (1829-). An American politician, born in Wayne County, Ky. He was admitted to the bar in 1855, and began the practice of the law at Springfield, Ill. Here he soon became prominent in politics, was several times elected to the Illinois Legislature, and was Speaker of the House in 1861 and again in 1873. He was a member of Congress for three terms after 1865, and was Governor of Illinois from 1876 to 1883. He then entered the United States Senate as a Republican, and was reëlected in 1889, 1895, and 1901. He was the author of the Interstate Commerce Law, and for many years was chairman of the Senate Committee on Interstate Commerce. In 1898 he was appointed one of the commissioners to establish the Government of Hawaii.

CUL'LUM, GEORGE WASHINGTON (1809-92). An American soldier and writer. He was born in New York, graduated in 1833 at West Point, and was instructor of engineering there from 1848 to 1855. He was made chief engineer of the Department of the Missouri in 1861, superintended engineering works on the Western rivers, and was chief engineer at the siege of Corinth. He was superintendent of the Military Academy from 1864 to 1866, and was brevetted major-general in 1865. He retired from active service in 1874. He published: Systems of Military Bridges (1863); Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the United States Military

[blocks in formation]

CULMANN, kool'mån, KARL (1821-81). A German engineer, born at Bergzabern, Bavaria. He studied at the Artillery School of Metz and the Technical School of Karlsruhe, and from 1841 to 1849 was active as an engineer in bridge construction. In 1855 he was appointed professor of engineering in the Polytechnic School of Zurich, of which he was director from 1872 to 1875. He was the originator of the method of graphical statics, by which the strength of structures is investigated through diagrams made to scale. In exposition of this he published Graphische Statik (1864-66). Among his further works is Untersuchungen über die Schweizer Wildbäche von 1858 bis 1863 (1864), translated into Italian and French.



CULMINATION (from ML. culminare, to culminate, from Lat. culmen, OLat. columen, height, from collis, hill, celsus, high). An astronomical term, signifying the passage of a star across the meridian. The star is then at the highest point (culmen) of its course; hence the name. The sun culminates at midday, or 12 o'clock, apparent solar time-which seldom agrees exactly with mean time as shown by a watch or clock. The full moon culminates at midnight. The time of culmination of a fixed star is always exactly midway between the times of its rising and setting; in the case of the sun, moon, and planets, it is only approximately so.

CUL'PA. At Roman law, culpa sometimes means fault in general, but in the narrower and usual sense it designates carelessness or negligence. When damage has been done without right and willfully (dolo), the doer is always responsible. When damage is occasioned by a careless act or by failure to act as a careful person would act, the person chargeable with carelessness is not usually responsible unless he be under some special obligation to exercise care (diligentia). Such an obligation regularly exists only in contractual and quasi-contractual relations; and here the question what degree of carelessness creates liability depends upon the degree of care which the law requires. The standard, in most cases, is the care commonly exercised in similar matters by a good householder (diligentia boni patris familia). Exceptionally, in some cases, a person who is habitually some

« AnteriorContinuar »