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the Treaty of Paris. Provision was also made for the lease of coaling and naval stations to the United States. The question of the ownership of the Isle of Pines was reserved for future settlement. The first congress of the Cuban Republic met on May 5th, 1902. In August a public loan of $35,000,000 was authorized for the purpose of facilitating the revival of the sugar-cane industry. With the Spanish market closed to Cuban sugar and the United States as the leading available market, a modification of the American tariff laws in so far as they affected Cuban sugar became a matter of vital necessity. A reciprocity treaty between the two countries was ratified by the United States Senate in March, 1903, but the House of Representatives did not enact the necessary legislation until November. A tariff reduction of 20 per cent. on Cuban products was granted. In September, 1903, the United States obtained the lease of the naval stations at Bahia Honda, near Havana, and Guantanamo, not far from Santiago. In April, 1904, an extradition treaty was concluded with the United States. In the latter part of 1905 the American residents of the Isle of Pines set on foot a movement for the annexation of the island to the United States, but the agitation received its quietus from the American Secretary of State who announced that the United States government recognized the sovereignty of Cuba over the Isle of Pines, a position affirmed in a formal treaty between the two governments, then under consideration by the United States Senate.

holding South by Buchanan, Mason, and Soulé, United States Ministers to Great Britain, France, and Spain, respectively, claimed the right of this country to annex Cuba if Spain refused to sell. Various attempts were made to secure the independence of the island and the abolition of slavery. The insurrections of 184951, under Lopez (q.v.), and of 1854 failed to accomplish anything, and were suppressed by the most cruel measures. The rebellion of 1868-78, however, induced the Spanish Government to promise the representation of Cuba in the Cortes by her own deputies, and a liberal party was formed to secure the fulfillment of this pledge, to encourage white immigration, and to promote free trade. In 1880 the Spanish Cortes passed an act for the abolition of slavery. The general discontent remained, however, and in 1895 led to a new and formidable revolt, to suppress which Spain sent General Martinez Campos. The insurgents, under Generals Gomez, Maceo, and Garcia, succeeded in keeping the field in spite of every effort to exterminate them; and became so bold as in February, 1896, to approach so near to Havana that the sound of their firing was heard within the capital. In the same month General Campos was recalled by the home Government, and General Weyler, a soldier reputed to be savage in his measures, succeeded him. The revolutionists were able to maintain the semblance of a government, and their conduct, as well as that of Spain, aroused for them much sympathy throughout the United States. Before the close of 1897 General Weyler was recalled and superseded by General Blanco. In the United States the criticism of Spanish methods suddenly developed into widespread and outspoken hostility to Spain upon the mysterious destruction of the American war-ship Maine in the harbor of Havana on February 15, 1898. Diplomatic relations became strained, and in April, 1898, owing to the apparent success of the insurrection, and justified by that, President McKinley called the attention of Congress to the situation in such words that Congress, on April 19, declared that the people of Cuba were "and of right ought to be free and independent." War followed, and by the treaty of December 10, 1898, Spain relinquished all right and sovereignty over Cuba, and the United States took temporary possession of the island and assumed all the international obligations arising from such occupation. For three years thereafter the affairs of the island were administered exclusively by the War Department of the United States, and extensive public improvements were effected. In December, 1901, after the people had adopted a constitution, a President of the Republic was elected, in the person of Estrada Palma. On May 20, 1902, the United States formally withdrew from the island, and Governor-General Wood was replaced by President Palma.

The conditions set for the withdrawal of the American occupation, as incorporated in the Cuban constitution and in the permanent treaty with the United States in 1903, were that the Cuban government should enter into no treaty with a foreign power tending to impair the independence of the republic or permitting a military or naval occupation of the island, and that no loans should be issued beyond the limit justified by the public revenue. The acts of the United States military government were recognized as valid and the United States received the right to intervene for the discharge of its obligations under

Party politics entered on an ominous course in 1905. At that time the two leading parties were the Liberals, formerly the National party, and the Moderates. The latter comprised the Conservative elements, including the great commercial and industrial interests. The Liberal party, embracing probably a great majority of the nation, consisted of the more democratic elements, including the colored population which had supplied the bulk of the forces in the war against Spain. Up to the beginning of 1905 President Palma carried on his administration with Liberal support, but at that time he abruptly went over to the Moderate camp, actuated probably by the widespread corruption and inefficiency that characterized the municipal governments under Liberal rule. The Liberal cabinet resigned and was replaced by one composed of Moderates, and there followed wholesale removals of Liberal Both municipal officers throughout the island. parties made active preparations for the presidential and congressional elections at the end of 1905, and there is no doubt that the Palma administration had extensive resource to illegal methods. Thus the register of votes for the primary elections of September, 1905, contained 432,000 names, or "one-half larger than any possible number of voters." also practiced by the government. the hopelessness of their cause, the Liberals remained away from the polls. President Palma was reëlected, and a unanimously Moderate Lower House was chosen.

Intimidation was
Convinced of

There were trivial uprisings in August, and December, 1905, but it was not till the third week of August, 1906, that the Liberal outbreak came. The insurrectionary movement was begun by Pino Guerra in the province of Pinar del Rio, the first notable incident occurring on August 20th, about twenty miles from Havana, when General Quentin Bandera, a noted veteran of the

War of Independence, was captured by a govern ment force and brutally murdered. The govern ment attempted to check the insurrection by arresting some of the Liberal leaders, including General José Gomez, the candidate of the Liberals for the presidency in 1905. On August 27th, President Palma issued a proclamation of amnesty in the hope of bringing the Liberals to terms, but it failed signally. How great was the general discontent throughout the island was attested by the helpless condition to which the government was reduced almost at a blow. It had at its command only 3000 rural guards, and it proceeded to organize a machine-gun battery which proved effective in one engagement with Pino Guerra's troops. But as early as September 8th, President Palma secretly appealed to the United States government for intervention, professing his inability to cope with the insurrection. In the following week he gave public acknowledgement of the desperate state of affairs by suspending the constitution in the provinces of Havana, Pinar del Rio and Santa Clara. On September 12th, the United States cruiser "Des Moines" arrived at Havana. At the request of President Palma a detachment of marines was landed the following day for the protection of the presidential palace but received orders from Washington to re-embark. On September 14th the congress bestowed on President Palma full powers to deal with the situation, and on the 16th, the latter, after a conference with a number of insurrectionary leaders, proclaimed a cessation of hostilities in view of the expected arrival of Mr. Taft, United States Secretary of War, who had been ordered to Cuba by President Roosevelt in the rôle of a mediator and with the hope of obviating the necessity of intervention by the United States. Secretary Taft landed in Havana on September 19th, and immediately proceeded to inform himself of the merits of the issues at stake by soliciting testimony from the adherents of both parties. The weakness of the Moderate cause, in fact as well as in law was speedily made apparent. Havana, as well as other large cities, was at the mercy of the insurgents.

isis was

It was decided by Secretary Taft that peace might be reëstablished by declaring null the election of all candidates chosen in 1905 with the exception of President Palma, whose retention was necessary to maintain the continuity of constitutional government. But this possible solution was frustrated by the resignation, on September 28th, of President Palma who declared it incompatible with his dignity to remain in office under the specified conditions. A thus precipitated and intervention made inevitable. On September 29th Mr. Taft assumed the office of provisional governor, and the dispatch of United States troops, at first under General Funston, later succeeded by General Bell, was hastened. Mr. Taft was succeeded as governor, in a few days by Governor C. E. Magoon, of the Panama Canal Zone. The disarmament of the Cuban forces was at once begun and rapidly completed. See SPAIN; UNITED STATES; SPANISH-AMERICAN WAR.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Pezuela, Diccionario geográfico, estadístico y histórico de la isla de Cuba (Madrid, 1863-67); Landeira, Estudio sobre la geografía de la isla de Cuba (Sara gossa, 1897); Luzón, Estudio geográfico de la isla de Cuba (Toledo, 1897); Cabrera, Cuba and the Cubans, trans. by Guiteras, revised and edited by Louis E. Levy (Philadelphia,

1896); Rowan and Ramsay, The Island of Cuba (New York, 1896); Hill, Cuba and Porto Rico (ib., 1898); Morris, Our Island Empire (Philadelphia, 1899); Davey, Cuba, Past and Present (London, 1898); Clark, Commercial Cuba (New York, 1898); Porter, Industrial Cuba (ib., 1899); Matthews, The New-Born Cuba (ib., 1899); Canini, Four Centuries of Spanish Rule in Cuba (Chicago, 1898); Clark, Cuba and the Fight for Freedom (Philadelphia, 1896); Halstead, The Story of Cuba (New York, 1898); Pepper, To-Morrow in Cuba (ib., 1899); Griffin and Phillips, A List of Books Relating to Cuba (Washington, 1898); Robinson, Cuba and the Intervention (New York, 1905); Lindsay, America's Insular Possessions, 2 vols. (Phil., 1906).

CUBAN FEVER. See CALENTURA.

CUBAN LITERATURE. "In Cuba everybody versifies," says the eminent critic Menéndez y Pelayo. It is certainly true that in her compositions in verse Cuba has made her most important contribution to literature in the Spanish tongue. The earliest poem known to have been written on the island is the Espejo de paciencia (1608) of Silvestre de Balboa, a native of the Canaries, but neither the seventeenth nor the first half of the eighteenth century produced any Cuban poet of great merit. Mention may, however, be made of the names of José Surí y Aguila (1696-1762), who wrote some religious loas; Mariano José de Alva and Lorenzo Martínez de Avileira, authors of glosas and coplas; an unknown poetess of Havana, who indited a little poem on the English invasion of 1762; and the cleric Diego de Campos, who commemorated the same event in his décimas. To another cleric of the eighteenth century, Fray José Rodríguez (Capacho), who likewise wrote décimas on various subjects, has been attributed the earliest dramatic work composed in Cuba, El príncipe jardinero y fingido Cloridano, but the bibliophile Barrera ascribes the play to one Santiago de Pita. The University of Havana was established in 1721, and at an early date in the century the first printingpress was set up. In 1790 the first newspaper, El papel periódico, made its appearance, and had among its most active collaborators such men of force as the teacher of philosophy José Agustín Caballero, the physician Tomás Romay, and, above all, the poet Manuel de Zequeira. Quite a number of epigrams are due to the pen of Manuel del Socarro Rodríguez, a journalist who founded several papers elsewhere in Spanish America. The epic was attempted with little success by Count Colombini in his Glorias de la Habana. All thus far produced was rather verse than poetry; the first real poets of Cuba are Manuel de Zequeira (1760-1846) and Manuel Justo de Rubalcava (1769-1805). Zequeira, perhaps the most attractive Cuban poet anterior to Heredia, echoed in the colonies the note of patriotic fervor called forth in Spain by the stirring events of 1808; in the heroic strains of his Batalla naval de Cortés, of his Dos de Mayo, and his Primer sitio de Zaragoza, he is as much a Spaniard as Quintana and Gallego in their heroic odes (cf. his Poesías, New York, 1829). Rubalcava, who was bucolic in temperament, translated the Eclogues of Vergil, and composed some original idyls and descriptive poems (cf. the Poesías de M. J. Rubalcava, Santiago de Cuba, 1848).

But towering above the countless poetasters of the time, the greatest of all the poets that Cuba has yet produced was José María de Heredia

(1803-39). A patriotic poet, who was exiled from Cuba because of his opposition to Spanish government, Heredia is held in high esteem not only for his political poems like the Himno del desterrado, but also for his descriptive poems like the Niágara, the Teocalli de Cholula, and the Tempestad, pervaded by a melancholy sentiment, and full of most noble imagery. Among Heredia's works are many translations and imitations of the poems of English, French, and Italian writers, such as Young, Campbell, the pseudoOssian, Lamartine, Delavigne, Millevoye, Arnault, Foscolo, and Pindemonte (cf. the edition of Heredia's poems and his translations and imitations of foreign dramas, published at New York, 1875; his prose Lecciones de historia universal, Toluca, 1831, and other prose works; and consult: Villemain, Essai sur le génie de Pindare et sur la poésie lyrique, Paris, 1859; J. Kennedy, Modern Poets and Poetry of Spain, London, 1852). Among the lesser lights must be counted Domingo del Monté, a Venezuelan, who, residing in Cuba, there composed pleasing romances, played the part of a generous patron of other poets, and strove energetically to have purity of idiom maintained in the Cuban use of the Castilian speech; Ignacio Valdés Machuca, who imitated Meléndez Valdés in his Ocios poéticos (1819), and also translated and imitated JeanJacques Rousseau; Manuel González del Valle, a teacher of philosophy, and the author of a Diccionario de las Musas (1827), etc. A protégé of del Monté's was the romantic spirit José Jacinto Milanés (1814-63), a man of superior powers, whose lyrics are now gently sentimental, and again madly socialistic. Milanés is also deemed one of the best playwrights that the island has had so far. His pieces include El Conde Alarcos, El poeta en la corte, Por el puente ó por el río, and A buena hambre no hay pan duro. Pictures of manners in dialogue form are to be seen in his Mirón cubano (cf. the first ed. of his Obras, Havana, 1846; second ed., New York, 1865). Another true poet was Gabriel de la Concepción Valdés, best known by his pseudonym Plácido (1809-44). He was a mulatto and a foundling, and had but slight training, yet few Cuban lyrics will live longer than his romance entitled Xicotencal, and his sonnets, La muerte de Gessler, Fatalidad, and Plegaria (cf. the eds. of his verse, New York, 1856; and Havana, 1886). Of undisputed excellence is the work of the poetess Gertrudis Gómez de Avellaneda (1814-73). She was eminently successful as a lyric poet and as a dramatist, less so as a novelist (cf. an edition of her works, Madrid, 1869).

(cf. the Poesías of Mendive, Havana, 1883; and the Melodías irlandesas, New York, 1875). To the list of the nineteenth-century poets there may further be added the names of Ramón Vélez y Herrera (born 1808), Miguel Teúrbe de Tolón (1820-58), Francisco Orgáz (1815-73), Ramón de Palma y Romay (1812-60), Ramón Zambrana (1817-66), José Fornaris (1827-90), José Güell y Renté, etc.

Among the countless writers of verse that have arisen in Cuba later than Avellaneda, three are of particular merit: Joaquín Lorenzo Luaces (1826-67), the author of war songs (the Caída de Misolonghi, etc.), of odes (see especially the Oración de Matatias of biblical inspiration and the ode A Cyrus Field, on the laying of the Atlantic cable), and of one or another drama (cf. the Poesías de J. L. Luaces, Havana, 1857, and the Noches literarias en casa de N. Azsárate, Havana, 1866); Juan Clemente Zenea (183271), whose elegiac verse is full of a tender melan. choly (cf. the complete edition of his Poesías, New York, 1872); and Rafael María de Mendive (1821-86), noted for his translation of the Irish Melodies of Thomas Moore, whose influence is also easily discernible in his original Cuban verse

As compared with her poets, it is clear that the prose writers of Cuba are distinctly inferior in importance. In the eighteenth century, she has the historians Arrati and Urrutia; in the nineteenth, Valdéz, José Arrango y Castillo, etc. Among her legal writers have figured Conde, Ayala, Armas, Bermúdez, Cintra, etc., and among her moralists and writers on philosophical matters, Barea, Veranes, José Augustin Caballero, Félix Varela, José de la Luz Caballero, etc. In the ine arts Vermay and Perouani have earned some recognition, and in music Villate has gained notice by his operatic compositions. A really good critical account of Cuban prose and poetry has yet to be written; more light on the subject may be expected from the publication of the Biblioteca selecta hispanocubana de prosistas and the Antología de poesía cubana, which a commission of littérateurs has presented to the Spanish Academy. On Cuban lyric poets an excellent essay has been written by M. Menéndez y Pelayo and now appears as the preface to the second volume of the Antología de poetas hispano-americanos (Madrid, 1893), which contains very good selections from the works of the most important Cuban poets. Consult also: the Parnaso cubano, Colección de poesías selectas de autores cubanos desde Zequeira, etc. (Havana, 1881); the Cuba poética, colección escogida de las composiciones en verso de los poetas cubanos desde Zequeira, prepared by Fornaris and Luaces (2d ed., Havana, 1861); Hills, Bardos cubanos, antología de las mejores poesías líricas de Heredia, 'Plácido' Avellaneda, Milanés, Mendive, Luaces, y Zenea, with biographical notices of each of the poets and a comprehensive bibliography of their works and of Cuban poetry in general (Boston, 1901); Bachiller y Morales, Apuntes para la historia de las letras y de la instrucción pública en la isla de Cuba (Havana, 1860); Mitjans, Estudio sobre el movimiento científico y literario de Cuba (Havana, 1890); Merchán, Estudios críticos (Bogotá, 1886); Calcagno, Diccionario biográfico cubano (New York, 1878); González del Valle, La poesía lirica en Cuba (new ed., Barcelona, 1900).

CUBE (Lat. cubus, Gr. Kúßos, kybos, cube), or REGULAR HEXAHEDRON. A regular solid with six square faces, each of which is parallel to the one opposite to it. It is a form of frequent occurrence in nature, especially among crystals. The cube or third power of a number is the product formed by taking the number three times as a factor, e.g. the cube of 4, or 43 44·4 = 64. This use of the term arises from the circumstance that the solid contents of a cube may be expressed by the third power of the number which expresses the length of one of its edges. Thus, if the edge of a cube is 4 inches, its volume is 4 4 4 1 cubic inch, or 64 cubic inches. The cube root of a number is one of the three equal factors of the number; e.g. the cube root of 8 is 2, since 222 = 8. The number of which the root is sought is called the power, and

if it is a power of a commensurable (q.v.) number, it is called a perfect power. Roots of perfect powers are often readily obtained by factoring; e.g. to find the cube root of 216; 216 = 666, therefore 6 is the cube root of 216. If the root is incommensurable, the binomial for mula, logarithms, or the equation (q.v.) is available. Every number which satisfies the

equation x3 = 1, or

10 is a cube root of 1. But 3-1=0 is the same as (x-1) (∞2 + x + 1) = 0, and equating each factor to 0 and solving, r = · 1, − } + { √ −3,—}−1 √ −3, the three cube roots of unity. (See COMPLEX NUMBER.) The three cube roots of 8 are

-

2,2(+√-3), 2(−−} √−3). Thus any number has three cube roots, one real and two imaginary. In extensive calculations, tables of roots and of logarithms are employed. Duplication of the cube or the Delian problem, according to tradition, originated with the oracle of Delos, which declared to the Athenians that a pestilence prevailing among them would cease if they doubled the altar of Apollo-i.e. replaced his cubical altar by another of twice its contents. The problem reduces to the solution of the continued proportion a: x = x: y = y: 2a, or to the solution of = 2a3. This was effected geometrically by Hippocrates, Plato, Menæchmus, Archytas, and others, but not by elementary geometry. This is one of the three great problems whose appearance has been of wonderful significance in the development of mathematics. Consult: Gow, History of Greek Mathematics 1884); Klein (Cambridge, Vorträge über ausgewählte Fragen der Elementargeometrie (Leipzig, 1895); Famous Problems of Elementary Geometry, trans. by Beman and Smith (Boston, 1897).

Europe chiefly for medicinal purposes. They act as a stimulant, and are sometimes found useful in cases of indigestion; also in chronic catarrh and in many affections of the mucous membrane, particularly those of the urino-genital system. The chief constituents of cubebs are a volatile oil, resin, cubebic acid, cubebin, and wax. Cubebs are administered in many ways. For illustration, see Plate of CYPRESS, ETC.

CU'BEBS, or CUBEB PEPPER (Fr. cubebe, from Ar. kababa). The dried unripe berries of Piper officinalis, a species of climbing shrub of the natural order Piperaceæ, very closely allied to the true peppers. Piper officinalis is a native of Penang, Java, New Guinea, etc., and is said to be extensively cultivated in some parts of Java. Its spikes are solitary, opposite to the leaves, and usually produce about fifty berries, which are globular, and, when dried, have much resemblance to black pepper, except in their lighter color and the stalk with which they are furnished. Piper canina, a native of the Sunda and Molucca islands, is supposed also to yield part of the cubebs of commerce, and the berries of Piper ribesioides possess similar properties. Cubebs are less pungent and more pleasantly aromatic than black pepper; they are used in the East as a condiment, but in

CUBE ROOT. See CUBE; INVOLUTION.

CUBIC EQUATION. A rational integral equation of the third degree is called a cubic equation. It is called binary, ternary, or quaternary according as it is homogeneous of the third degree in two, three, or four unknowns. The general form of a cubic equation of one unknown is ax3 + bx2 + cx + d=0. It is shown in algebra that this equation can be reduced to one of the form a3 + pa + q = 0. Every cubic equation of this form has three roots, of which one is real and the others real or imaginary. The roots will all be real when p is negative, and p3 This is known as the irreducible case > 2 27 in solving the equation. Only one root is real when p is positive, or when it is negative and p' q2. two of 27 4 27 4 the roots are equal. The cubic equation may be solved by the following formula, due to Tartaglia and Ferro, Italian mathematicians of the sixteenth century, but known as Cardan's formula:

If p is negative and 2=1,

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Besides Ferro, Tartaglia, and Cardan, Vieta, Euler, and others contributed to the early the ory of cubic equations. In case the roots of a cubic equation are all real their values are more readily calculated by means of trigonometric formulas-e.g. assume an cosa, and the equation a3 + px+q=0 may be expressed by cos'a +

n

= 0. But from trigonometry

3

cos 3a

cos'a 4 cosa = 0; therefore, equat ing corresponding coefficients of cosa, and solv

4

4p
3

Hence may now be computed from

cosa +

n

ing the equations, n = √ and cos3a- -4q

3 4p

(

2π 2π ∞ = n. cosa; n⚫ cos +a; n cos 3 3 For history and methods, consult Matthiessen, Grundzüge der antiken und modernen Algebra der litteralen Gleichungen (Leipzig, 1896). See also CARDAN, JEROME.

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1. AMERICAN

YELLOW-BILLED CUCKOO (Coccyzus

Americanus).

2. BLUEHEADED KOEL (Eudynamis cyanocephala).

3. COMMON EUROPEAN PARASITIC CUCKOO (Cuculus

canorus).

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