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and an act which is perfectly harmless when committed in one country is considered in another as a contravention of the law. Each country has also a nomenclature of crime and methods of criminal procedure peculiar to itself. In each country the police are organized on a different principle and act on a different code of rules. Great differences of opinion exist also among different nations as to the gravity of certain of fenses. Whenever it shall be possible to collect criminal statistics in the several nations according to a uniform system, then criminology will have the necessary inductive basis for fruitful comparisons between nations.

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The narrow legal definition of crime as a violation of the law is scarcely of any value for philosophical purposes; and a scientific definition which shall include all acts which at any time have been called crimes, but include none other -which shall, moreover, specify their common characteristics remains yet to be found. seems highly probable that the study of primitive religious ideas and primitive social organization will throw considerable light upon the problem of discovering the essential nature of crime. It should be noted, meanwhile, that originally the question whether a certain act was criminal or not, and if criminal, how the perpetrator should be punished, was answered by the offended party-individual, family, or clan and not by the political organization of the whole people (the State). That the State should determine these matters and reserve to itself the right to judge and to punish is a result of quite recent evolution. Even to-day, the State is far from being the only coercive institution; duels, and, in a measure, lynching, are survivals of the previous status.

The question whether crime is increasing has been very widely discussed, pro and con; there appears to be a general opinion among experts that it is increasing. Certainly criminal statistics everywhere seem to bear out this view, with the possible exception of England; and even there, Mr. W. D. Morrison maintains, in his book on Crime and Its Causes, the total volume of crime is on the increase. According to the eleventh census of the United States, it appears that the criminal class in our country has increased from 1 in 3500 of the population in 1850 to 1 in 786.5 in 1890, or 445 per cent., while the total population has increased but 170 per cent. in the same period.

CAUSES OF CRIME. The factors responsible for crime may conveniently be divided into three great categories-cosmic, social, and individual.

The cosmic factors of crime are climate and the variations of temperature; the social factors are the political, economic, and moral conditions in the midst of which man lives as a member of society; the individual factors are those attributes inherent in the individual, such as descent, sex, age, bodily and mental characteristics. It is often extremely difficult to disentangle these factors; many of them, indeed, are indirectly at work where they appear to be absent. Heredity, for example, seems to belong clearly to the individual factors; but if we trace an inherited characteristic back through a long line of ancestors, it may finally be found to have its origin in the circumstances of environment or education. It has been aptly remarked that a

man's education should begin with his grandfather.

COSMIC FACTORS. How profoundly the physical structure, and likewise the mental life of man, is affected by his natural surroundings, by climate, seasons, soil, the configuration of the earth's surface and the nature of its products, is illustrated by the low type of life exhibited by the primitive inhabitants of inhospitable, barren countries. Concerning the influence of climate on crime, statisticians have concluded that crimes against the person, as assault and homicide, are relatively more numerous in warm climates, while crimes against property are more frequent in colder regions. The statistics of homicide in Europe show that the warmer countries, Italy and Spain, head the list in the proportion of murders to the population, while England, Scotland, and Holland stand at the bottom of the list. Prof. Enrico Ferri, after a thorough examination of French judicial statistics for a series of years, concludes that a maximum of crimes against the person is reached in the hot months, while crimes against property come to a climax in the winter. Crimes against the person are unduly high in the south and west of the United States; but here we have to consider not merely climate, but also race conflicts, pioneer conditions, and uncertain legal control.

SOCIAL FACTORS. Concerning the social factors of crime, it must be observed that the action of society upon the individual is so complex that it will here be impossible to discuss, even briefly, all these factors.

Considering, first, the conjugal condition of criminals, it appears that there is a higher ratio of criminality among the unmarried and divorced than among the married. A partial explanation of this fact may lie in the circumstance that married men and women, being subject to the restraining influences of home life, are much less apt to yield to those anti-social tendencies which manifest themselves in crime.

Considering, secondly, occupation, prison statistics show that the higher the character of a man's daily pursuits the greater the unlikelihood of his falling into crime. An examination into the previous occupations of criminals shows that a very large percentage were engaged in unskilled labor. According to the census of 1890, of 52,894 convicts, 31,426 were ignorant of any kind of trade. The economically low position of the unskilled laborer exposes him to frequent unemployment and want, and hence to the desperation which often leads to crime. French official statistics summarizing the results of over fifty years indicate the following number of indictments for every 100,000 members of each class: Agriculture, 8; liberal professions and proprietors, 9; industry, 14; commerce, 18; domestic service, 29; vagabonds and without trade or regular occupation, 405.

Thirdly, and closely related to occupation, is the influence of rural or city life on crime. In his Prisoners and Paupers (New York, 1893), Mr. H. M. Boies declares that our cities furnish 90 per cent. of our criminals. City life, with its crowded slums and tenements, he considers one great cause of crime. Cities are hotbeds of lawlessness as compared with rural neighborhoods. The city is the refuge and hiding-place of questionable characters; it intensifies the

struggle for existence, and by the sharp contrast it offers between rich and poor, between luxury and penury, excites envy and class hatred. Ao cording to Levasseur, urban population in France has a criminality double that of the rural population; while according to Mr. W. D. Morrison, London, with less than one-fifth of the population of England and Wales, furnishes one-third of the

indictable crimes.

A fourth point of great importance is the influence of poverty. If poverty in itself were a decisive factor, we would expect poor countries to produce the most criminals; but poor countries like Ireland, Spain, and Hungary show a smaller ratio of theft in the population than rich England. It is rather where great poverty exists side by side with great wealth that temptation is greatest and crime most frequent, especially crimes against property. Swift and unexpected industrial and commercial changes and hard times put character to unusual strains and increase the number of law-breakers. Inventions and progress in industrial processes often make it more difficult for men to support existence in their accustomed ways. There can be no doubt, moreover, that the keen struggle for existence imposed upon the poor classes disorganizes the family and destroys many of the beneficent influences of home life. It may reasonably be maintained, on the other hand, that excessive wealth, with the idleness that it frequently begets in the possessor, is quite as apt as destitution to lead to viciousness and crime. A wealthy criminal has, of course, more numerous and efficient means for escaping detection and punishment than a poor offender. Humanitarian novelists have accustomed the general public to the belief that hunger and pressing want frequently lead to theft. This belief does not by any means coincide with such facts as we possess; French criminal statistics indicate, for example, that thefts of food-bread, flour, meat, etc.-constitute only 51⁄2 per cent. of the total number committed during the period from 1830 to 1860.

Among the other factors of crime which may properly be classed as 'social' are: the influence of social theories which tend to engender contempt for human life and the institution of private property; the absence of a widespread, deep-seated religious spirit which restrains men from yielding to evil impulses; the corruption of partisan politics which permits the worst elements of the population to become the official guardians of the public peace and prosperity; lynching and public exhibitions of cruelty which debase human character; detailed accounts of crimes in the daily press; the influence of association and suggestion by which gangs of shiftless men or boys form centres of criminal life under the leadership of unscrupulous chiefs; social disturbances like war, crises, revolutions, and expositions, which disturb the even tenor of social progress and relax the social bond.

INDIVIDUAL FACTORS. Finally the individual factors of crime should be briefly considered. They have been carefully studied by a score of scientists, beginning with Lombroso, the founder of criminology, who was disposed at first to overlook all but the individual factors. Sex. In all civilized nations women are less addicted to crime than men, and girls less than boys. Among most European peoples between five and six males are tried for offenses against the law to

every one female. Women are less inclined to acts of violence than men on account of their physical weakness, but when women do become criminals their crimes are frequently characterized by a cruelty and relentlessness not found in male offenders. The crimes of women are mostly infanticide, abortion, poisoning, domestic theft. They are addicted equally with men to the perpetration of parricide, and more frequently convicted than men of parricide. Women are also more hardened criminals than men, probably because a woman may regain her rank in society only with the greatest difficulty. Age.—In proportion to the population crime is, as we should expect, at its lowest level from infancy till the age of sixteen. From that age it goes on steadily increasing in volume till it reaches a maximum between thirty and forty. Females do not enter upon a criminal career so early as males, and the criminal age is earlier in coming to a close for women than in the case of men. Education. The question whether education reduces or increases criminality is far from being conclusively answered. Those States which have the best systems of education have also the most criminals in their jails and prisons. But as a rule the proportion of our prison population unable to read or write is considerably higher than in the free population. M. Henri Joly, an eminent French criminologist, maintains that most frequently passions and vices which have nothing to do with instruction are the veritable motives of crime. It seems reasonably certain, however, that the lack of instruction in manual and trade processes and the absence of personal, moral, and spiritual influences account for much of the tendency to crime. Drunkenness.—All authorities agree that intemperance is a serious cause of crime. It weakens the will, leads to evil associations, dulls the conscience. Statistical information concerning this point is usually non-official and of little scientific value. Heredity.-Individual degeneracy, which Dr. Ferri has shown to be closely connected with crime, is frequently passed on from generation to generation. The diagrammatic history of eight families given by Dr. Strahan in his book on Marriage and Disease illustrates the degenerate tendencies transmitted from father to children throughout several generations. Similarly, Dugdale, in his book on the Jukes, has traced the posterity of a criminal and found that the great majority of his descendants possessed vicious or criminal instincts.

Lombroso and his disciples attribute criminality to anatomical, physiological, and psychical peculiarities of the individual, and have inaugurated the study of the criminal as a being separate and different from normal man and woman. The biological peculiarities of the criminal are so marked that Lombroso speaks of a 'criminal type,' and enumerates the characteristics which constitute this type: height and weight above the average; asymmetry of the skull, brain, and face; brain lighter in weight than the normal; light hair; scant beard; retreating forehead; projecting eyebrows and ears; long arms; insensibility to physical pain; pointed skulls; heavy lower jaws; defective lungs; tendency to diseases of the heart and of the sexual organs, etc. Criminal anthropologists, however, are far from agreeing upon these anomalies, and often reach conclusions divergent

from and sometimes contradictory to those of veloped flexible arms. The graceful flower-like Lombroso. The French sociologist Tarde has appearance of the stalked crinoids has given very aptly suggested that perhaps the character- them the names of 'sea-lilies' for the living istics of the criminal are rather the consequence species, and 'stone-lilies' for the fossil varieties. of his career than the cause. For bibliography The group is of great interest both to the see MacDonald, Hearing on the Bill to Establish zoologist and paleontologist, but the complex a Laboratory for the Study of the Criminal, Pau- modifications of the plates of the calyx, and the per, and Defective Classes (Washington, 1902). usually imperfect conditions of preservation, Consult also Morrison, Crime and Its Causes make their study a matter of considerable diffi(London, 1891); Rylands, Crime: Its Causes and culty. At the present time the group is on the Remedy (London, 1899); MacDonald, Criminol- decline, and most of the modern ogy (New York, 1893); Joly, Le crime, Etude species, those free-swimming kinds sociale (Paris, 1894); Marsh, Crime and the like Antedon and Actinometra, are Criminal (London, 1899); Drähms, The Crim- regressive descendants from earlier inal, his Personnel and Environment (New York, stalked forms. Although about 1900); Forel and Mahain, Crime et anomalies 300 living species of crinoids are mentales constitutionelles (Geneva, 1902); known, the developmental stages of Hall, Crime in its Relation to Social Progress only one genus, Antedon, a stem(New York, 1902); Boies, Science of Penology less form, have been worked out, (New York, 1901); Kellor, Experimental Sociol- and the habits of the living stalked ogy (New York, 1901); MacDonald, Man and crinoids are little known. Abnormal Man (Washington, 1905). See LoмBROSO; PENOLOGY; PRISONS; REFORMATORIES.

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CRIMMITSCHAU, krim'mit-shou. A town of the Kingdom of Saxony, on the Pleisse, about 39 miles south of Leipzig (Map: Germany, E 3). It has extensive cotton and woolen mills and machine works. Population, in 1890, 19,972; in 1900, 22,840; in 1905, 23,420.

CRIMP (from Dutch krimpen, OHG. chrimpfan, krimfan, to bend together, from chrampfa, Ger. Krampe, Engl. cramp). The name given to an agent for supplying ships with seamen. They are usually in league with the most disreputable class of lodging-house and saloon keepers and with prostitutes in the endeavor to fleece the sailors as rapidly as possible. The latter can then be forced aboard ship. There are numerous laws for the protection of seamen against the extortion of crimps and their dealings with masters of vessels who need crews, but these laws are unable to reach a very large proportion of cases; and some of the laws, while not greatly injuring the crimp, seriously affect the interests of a sailor who is not in need of legal protection, and those of the honest lodging-house keeper.

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STRUCTURE AND DEVELOPMENT. The crinoid animal consists essentially of two parts, the

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EXISTING CRINOIDS. Representative species from the Atlantic: 1. Actinometra pulchella; 2. Rhizocrinus Lofotensis. (After A. Agassiz.) head, or calyx, and the stem or column. The calyx bears five or ten generally forked pinnulated arms attached to its sides, has upon its upper ventral surface a central mouth and an eccentric or lateral anal opening, and is itself supported by the column attached to its lower or dorsal surface. The calyx is a spherical or cup-shaped box made up of polygonal stony plates that are arranged in more or less regular horizontal series, and in vertical series according to the plan of pentamerous bilateral symmetry so prominent in the higher Pelmatozoa. The calyx contains the body-cavity, in which are the vital organs consisting of the simply coiled alimentary canal, and the central portions of the nervous, generative, and water-vascular systems. Prolongations of these latter systems extend into the arms. These are outgrowths of certain vertical rows of the calyx plates, termed the 'radials,' and are capable of free movement. In many of the earlier, more primitive crinoids, like Pisocrinus, the arms are simple; in the more specialized forms, Pentacrinus, they are quite complex and fork frequently. In all crinoids the arms bear pinnules and are provided with

of the adult free-swimming Antedon. Almost nothing is known of the ontogeny of the host of fossil crinoids.

HABITS AND DISTRIBUTION. The modern Comatulidæ, like Antedon, Actinometra, etc., have a very wide distribution, and are usually found in waters less than 150 fathoms in depth, although one species of the Antedon has been dredged from the great depth of 2900 fathoms. The habits of Antedon are best known. It is a gregarious animal and Verrill has obtained 10,000 individuals in a single trawl in the North Atlantic. It lives mostly in the upper layers of the water, but when exposed to the direct rays of the sun, it curls up its arms and sinks. When clinging by its cirri to a coral or rocky point and disturbed, it releases itself immediately and swims away by graceful movements of the arms, or crawls on its arms like a spider over the bottom. Sudden changes of temperature stun it; it sinks to the bottom and soon dies. When these animals find themselves in uncomfortable surroundings, as when taken in the dredge and placed in aquaria, they drop off their arms, which break at specially fused joints, called 'syzygies,' but the arms are restored through regeneration if the crinoid survives. The stalked crinoids are also gregarious animals, but they are more restricted in their distribution, and inhabit deeper waters. The majority of fossil stalked crinoids are found in rocks that were undoubtedly comparatively shallow-water deposits, and because the calcareous plates of the calyx, and to a lesser degree those of the stem, fall readily apart after the death of the animal, perfect specimens are quite rare finds. The food of crinoids has been ascertained to consist of minute crustaceans, diatoms, spores of algæ, foraminifera, and radiolarians.

cilia. The feathery branches of the arms screen food from the water, while the ciliated grooves transport the food to the mouth through the food-grooves, which are continued over the ventral surface from the bases of the arms to the mouth-opening.

The ventral surface of the calyx in modern genera is usually covered by a tough skin, but in the Paleozoic forms it was often covered by a superficial 'vault' or 'tegmen' of calcareous plates. The mouth is then underneath the tegmen or ventral covering and communicates with the food-grooves of the arms through closed stony tubes. In these genera the plates of the vault are often so arranged as to form an elevated 'proboscis' (Batocrinus), at the summit of which is the anal opening, which is thus placed above the ends of the arms. The crinoid stem is attached to the base of the calyx, and consists of calcareous plates loosely joined together to allow of a considerable degree of flexibility. Increase in the length of the stem is accomplished by the growth of new columnar plates between the base of the calyx and the top of the column. In form the columnar plates are discoid, and of circular or pentagonal outline, and all are pierced by a central cavity through which passes the neuro-vascular canal of the column. Most crinoid stems are furnished at their lower ends with root-like branches that serve to anchor the animal in muddy or sandy bottoms; others, Apiocrinus, have a disk-like expansion that is cemented to rocky surfaces. Several genera, especially in later geologic and modern times, have columns supplied with lateral branches, called 'cirri,' which are similar in construction to the stem itself. The pentacrinids have the longest stems known, some of the fossil forms from the Upper Lias rocks of Württemberg having been found with stems ranging from 15 feet to the extraordinary length of 50 feet. Some forms of crinoids, such as Agassizocrinus of the Carboniferous, Uintacrinus of the Cretaceous, and Antedon of recent seas, have no stem and are free-swimming animals, using their arms for locomotive purposes. Uintacrinus is the most remarkable of these, for with a body only two or three inches in diameter, it has delicate feathery tentacles nearly six feet long, that served both as swimming-organs and as food-screens. Living Antedon, without a stem, has a whorl of cirri at the base of the calyx, and by means of these it anchors itself to the bottom. In other stemmed forms, as Woodocrinus from the Carboniferous, the base of the stem appears never to have been attached, as it ends in a simple point.

The development of Crinoidea is known for only one genus, Antedon, the feather-star, and this cannot be considered as typical of the class as a whole, as it presents a case of regressive development. Antedon appears from the egg as an elliptical free-swimming larva that is crossed by four transverse ridges, has a posterior bundle of bristles and a lateral mouth, and that resembles in many respects an annelid larva. This larva increases in size, and inside of it develops an animal with the form of a cystoid, with a head of loosely jointed perforated plates, a column, and a basal columnar plate. For a time this stalked larva is attached, and it resembles a primitive crinoid, but soon the stem is absorbed and the animal assumes the form

FOSSIL CRINOIDS. About 175 genera and 2000 species of fossil crinoids are known. They appear first as very simple forms in Ordovician rocks, and they increase rapidly, becoming important elements of the faunas in the Silurian, Devonian, and Carboniferous periods. In some regions they were exceedingly abundant, for their fossil remains form great beds of limestone known as 'crinoidal' or 'encrinal limestone,' which are found in formations of various ages. In the Silurian system alone, about 400 species, distributed among 70 genera, have been obtained from mostly three localities: the island of Gotland, the Wenlock of England, and the Niagara group of North America. Some of the more characteristic genera are Pisocrinus, Crotalocrinus, Calceocrinus, Calli

EXPLANATION OF PLATE.

1. An encrinite (Encrinus), fossil in the Trias. 2. Larva of a feather-star (see Figs. 10 and 7). 3. Batocrinus pyriformis, fossil in the Subcarboniferous of Iowa. 4. Pisocrinus flagellifer, fossil in the Silurian of Gotland; a, posterior view of a perfect calyx; b, calyx seen from one side. 5. Type of calyx with a coriaceous skin in which calcareous plates are imbedded. 6. A free-swimming crinoid (Saccomya pectinata), fossil in the Upper Jurassic lithographic cipal pieces in the calyx of a crinoid: b, basals; ib. infraslates of Bavaria. 7. Diagram of arrangement of prinbasals; r radials; cd, centrodorsal (compare Fig. 2 where the letters are the same, plus o, orals). 8. Woodocrinus macrodactylus from the Carboniferous of Yorkshire, Eng. 9. Aprocrinus. A, longitudinal section through the uppermost stem-joints of Apocrinus Parkinsoni (Oölitic), showing empty spaces between them: B. restoration of the base of another species (Apocrinus Royssianus, Upper Jura). 10. A feather-star (Antedon rosacea) now living on European coasts; Fig. 2 is the larva of this, showing de veloping plates (see Fig. 7) of the calyx. See article FEATHER-STAR. 11. An existing deep-sea 'stone-lily' (Metacrinus interruptus).

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For description. see article CRINOIDEA.

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