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schools. Almost annually, in recent years, either an English, Australian, or Irish eleven has visited Philadelphia, New York, and Toronto. The Intercollegiate Cricket League is composed of teams representing the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard, and Haverford.

The game is played between two teams of eleven men each, on a level grass-field, but the exigencies of climate in Australia and the Pacific Slope of California sometimes necessitate a cement-based, matted stretch. In the centre of the field a wicket is pitched; i.e. three stumps of wood about 11⁄2 inches in diameter and 27 inches high are placed in a line so that with the space between them they cover eight inches; on the top of these are two light wooden bails. Twenty-two yards in a direct line from and opposite these, three similar bail-topped stumps are erected. A line from each wicket or set of stumps 8 feet, 8 inches in length with the stumps in the centre is drawn. This is the bowling crease, beyond which the bowler must not pass when delivering the ball. In front of the stumps, four feet from them, and parallel with them, another white line is drawn, called the popping-crease, within which is the batsman's domain. The bat used must not be longer than 38 inches or wider than 44 inches. The ball is 3 inches in diameter and weighs about 5% ounces. An umpire is appointed by each team, and, before starting a match, they settle what shall be considered boundaries and other conditions of play. Then the captains toss for the right to select which team shall go to the bat first. The team which so elects sends two men in, one to each wicket; the other team sends a bowler to one end and disperses the other ten men about the field in such positions as the captain's knowledge of the kind of bowler, and the kind of batter, indicates to him as likely to be most efficacious. The umpire then calls 'play,' and the bowler bowls, not throws, the ball from the end opposite the batter. If it is a ball which the batsman can reach, he either blocks it or hits it to some part of the field; if he thinks he can run to the opposite wicket and the other batsman change places with him before the ball is returned and either wicket thrown down with it, he runs; and a 'run' is scored each time the

batsmen cross each other. The bowler bowls four, five, or six balls (four in a three days' match) from one end; and then the ball is handed over to a second bowler, who bowls an equal number of balls from the opposite end. The batsman may be put out in any of the following ways: if he fails to defend his wicket and the bowled ball knocks off the bails (bowled'); a fielder catches a batted ball before it touches the ground ('caught'); should the batsman fail to have his bat or any part of his person within the popping-crease before his wicket is thrown down with the ball ('run out'); if he steps out of his ground to play a ball, misses it, and the wicket-keeper throws his wicket down with it before he can step back ('stumped'); if when a straight ball has been bowled to him, which in the judgment of the umpire would have hit his wicket had he not prevented it by interposing any part of his body except his hand ('leg before wicket'); if in playing at the ball he knocks down his own wicket (hit wicket'); or if he willfully obstructs the fielders. When a batsman is put out another takes his place, and the

game proceeds until the tenth man is out. Then, there being no more batsmen to come, the eleventh man's innings comes to an end, he being 'not out.' The total number of runs made off the bats, with a few penalties added which it is not necessary to detail here, make up that side's score. Then the other side goes in to bat. Each eleven has normally two innings taken alternately, the total score of each side determining the result of the match.

Lillywhite, Cricketers' Annual, and Wisden, Cricket Almanack, are the standard authorities on the rules for the current years. Consult: Murdoch, Cricket (London, 1893); Lyttelton, Outdoor Games: Cricket and Golf (London, 1901); Prince Ranjitsinhji, The Jubilee Book of Cricket (Edinburgh, 1897); Read, Annals of Cricket (London, 1897); Spalding's Cricket Guide (issued annually); Warner, Cricket in Many Climes (Phila., 1901), and Cricket Across the Seas (New York, 1903).

CRICKET-FROG. A small frog (Acris gryllus; northern specimens are variety crepitans) abundant throughout the warmer parts of the United States, east of the plains, and noted for its rattling cricket-like cries in spring. (See Colored Plate with TOAD.) It is about an inch long, brownish, with a blackish triangular patch (apex backward) between the eyes, the borders of which are light-colored, continued as a dorin spring yellow, and legs barred; but all these sal band to the rear end of the body; throat colors change with surroundings, as the species possesses the power of metachrosis in a high degree. "The note of this species," says Cope, together, first slowly, then faster and faster, for "may be exactly imitated by striking two marbles a succession of about twenty or thirty beats. The noise cannot be heard at a very great distance. and around marshy places, seldom if ever asIt keeps on the high grass in cending trees or bushes. When pursued it leaps with prodigious agility and hides under water.” attached to the blades of coarse grass. A short Their eggs are deposited in April, in little masses time afterwards all the great numbers which off, so that until the eggs hatch and the young make the marshes so noisy in April and May die peepers' develop late in August, the species is the Habits of the Savannah Cricket-Frog," in practically extinct. Consult Abbott, "Notes on American Naturalist (Philadelphia, 1882).

CRICKET ON THE HEARTH, THE. A Christmas tale by Charles Dickens (1845), in which a cricket on the hearth and a tea-kettle play an important part.

CRIEFF, kref. A police burgh and health resort in Perthshire, Scotland, on the Earn, 17 miles west of Perth (Map: Scotland, E 3). It is beautifully situated at the foot of the Grampians, near the entrance to the Highlands. Its healthful climate makes it a summer resort of invalids, for whom there is provided a high-class hydropathic establishment. There are numerous handsome country seats in the vicinity. The greatest Scotch cattle market was held here till 1770, when it was removed to Falkirk. Popu lation, in 1901, 5208.

CRILLON, krê'yôn', LOUIS DES BALBES DE BERTON DE (1541-1615). A celebrated French general, surnamed 'L'homme sans peur,' and 'Le Brave.'' He was born at Murs, in Provence, and

was trained for war under François de Lorraine, Duke of Guise, then the model of military chivalry. In 1558 he gave proof of his valor at the siege of Calais, and soon afterwards at the capture of Guines. In the religious wars he fought against the Huguenots, and distinguished himself at the battles of Dreux, Jarnac, and Moncontour. He was likewise present at the battle of Lepanto, in 1571, and, though wounded, was appointed to carry the news of the victory to the Pope and the French King. He disapproved strongly of the massacre of Saint Bartholomew, but in 1573 he took part in the siege of La Rochelle. He accompanied Henry of Anjou to Poland, and after the latter's accession as Henry III. continued faithful to his sovereign in his struggle with the Catholic League. Henry IV. found in him a sincere friend and adviser, and called him 'Le Brave des Braves.' After the

peace with Savoy, Crillon retired to Avignon, and, after the fashion of a true Catholic warrior, ended his days "in the exercise of piety and penance."

CRIM. CON. An abbreviation for CRIMINAL CONVERSATION, which is the technical term for adultery with another man's wife. It is no defense to an action by the husband, in such a case, that the wife freely assented to the defendant's request, for the husband does not sue for a wrong done to her, but to himself. The gist of the action is the shame which has been inflicted upon him, and the hazard, to which he is subject, of maintaining spurious issue. It is, therefore, quite distinct from the wrong of enticing the wife away from the husband, although, like seduction (q.v.), it is looked upon as a personal injury to the husband. He may condone the wife's offense, and thus lose his right to secure a divorce, without affecting his right to damages against the paramour. It has been judicially declared that the law will not hold a party remediless for an injury of this kind because, through the exercise of Christian virtue, the influence of family interest, or even in the want of what may be regarded as true manly spirit, he forgives an erring wife, and trusts in her reformation and promise of future good conduct and virtue. He may forgive the wife without forgiving the author of the defilement, and of his loss, wrong, and injury. See ADULTERY, and consult the authorities there referred to.

CRIME (OF., Fr. crime, It. crimine, from Lat. crimen, accusation, from cernere, Gk. Kpivεv, krinein, to decide). Crime has been defined as "disobedience to a command or prohibition made with reference to a matter affecting public peace, order, or good government to which a sanction is attached by way of compensation for the injury which the act or omission may have caused to an individual."

treason (q.v.), felony (q.v.), and misdemeanor (q.v.); treason being separated from other high crimes because of its character, its mode of trial, and its punishment, and the chief distinction between a felony and a misdemeanor being that the former occasioned the forfeiture of lands and goods, while the latter did not.

The same act, e.g. assault and battery, may subject the actor to a criminal prosecution by the State, and to a civil action in tort by the injured individual. Such an act is at once a breach of the public peace and an invasion of the injured person's rights. In England and in each of our States certain offenses are crimes at common law, while others are made so by statute. Criminal offenses against the United States, however, are all of statutory origin. The common-law classification of crimes was into

CRIMINAL INTENT. In order that an act shall amount to a crime, it must be committed with a criminal intent. It is not a crime to take the life of a human being if this is done pursuant to a legal command, as in the case of a sheriff inflicting capital punishment upon a duly convicted and sentenced criminal; nor if it is the result of accident. In neither case does the person causing the other's death intend to commit a criminal act. But criminal intent is not necessarily synonymous with actual intent to become a criminal. A general criminal intent exists when the actor has an intellectual apprehension of the nature of the act which the law pronounces criminal, and voluntarily assents to its commission. In most crimes, no other intent is required. At times, however, the law requires a specific intent, as in the case of the transfer of one's property with intent to defraud his creditors, or sending poison to another with intent to injure him. Here, something more than knowingly and voluntarily disposing of the property, or sending the poison, is necessary to the commission of the crime, viz. the disposition or the sending with the specific intent to defraud or to injure. Insanity (q.v.) relieves its victim from criminal liability when it renders him incapable of forming a criminal intention. Voluntary drunkenness, even when causing temporary insanity, does not so relieve its victim, although it may be taken into account in of the actor, in determining whether he did the crimes requiring a specific intent on the part particular act with the specific intent. Infancy also relieves from criminal liability when the infant is incapable of forming a criminal intent. (See AGE.) Analogous to insanity and infancy, coercion or duress (q.v.) when of such a charas an excuse for an act otherwise criminal, is acter as to destroy the voluntary nature of See ACCESSORY; PRINCIPAL; PUNISHthe act. MENT; also CRIMINAL LAW; CRIMINOLOGY, and the authorities there referred to.

CRIME AND PUNISHMENT. A novel by Dostoyevsky, published in 1866. It is a study in abnormal psychology, dealing with a man and a woman of high character who are driven by want to murder and the lowest debasement.

CRIME'A (Russ. Krim, Krym, Lat. Chersonesus Taurica). A peninsula in the south of Russia, forming part of the Government of Taurida, and comprising the districts of Perekop, Eupatoria, Simferopol, Yalta, and Feodosia (Map: Russia, D 5). It is united to the mainland by the very narrow isthmus of Perekop, between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov, and separated from the peninsula of Taman, on the east, by the narrow Kertch Strait. The Crimea is thus almost surrounded by water-on three sides by the Black Sea and on the fourth by the Sea of Azov; while a trench 70 feet wide and 25 feet across the isthmus of Perekop cuts it off from the mainland. The Crimea is quadrilateral in shape; but a long, narrow peninsula juts out on the east which increases the extreme length of the terri

tory from east to west to nearly 200 miles, the breadth being 110 miles. The area is about 9800 square miles. The coast is very much broken and indented, particularly on the side bordering on the Sea of Azov. The northern portion is a continuation of the southern Russian steppes, and is of argillaceous formation. Along the side facing the southeast there is a highland region, the Yaila Mountains, forming the watershed. These mountains rise to a height of over 5000 feet, their most interesting peak being the Tchatir Dagh (Tent Mountain), the Mons Trapezus of the ancients. The streams rise in the southeast coast highlands, and while a few very short ones flow toward the east and southeast, most of the drainage goes into the Bay of Kalamita, the Gulf of Perekop, and the Sivash or Putrid Sea, which is a portion of the Sea of Azov almost cut off from it by the tongue-like peninsula of Arabat. The northwest section of the Crimea has but little fluvial drainage. The southern district of the peninsula rises with steep slopes from the sea, while spurs and secondary chains extend northward. These are richly wooded, but the beautiful intermediate valleys gradually sink into the uniform and desolate steppe which forms the northern and much greater part of the peninsula. The southern district of the Crimea is well cultivated, and is adorned by many country-seats of the nobles, with parks and gardens surpassed by none in Europe. The famous Imperial country-seat of Livadia is situated near the southern extremity of the peninsula. Tatar villages, mosques, and Greek convents are to be seen in most picturesque situations among the woods and rocks, with many ruins of ancient fortresses.

the principal tobacco-producing regions of Russia, the product being noted for its high qualities. The cultivation of fruit is extensively developed, the annual exports amounting to over $1,000,000. Vine-growing is one of the oldest industries of the region, and the native vines are widely exported. The rearing of live-stock (which includes camels) is extensively carried on, and bee-keeping and the raising of silk-worms are among the industries. The manufacturing industries are insignificant. Large quantities of salt are obtained from the salt lakes, which are very numerous. The population, 583,893 in 1897, is remarkably heterogeneous. In the country districts the bulk of the inhabitants are Tatars; height, 1.644 meters; cephalic index, 80. They are muscular and noted as porters. Cleanliness and morality are proverbial among them. Among the other non-Russian inhabitants are Greeks, Armenians, and Germans. interesting element in the population are the Karaite Jews. The two principal cities of the Crimea are Sebastopol, a great fortress and naval station, and Simferopol, the capital of the Government of Taurida. An interesting town is Bakhtchisarai, celebrated as the ancient capital of the Tatar Khans.

An

The southeast highland region produces a rich and varied flora. On the northern slopes and valleys grow hardy fruit and various forest trees; in the central mountain region are forests of oak, beech, elm, and other deciduous trees of central Europe; while on the higher southern slope the pine occurs, and at lower altitudes the vegetation is Mediterranean in character and the vine and the olive flourish. Grain of various kinds is produced abundantly, and silk, wax, and honey. Some small rodents, hares, and foxes are the chief mammals; reptiles and insects are not numerous. Much attention is bestowed upon horses, oxen, and sheep, in which no small part of the wealth of the country consists. The northern part of the Crimea is in every way a contrast to the southern. Apart from the general sterility of the region, the air is contaminated by exhalations from marshes, and from the Sivash. The climate of the Crimea varies considerably for such a slight extent in latitude. The northern part has cold winters and hot summers, while in the southern part the winters are warm and the heat of the summer is tempered by proximity to the sea.

The chief industry of the Crimea is agriculture. The raising of cereals is carried on mostly by the Russians and the colonists, chiefly Germans, while the Tatars and Greeks are engaged primarily in gardening. Owing to the scarcity of labor and the prevalence of large holdings, agriculture in the Crimea is based on modern lines, and the use of agricultural machinery is probably more prevalent there than in any other part of the Empire. The chief cereals raised are wheat, rye, barley, oats, and corn. The Crimea is one of

HISTORY. To the ancients Crimea was known as Chersonesus Taurica, from the Tauri, a mountain tribe of the south, who are supposed to have been the remnants of a Cimmerian people driven out by the Scythians in the seventh century B.C. In the sixth century B.C. the Greeks of Miletus founded flourishing colonies at Nymphæum, Theodosia, and Panticapæum (the present Kertch). About B.C. 500 these cities, together with several other towns, united to form the Kingdom of Bosporus, which existed till the fifth century A.D., and embraced, at the period of its greatest extent, the entire peninsula and the eastern coast of the Sea of Azov. The Chersonesus stood in close commercial and social relations with the Greeks of Europe, and especially with the Athenians, who exported from the country great quantities of grain and hides, as well as many slaves. In the first century B.C. Parisades, the ruler of Bosporus, hard pressed by the Scythians, acknowledged himself the vassal of Mithridates of Pontus, and when the latter's son, Pharnaces, was deprived of his possessions in Asia Minor by the Romans, he established himself in the Chersonesus. Under the nominal suzerainty of the Romans, and later of the Byzantines, the Kingdom of Bosporus prospered, till about the beginning probably of the fifth century, when it fell before the Huns. The country, with the exception of the southern coastland, which was held by the Byzantines, was henceforth devastated by a succession of barbarian invasions. About the middle of the seventh century the Khazars, a fierce tribe from the region of the Volga, took possession of the peninsula and established a powerful kingdom there, chiefly remarkable for the fact that the ruler, the entire nobility, and large numbers of the people became zealous adherents of the Jewish faith. In the thirteenth century the country was conquered by the Mongols, and it constituted till about 1430 a part of the Khanate of Kiptchak (q.v.). At the same time the Genoese founded a number of trading colonies on the southern coast, which was known as Gothia. Among these were Caffa (Kaffa), on the site of Panticapæum, which be

came a great emporium of the commerce between Europe and Asia. After forming a part of the independent Khanate of Krim for about fortyfive years, the Crimea was conquered in 1475 by the Turks, and was ruled by a khan under the suzerainty of the Sultan. In 1571 the Khan raided Moscow and sacked the town. Russian aggressions on the Crimea began in 1735, and in the following year an army under General Münnich laid the country waste. By the Treaty of Kutchuk-Kainardji, in 1774, the Porte was forced to recognize the independence of the Khan. In 1783 the country was incorporated with Russia. In 1854-56 the Crimea was the scene of conflict between the Russian armies and the allied forces of England, France, Sardinia, and Turkey. (See CRIMEAN WAR.) Consult: Telfer, The Crimea and Transcaucasia (London, 1872); Wood, The Crimea in 1854 and 1894 (London, 1895); Beaulieu, The Empire of Tsars and the Russians (New York, 1893).

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Early in the summer 20,000 English troops, under Lord Raglan, and 50,000 French soldiers, under Marshal Saint-Arnaud, assembled Varna, on the Black Sea. Against the advice of the Turks, who wished to drive Russia out of the Caucasus, Saint-Arnaud and Raglan decided upon the siege of Sebastopol, Russia's stronghold and depot in the Crimea. The var was thus narrowed down to a limited sphere, and was fought in a long siege and a series of stubborn engagements. The first of these occurred at the river Alma, on September 20, 1854, six days after the landing of the Allies. Saint-Arnaud died on September 29, and was succeeded by General Canrobert. At the beginning of October the Allies began the regular siege of Sebastopol, the defense of which was directed by Todleben. On October 25th the Russians attacked the British at Balaklava (q.v.). The engagement was marked by bad generalship on the British side, and by the gallant but ill-advised charge of the Light Brigade. The Russians followed this up with an unsuccessful attack at Inkermann on November 5. The severe winter caused the suspension of active operations, and the English and Turks endured terrible hardships because of the inadequate commissary arrangements. During the winter an international conference attempted to adjust matters, but without avail. Austria entered into an alliance with France and Great Britain; but as

Prussia could not be drawn into action unfavor

CRIMEAN WAR. The name given to the war of 1854-56 between Russia on the one hand, and Turkey with her allies, France, England, and Sardinia, on the other. It was ushered in by the struggle between Russia and Turkey, which broke out in 1853, the immediate occasion of which was the assertion by Russia of a protectorate over the Greek Christians in the Turkish dominions. Coupled with this was a dispute between Russia and France over the guardianship of the holy places in Palestine. The real ground, however, for the attitude assumed by France and Great Britain was resistance to the aggressive policy of the Russian Emperor, Nicholas I. The latter believed that the other Powers of Europe were not in a position to interfere, and saw an opportunity to continue the Russian advance which had Constantinople for its objective. Accordingly, in the spring of 1853 he submitted to the Porte, through Prince Menshikoff, an ultimatum in regard to the Greek Christians and other matters. England and France prepared to sustain the Sultan against Russia, and stationed their fleets in Besika Bay. In July the Russian forces advanced into the Danubian principalities. The Vienna Note, prepared by Austria and signed by the neutral Powers as a basis of settlement, was so modified by Turkey as to be unacceptable to Russia, and on October 4, 1853, Turkey declared war. The English and French fleets thereupon passed through the Dardanelles. Though the Turks were at first victorious upon land, the Russian admiral, Nakhimoff, won an important naval victory at Sinope, November 30; on March 12, 1854, France and Great Britain concluded an alliance with Turkey, and two weeks later they declared war against Russia. Prussia stood firmly neutral. Austria, though desirous of checking the Russian advance across the Danube, dared not become involved in a war on the east, leaving its western frontiers open to possible attack by Prussia and other States of the Germanic Confederation, and contented itself, therefore, with mobilizing an army on the southern frontier. The allied Western Powers determined to assist the Sultan by a naval expedition against Kronstadt, in the Baltic, and by a combined attack with land forces in the south. The Baltic expedition proved a complete failure, achieving nothing beyond the capture of Bomarsund on August 16.

able to Russia, Austria refrained from entering into hostilities. Sardinia, on the other hand, joined the Allies in January, 1855, and sent 10,000 men of her new army, under General La Marmora, to the Crimea. (See CAVOUR and ITALY.) The Russians resumed activities in February, assailing the Turkish positions at Eupatoria, but without result. After the death of the Emperor Nicholas and the accession of Alexander II., in March, 1855, Prince Michael Gortchakoff succeeded Prince Menshikoff in command of the Russian forces.

Operations were renewed with great vigor in the spring, the Allies having 174,000 men in the field and the Russians about 150,000. General Pélissier succeeded Canrobert in command in May, and General Simpson succeeded Lord Raglan, upon the latter's death in June. A Russian army, advancing to the relief of Sebastopol, was defeated at the Tchernaya on August 16. From the 19th of August to the 8th of September a terrible bombardment of the besieged city was kept up, and was followed on the latter day by a general assault, in which the French took the Malakoff Tower and the British took the Little Redan. Gortchakoff now blew up the southern fortifications and evacuated the city, retiring into the hills. General Muravieff captured Kars, in Armenia, on November 28. All the parties were ready for peace, which was signed at Paris, where a congress of the Powers The had been in session, on March 30, 1856. integrity of the Ottoman Empire was guaranteed by the Powers, which also renounced all right of intervention in Ottoman affairs; reforms were promised by the Sultan; Russia renounced her protectorate over the Danubian principalities, and ceded a strip of Bessarabia to Moldavia; the navigation of the Danube was declared free to all nations under the supervision of a commission of members from the bordering States; the Black Sea was neutralized. The Congress

united in the Declaration of Paris (q.v.), which laid down certain principles of international law. Consult: Hamley, The War in the Crimea (London, 1891), the best short treatment in English. The standard work is Kinglake, The Invasion of the Crimea (9 vols., London, 1863-87); also Russell, The War in the Crimea, 1854-56 (London, 1855-56); Marx, The Eastern Question, 1853-56, trans. by E. M. and E. Aveling (London, 1897); Lodomir, La guerre de 1853-56 (Paris, 1857); Lysons, The Crimean War from First to Last (London, 1895); "Russian Side of the Crimean War,” National Review (November, 1864); Kovalevski, Der Krieg Russlands mit der Türkei in den Jahren 1853-54 (Leipzig, 1869).

CRIME DE SYLVESTRE BONNARD, krêm de sêl'věs'tr' bô'när', LE. A graceful romance by Anatole France (1881). The hero, M. Bonnard, is an old member of the Institute, whose 'crime' consists in releasing a young girl from a boarding-school in which she was unhappy, and bringing about a happy marriage

for her.

CRIMINAL CONVERSATION. See CRIM.

CON.

CRIMINAL LAW. A phrase signifying the body of legal rules which define criminal offenses, prescribe their punishment, and provide for the apprehension and trial of persons charged with crime. The tendency at present is to codify this branch of the law. In New York, for example, the substantive part of criminal lawthat is, the part which defines criminal offenses and their penalties-is embodied in a Penal Code, while the adjective part, or the part regulating the arrest and trial of offenders, constitutes the Code of Criminal Procedure. The Constitution of the United States and the various State constitutions contain important provisions relating to criminal procedure. See especially the Fifth and Sixth Amendments of the United States Constitution, and similar clauses in the State constitutions, securing a jury trial, indictment by a grand jury, and other rights to persons charged with crime.

The more important criminal offenses are dealt with under their respective titles.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Blackstone, Commentaries on the Laws of England; Bishop, New Criminal Law (Boston, 1900); Robinson, Elements of American Jurisprudence (Boston, 1900); also the Encyclopædia of the Laws of England (London, 1897); Archbold, Pleading, Evidence, and Practice in Criminal Cases (2d ed., London, 1900); Harris, Principles of Criminal Law (8th ed., London, 1899); Pollock and Maitland, History of English Law (2d ed., Boston, 1899); Stephen, History of the Criminal Law of England (London, 1883); id., General View of the Criminal Law of England (New York, 1890); Phillips, Comparative Criminal Jurisprudence (Calcutta, 1889); Clarke and Marshall, Treatise on the Law of Crimes (St. Paul, 1905). See LAW, CRIMINAL. Consult authorities under JURISPRUDENCE; CRIMINOLOGY; PENOLOGY; etc.

knowledge is usually given to Cesare Lombroso (q.v.), an Italian professor in the University of Turin, who in 1876 published a remarkable book entitled L'uomo delinquente (Criminal Man). Since its appearance, quite a number of eminent scientists-physicians, jurists, economists, and sociologists-have taken up the study of crime and criminals. There is, however, such a difference of opinion concerning the fundamental causes or factors of crime that criminologists are divided into several groups. These groups may be classified under two large divisions, their difference turning upon the emphasis laid upon the individual causes of crime, on the one hand, or upon its social causes, on the other hand. The criminal, one party asserts, is born, not made; he is a criminal by nature, and the

CRIM'INOL'OGY (from Lat. crimen, crime + Gk. 2oyía, logia, account, from 2yew, legein, to say). The science which treats of the nature and causes of crime. As a separate study it is of comparatively recent growth, and the credit for its foundation as an independent branch of

career.

circumstances of education or environment have little or nothing to do with his law-breaking The opposing party maintains that social organization, education, environmentcauses lying outside the individual-really determine whether or not he will become a criminal. As a rule, those who adhere to the former point of view conceive the study of crime as a part of anthropology, a part of the study of man; while those who believe that social conditions furnish the causes and explanation of crime consider this study a part of sociology. Thus the two terms usually applied to criminology, 'criminal anthropology' and 'criminal sociology,' each indicate a prejudice in favor of one or the other of the tendencies characterized above.

The subject of criminology is a complicated and difficult one. It is only within the present generation that the possibility has arisen of conducting the study of criminal problems on anything approaching an exact and scientific basis. Before the introduction of a system of criminal statistics it was impossible to ascertain whether crime was increasing or decreasing, what transformation it was passing through in consequence of the social, political, and economic changes constantly taking place in all highly organized societies, and what was the effect of punishment on the criminal population. Statistics, moreover, even when carefully collected, often mislead. Suppose, for example, that the number of convictions for crimes and misdemeanors has increased in Belgium from 22,359 in 1870 to 40,372 in 1890; this does not necessarily mean that crime has increased, for the total population may have increased more rapidly than the number of offenses, and in such an event criminality has really diminished. The larger number of convictions in 1890 may, perhaps, be due to an increase in the number of punishable offenses because of the enactment of severer laws; certain acts legally permissible in 1870 may have be come misdemeanors in 1890. Another possible explanation of a merely apparent increase in criminality is offered by the fact that perhaps the police have become more efficient or more vigilant, and that therefore many offenders who escaped in 1870 are now brought before the courts and condemned. These three possible explanations are sufficient to show how careful we must be in the employment of criminal statistics. Particularly when we go beyond the statistics of a single nation and attempt to compare two or more nations with a view to their relative criminality, we must be even more cautious. In no two countries is the criminal law the same,

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