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vol. v. (Leipzig, 1866-94). For description of the fossil forms, consult the various manuals of paleontology, such as those by Zittel, Zittel-Eastman, Bernard, Nicholson, and Etheridge. A good synopsis of the class, dwelling more especially on the fossil forms, is to be found in Zittel-Eastman, Text-Book of Paleontology (New York and London, 1900), where are given very useful bibliographic lists of works on both recent and fossil forms.
CRUST OF THE EARTH. It was formerly believed by scientists that the interior of our globe is in a state of fusion due to excessive heat, and they accordingly gave the name 'crust of the earth' to the external solid portion of the earth with which we are familiar. Modern in vestigation has tended to show that the interior of the earth may not be liquid, as this term is ordinarily understood, and the term 'crust of the earth,' suggesting as it does the liquidity of the earth's interior, has fallen somewhat into disfavor among scientists. The term lithosphere, meaning 'rock sphere,' has been proposed as a substitute, but in popular usage it has not displaced the earlier term. The crust of the earth is composed of igneous and sedimentary rocks. The rocks occurring deepest below the surface, chiefly of the Archæan age, are igneous. Resting on them, and forming the surface rocks for much of the globe, are sedimentary rocks, which have everywhere the same general geological succession, although varying widely in minor stratigraphy and structure. The basal igneous rocks also appear at the surface over considerable areas, and other igneous rocks are associated with the sediments.
The rocks of the earth's crust are fractured and folded, the folding involving an actual plastic deformation or 'flowage' of the rock mass. It is probable that fractures are confined to the outer portion of the earth's crust, while at a considerable depth, perhaps 10,000 meters, the pressure is so great that fractures cannot be developed, and the rock is deformed by flowage. For convenience in discussing its structure, Van Hise has accordingly proposed a division of the earth's crust into (1) deep-seated zone of flowage, where rocks are deformed by flowage, and where fractures cannot exist; (2) an upper zone of fracture, where the rocks are deformed by frac ture alone; and (3) an intermediate zone of fracture and flowage. By surface erosion rocks which have been deformed in the zone of flowage may ultimately reach the surface of the earth, and hence it is that we have side by side the effects of deformation in all zones. Consult Van Hise, "Principles of North American Pre-Cambrian Geology," in Sixteenth Annual Report U. S. Geological Survey, pt. i. (Washington, 1896). See CLEAVAGE; ARCHEAN SYSTEM; FAULT.
CRUVEILHIER, kru'va'ya', JEAN (17911874). A famous French anatomist. He was educated in the University of Paris, became professor of pathological anatomy at Montpellier and later in Paris. He published an excellent Anatomie pathologique du corps humain (182842), and several other works.
afterwards in London and Paris. Endowed with a soprano voice of great strength and purity, she was one of the most popular vocalists of her time. On marrying Count Vigier, in 1856, she left the stage, and thereafter lived at Nice.
CRUVEL'LI, SOPHIE, Countess Vigier (1826 -). A German singer. Her real name was Crüwell. She studied under Bordogni in Paris, made her début in Venice in 1847, and sang with increasing success in other Italian theatres, and
CRUYS, krois, or KRUYS, CORNELIS (16571727). A Russian rear-admiral of Norwegian extraction. He entered the service of Peter the Great in 1698, and rose to be a vice-admiral and vice-president of the Russian Admiralty Board. He served Peter faithfully in the wars with Sweden and Turkey, but was hampered by the jeal ousy of the native Russian officers, and in 1714, after an unsuccessful encounter with some Swedish vessels, he was arrested and tried by courtmartial. Sentenced to death, he was reprieved by order of the Czar, and exiled to Kazan, but later in the year was recalled and restored to his office. As chief assistant to Count Apraxin (q.v.), Cruys did much to build up the Russian Navy. He promoted the building of dockyards, canals, and the drawing up of charts. At the time of his death in 1727, he owned a large estate at Kexholm, and the island of Birken in Finland. In memory of his work, the Russian men-of-war still fly a white flag with a blue cross (kruis). Consult: "The Russian Fleet under Peter the Great," English Navy Records Society (London, 1899); Browning, Peter the Great (London, 1898).
CRUZ, kroos, JOSÉ MARÍA DE LA (1801-75). A Chilean general. He was born at Concepcion, and became a member of the Republican cadet class when ten years old. In 1838 he became chief of staff in the Peruvian campaign; was twice appointed Minister of War, and in 1842 was elected Governor of Valparaiso. In 1851, defeated as the candidate of the Liberals for the Presidency, he organized a revolution which terminated in the disastrous defeat of Loncomilla (December 8, 1851), and was followed by his retirement from public life.
CRUZ, krooth, SAN JUAN DE LA (1542-91). A Spanish mystic, born at Fontiveros. His real entering the Order of the Carmelites (1563) he name was Juan de Yepis y Alvarez, but upon assumed that of de la Cruz (of the Cross). Saint Theresa was then engaged in the reformation of the Order of Carmel, and de la Cruz became her ardent disciple. His efforts brought him into constant trouble, and he was practically in exile at the time of his death. He was canonized in 1726. The many writings of Juan de la Cruz in prose and verse contain some passages of great beauty, and others of untranslatable vagueness. His best poem is Noche oscura del alma. His works, published first at Barcelona in 1580, were translated into French by P. Maillard in 1694, and have frequently been reprinted.
châ, LUIS DE LA (1768-1828). CRUZ Y GOYENECHE, krōōs ê gō'yâ-nā'A Chilean general. He was born at Concepcion, where he held several municipal offices. His exploration of the Andes in 1806 resulted in the discovery of several important mountain passes, which are described in a report published in the Angeliz Collection at Buenos Ayres in 1835. Four years after his famous Andean expedition, he became member of the revolutionary junta of Concepcion, but was captured during the ensuing campaign, and imprisoned until 1817. He was afterwards for a time acting President of Chile, and upon
the outbreak of the Peruvian campaign joined San Martin's army (1820), advancing to the rank of grand marshal. Shortly before his death he was appointed Minister of Marine.
CRYING BIRD. See COURLAN; LIMPKIN. CRY'OLITE (Gk. кpúos, kryos, frost + Xilos, lithos, stone). A sodium and aluminum fluoride that crystallizes in the monoclinic system. It is found chiefly in west Greenland, near Arksuk, where it occurs as a large bed in a granite vein, and in El Paso County, Col. Cryolite is an important ore of aluminium (q.v.), and is used in the manufacture of alum, sodium hydrate (for making soap), sodium carbonate, and other salts. It is also employed in the making of an opaque white glass, sometimes called hot-cast porcelain, which is said to be prepared by fusing together 100 parts of silica, 35 parts of cryolite, and 15 parts of zinc oxide.
CRYOPHORUS (Neo-Lat., from Gk. Kρúos, kryos, frost + pépei, pherein, to bear). An instrument consisting of a glass tube with a bulb at both ends, from which the air has been exhausted. A little water is present in one of the bulbs, and when the second bulb, containing only water-vapor, is placed in a freezing-mixture,
the vapor condenses, thus producing a diminution of pressure, which causes more vapor to rise from the water in the first bulb. The result of this evaporation from the first bulb is the abstraction of much heat, and eventually the remaining water freezes.
Eutrope at Saintes, the Cathedral of Otranto, and San Nicolò, Bari. In such cases it is not always easy to distinguish them from the lower section of a double or two-storied church, such as those of Saint Francis at Assisi (q.v.), the Sainte Chapelle, Paris, Le Puy-en-Velay, and SchwartzRheindorf. Some of the early large crypts were connected with the concentric churches of the Holy Sepulchre type, such as Saint Bénigne at Dijon, Ottmarsheim, Saint Michael's at Fulda, where the crypt has the same periphery as the church (ninth to thirteenth century). Where, as is usual, the crypt in a basilical or cruciform church extends only beneath the choir end, the pavement here is often raised above that of the body of the church, so as to give greater height interior. to the crypt. This adds picturesqueness to the great that the centre of the crypt opens widely Sometimes the change of level is so upon the nave by one long central stairway, and two side staircases ascend to the choir. In such cases the crypt is apt to be a very monumental structure. Such are the crypts of San Zeno, at Verona; of San Miniato, at Florence; of the Cathedral of Arezzo; of the Abbey Church of Saint Denis, of the Cathedral of Strassburg (the largest in Germany), and many others. The double choirs -one at each end-that were common in German churches from the time of the old Cathedral of Cologne (814-73), and the Abbey Church of Saint Gall, usually had a crypt under each choir, as existing in the Cathedral of Bamberg. In England the finest crypt is that of Canterbury; next to it, that of Glasgow Cathedral. Of course, all crypts were of necessity vaulted, in order to support the weight above. A few are tunnel-vaulted, as the example at Steinbach-Michaelstadt; but the immense majority are covered with groinvaults, supported by a forest of columns. In Italian churches, especially in Apulia and the Roman Province, the usual division is into seven Farther north, aisles by six rows of columns. heavy piers are often substituted for the slenderer columns, especially when the church above is vaulted. These supports were usually placed closer together than those above. Crypts are not only interesting in themselves, and from their great variety of plan and arrangement, but because, on account of their protected subterranean situation, they have suffered less from vandalism and are often the only remaining part of a mediæval church. With the age of cathedrals and churches of the Mendicant Orders, in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, crypts were no longer used, because the cardinal idea of this era was to provide immense interiors on a single level for large congregations, instead of interiors divided by a raised choir into two sections.
CRYPT, kript (Lat. crypta, Gk. кρутn, kryptě, crypt, vault, from κрúжтε, kryptein, to hide). A term usually employed to designate a chamber under a church, wholly or partly subterranean; but it was anciently used to mean a subterranean chapel in the catacombs. As a part of a church, it developed out of the confession (q.v.), of which it was the logical enlargement. Like the confession, its prime object was to provide a place under the high altar for the safe custody of the relics of saints: a confession became a crypt when it was large enough for an altar, with room to worship the relics. The circular passage of the larger confessions thus became a chamber occupying at least the space from the high altar in the transept to the end of the apse; like the apse-whose outline it followed-it usually had a semicircular ending. It was reached from the church by a single or a double staircase, usually in the neighborhood of the high altar in the nave or side aisles. Although some crypts existed as early as the sixth century, it was not until the Carolingian period (ninth century) that such chambers attained to any size; but from that time until the thirteenth century, they formed a very important part of church architecture, especially of the Romanesque style. They usually do not occupy more space than that which lies beneath the transept, choir, and apse of the upper church, but sometimes they extend under the entire body of the church, including nave and aisles, as in Saint
CRYPTO-CAL/VINISTS. A name given to Melanchthon and those who agreed with him in wishing to unite the Lutherans and Calvinists, and especially in his supposed leaning toward the Calvinistic view of the Lord's Supper as shown in the difference between the original and the altered Augsburg Confession. The former said: "The body and blood of Christ are truly present in the Lord's Supper in the form of bread and wine, and are there distributed and received by the communicants; therefore the op posite doctrine is rejected.” In the latter, the last clause is omitted. Luther did not approve the alteration. but tolerated Melanchthon's change of doctrine. Many, however, called him
a Crypto-Calvinist. The truth seems to have been that he did not consider that either opinion was a sufficient bar to communion with Christ, and therefore thought that both of them ought to be allowed. The controversy was becoming violent before his death, but afterwards it broke out with great virulence, and continued with alternate success on each side for fifty years; during which time frequent attempts were made to suppress the Calvinistic opinions by imprisoning their leading advocates, and, at last, in 1611, by the execution of Chancellor Nicolas Crell. The term has also been applied to the Missouri Lutherans because of their acceptance of the doctrine of unconditional election.
by the name of Atbos, a word formed from A. the first letter of the Hebrew alphabet; T, the last letter; B, the second; and S, the last but one. An instance of its use occurs in Jeremiah xiv., where the prophet, wishing to veil his meaning from all but the initiated, writes Shehach instead of Babel, using the second and twelfth letters from the of the alphabet, instead of from the beginning. Julius Cæsar's 'quarta elementorum littera,' in which D takes the place of A, and E of B, is only a variant of this simplest form of cipher, and Suetonius states that a like method was employed by Augustus. In medieval and modern times, many scholars have turned their attention to cryptography, among them John Trithemius, Abbot of Sponheim, in his Poligrahis phia (1500); Anastasius Kircher, and pupil, Kaspar Schott, whose work, De Magia Universali (Würzburg, 1676), contains a cryptographic table that lies at the foundation of the modern cipher telegraph systems. It consists simply of the alphabet repeated twenty-four times in horizontal rows, each successive row dropping off one or more letters from the beginning, and adding it at the end. Thus, in the second row, B stands under A, C under B, etc. In the third C represents A, in the fourth D = A, etc. Thus correspondents have a choice of twentyfour alphabets, it being necessary only to agree between themselves upon the first or key letter. simple, since any one could decipher dispatches For diplomatic purposes, this form is much too made in this way, by the simple mechanical task of making at most twenty-four versions. Accord ingly, various methods of complicating the cipher have been tried, one simple and effective way being that which is known in France as the method of Saint-Cyr. It consists in using alternately two in which they are to be used being determined or more of these twenty-four alphabets, the order by a key-word previously agreed upon. Thus, if the key-word is Army, four alphabets are to be used, namely those in the rows beginning respectively with A, R, M, and Y. Various other elaborations have been sometimes employed, such as arbitrarily changing the sequence of the letters of the alphabet, inserting at regular intervals letters or symbols that have no meaning, "nulls and insignificants," Bacon called them, or using groups of letters to represent separate letters. Of the last-named variety is the famous biliteral cipher of Bacon himself, consisting of various combinations of A and B, arranged in groups of five. Thus, aabab, ababa, babba = fly. Used in this way, such a cipher would be but little more difficult to detect than any ordinary set of single symbols. But Bacon went a step further; for the a's and the b's of his groups he substituted two fonts of type, differing so slightly as to present little distinction to the untrained eye. These, called respectively the a font and the b font, can be used for setting up any ordinary page of printed matter, when by the proper admixture of the two fonts, each successive group of five letters on the page may be made to stand for a single letter in Bacon's biliteral system. The fact that Bacon took a deep interest in cryptograms is probably the origin of Ignatius Donnelly's theory that the Shakespearean plays contain a cipher that if interpreted would prove that Bacon wrote them. And recently a still bolder attempt has been made by a certain Mrs. Gallup to apply the biliteral
CRYPTOGAMS (from Gk. кружтос, kryptos, hidden+yáuos, gamos, marriage). A general term that includes all plants below the spermatophytes (seed-plants); that is, the pteridophytes (ferns and their allies), bryophytes (mosses and their allies), and thallophytes (algæ and fungi). The name means 'hidden sex reproduction, and, in contrast with it, the spermatophytes are often called 'phanerogams,' which means 'evident sex reproduction.' The names are not appropriate, since the sex reproduction of cryptogams is 'very evident,' and that of phanerogams is very much 'hidden.' The mistake arose from regarding stamens and pistils as sex organs. The term cryptogam, however, remains one of great convenience; but the term phanerogam is being replaced by the much more significant term spermatophyte (seed-plant). The old distinction between cryptogams and phanerogams, that the former reproduce by spores and the latter by seeds, is a false one. Both groups produce spores, but the cryptogams do not produce seeds. Since the pteridophytes are distinct from the bryophytes and thallophytes in develop ing a vascular system, they are very frequently called 'vascular cryptogams.' For full account, see articles under the different group-names.
CRYPTOGʻRAPHY (Gk. kруπτóç, kryptos, secret +ypápεw, graphein, to write). The art of writing messages and documents in cipher, intended to be read only by those possessing the key. The use of secret methods of correspondence on important matters of state is of considerable antiquity. Plutarch and Gellius tell of a method employed by Spartan ephors in communicating with their generals abroad, which has received the name of scytale, from the staff used in decipher ing it. A narrow strip of parchment was first wound spirally upon the staff, its edges just meeting, and the message was then written along the line of jointure. When it was unwound, the broken letters could afterwards be read only by rolling the parchment upon a duplicate staff in possession of the general to whom it was sent. This is but one of a large number of mechanical devices for reading secret dispatches, such as papers pierced with holes, to be laid over the document, revealing only such words or letters as compose the secret message.
Cryptography, in its stricter sense of the use of a cipher alphabet formed either by changing the value of the different letters, or by substituting for them groups of letters, numbers, or arbitrary symbols, if not of Semitic origin, was at least already known to, and used by, the sacred writers, in its simplest form of using the alphabet in its inverted order. By the Jews this form is known VOL. V.-41.
cipher to the early Shakespeare folios, in which, as is generally known, more than one variety of type was used. The general principle involved in Bacon's method, that of representing the whole alphabet with groups and combinations of two symbols only, lies at the basis of many modern methods of signaling.
It is hardly too much to say that a code based upon any regular mathematical principle may be solved by ingenuity and patience. the language of the document is known in advance, the relative frequency with which the letters of the alphabet normally occur in that language forms an important initial clue. Thus e is the letter of most frequent occurrence not only in our own language, but in French and German as well. In English the next in order of frequency are t, a, o, n, i, r, s, h, d, l, c, w, u, m, etc. Single letters must be either a, i, or o. words of two letters most likely to occur are of, to, in, it, is, be, he, by, or, etc. Double letters are most apt to be ee, oo, ff, ll, or ss. If there is doubt whether the cipher is in Latin, English, French, or German, the lack of double letters at the end of words suggests that it is Latin; if but few words end with double letters, it is probably French; if they are very numerous, it is German. Those who make a science of interpreting cipher documents receive no small assistance from a knowledge of the frequency with which certain symmetrical combinations of letters occur in the vocabulary of a language. Thus, the combination which may be represented for convenience by the formula abab is comparatively rare in English: one may cite papa, dodo; in French, tête, bébé. The form abeba is found in level; Fr., rêver. In German, the formula abba gives only Anna, Ebbe, Egge, Esse, Otto; in French, the formula abcdabc gives only two words, cherche and quelque.
Consult: John Baptist Porta, De Furtivis Literarum Notis (1563); Blaise de Vigenère, Traité des chiffres (1587); Thicknesse, A Treatise the Art of Deciphering and of Writing in Cipher (1772); and among more modern writers, J. L. Kluber, Kryptographik (Tübingen, 1809); Romani, La cryptographie dévoilée (1875); and Fleissner, Handbuch der Kryptographik (Vienna, 1881).
CRYPTU'RI (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from Gk. KрUTTÓя, kryptos, hidden + ovpá, oura, tail). An order of birds, the tinamous, occupying a singular position and placed by Stejneger near the Apteryx and certain extinct forms. They differ from all other Carinatæ (q.v.) in the character of the palate, which is like that of the ostrich. The order contains only a single family, which includes perhaps fifty species, all found only in South America. See TINAMOU.
CRYSTAL. See CRYSTALLOGRAPHY.
CRYSTAL CLASS and CRYSTAL SYSTEM. See CRYSTALLOGRAPHY.
wooden ware. Crystal Falls was chartered as a city in 1899. It is governed by a mayor and a unicameral council. Pop., 1904, 2981.
CRYSTAL FALLS. A city and the countyseat of Iron County, Mich., about 180 miles (direct) north of Milwaukee, Wis., on the Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul, and the Chicago and Northwestern railroads (Map: Michigan, E 2). The court-house and high school buildings are noteworthy. The city is of considerable importance commercially as the centre of a lumbering and iron-mining region, and manufactures
CRYSTALLIN. See GLOBULIN.
CRYSTALLINE LENS (Fr. cristallin, Lat. crystallinus, Gk. κpvorahλivós, krystallinos, from кpúσrahλos, krystallos, crystal, from κpvorá Kρúos, kryos, ve, krystancin, to freeze, from frost). A biconvex, transparent, solid body, situated immediately behind the pupil of the eye, and imbedded in the vitreous humor. Through it the rays of light from any object The crystalmust pass to reach the retina. line lens is more convex on its posterior than on the anterior surface, and its shape and consist. ency vary at different periods of life. In early youth it is nearly spherical and soft; as age advances it becomes flattened and firm. In the
adult human being measures three-eighths of an inch transversely, and one-sixth of an inch in antero-posterior diameter. The lens is retained in position by a capsule of equal transparency, composed of tissue exactly similar to the elastic layer of the cornea. The lens has no vascular connection with its capsule, but is nourished by means of a very delicate layer of nucleated cells on its surface, which absorb nourish. ment from the capsule.
An increase in the refracting power of the eye for the purpose of near vision is called 'accommodation.' The mechanism of accommodation is as follows: The ciliary muscle contracts, drawing forward the choroid and ciliary processes and reThe lens, which had been laxing the zonula. flattened by the tension of the zonula, assumes, through its own elasticity, a more spherical shape. The posterior surface of the lens alters but little in shape, being fixed rather firmly in place; but the anterior surface becomes more convex, and thus its refracting power is increased. The eye can see objects accurately at every distance between the far point' (the most distant point of distinct vision for that eye) and the near point.' The 'near point' is situated at that place at which the eye can begin to see clearly the fine print on a page held close to the eye and point' and the eye vision is indistinct, because the then moved slowly from it. Between the 'near ciliary muscle cannot, by any effort, produce the amount of convexity of the lens requisite for so short a distance. The term 'amplitude of accommodation' denotes the amount of accommodative effort it makes in order to adapt itself from its 'far point' to its 'near point.'
CRYSTALLINE ROCKS. A term used to include the igneous rocks (q.v.) and the metamorphic rocks (q.v.), both of which classes have a more crystalline texture than that of the sedimentary rocks.
CRYSTALLINE SCHISTS. See METAMORPHIC ROCKS.
CRYSTALLOGENY, kris'tal-lõj′ê-ni. CRYSTALLOGRAPHY.
(from Gk. *pú ora22os, krystallos, crystal + page, graphein, to write). The science which treats of crystals. A crystal is a portion of inorganic matter which has a definite molecular structure, and an outward form bounded by plane surfaces called crys tal faces. These faces are formed during the growth of the crystal, and have directions dependent upon the structure of the molecule of