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sympathy, if not active aid, in its struggle with Turkey, found itself alone. The concert of Powers, comprising Austria, England, France, Germany, Italy, and Russia, declared that Crete should be granted complete autonomy, but that annexation to Greece was impossible; they established a peaceful blockade of the island, and demanded that Greece recall its troops. The refusal of Greece plunged it into war with Turkey, the outcome of which destroyed all hopes of annexation. From 1897 to near the end of 1898 Crete was the scene of continuous violence. At length,

the Ottoman forces were withdrawn from the

island, and in December, 1898, Prince George of Greece was created High Commissioner of Crete for the Powers, for three years. A national assembly met and formed a constitution providing for the creation of a legislature, and guaranteeing freedom of religion to all inhabitants. Although order was restored, popular sentiment continued to be increasingly in favor of annexation to Greece, and in 1904 the High Commissioner attempted to gain the consent of the powers to such a step, but without success. There were revolts against the High Commissioner's arbitrary policy in 1904 and 1905; in the latter year a revolutionary assembly proclaimed the union of the island with Greece and this was followed by a similar proclamation on the part of the regular Chamber. The Powers intervened and after some desultory fighting the insurgents laid down their arms in November, 1905. Consult: Hoeck, Kreta (Göttingen, 182329); Raulin, Description physique de l'ile Crète (Paris, 1869); Bursian, Geographie von Griech enland, vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1869-72); Pashley, Travels in Crete (Cambridge, 1837); Spratt, Travels and Researches in Crete (London, 1865); Stillman, The Cretan Insurrection of 1866-68 (New York, 1874); Mitchell, The Greek, the Cretan, and the Turk (London, 1897); Annual of the British School at Athens, vol. vi., vii. (Athens, 1899-1901). See also ARCHEOLOGY; CNOSUS.

CRETE. A city in Saline County, Neb., 20 miles southwest of Lincoln; on the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy and the Missouri Pacific railroads (Map: Nebraska, H 3). It has a public library and is the seat of Doane College (Congregational), established in 1872, which has a well-equipped observatory. The principal industries comprise flour-mills, a butter tub factory, a creamery and nurseries. Settled in 1867, Crete was incorporated as a village in 1871, and is at present governed under a revised charter of 1886. The council is made up of the mayor and representatives from the city wards. The city owns and operates its water-works and electric-light plant. Pop., 1906 (local est.), 3500.

hospital, and an asylum; restored the mission among the Winnebagoes at Long Prairie, and founded new missions among the Ojibways. In three years he had increased the number of churches from one to twenty-nine, and to these had added thirty-five stations. He also began the building of the Cathedral of Saint Paul. Consult Clarke, Lives of the Deceased Bishops, vol. ii., pp. 415-500 (New York, 1872).

CRETIN, krå-tan', JOSEPH (1800-57). An American ecclesiastic, first Roman Catholic Bishop of Saint Paul, Minn. He was born in Lyons, France, pursued ecclesiastical studies in that diocese, was ordained priest, and in 1838 volunteered to assist Bishop Loras, of Dubuque, Iowa, as a worker in the American missions. Vicar-General of Dubuque until 1851, and pastor of the cathedral church of Saint Raphael for much of the time, he in that year received episcopal consecration as pioneer bishop of Saint Paul, and entered upon his work with a clergy of nine. He soon established a school, a seminary, a

He was

CRÉTINEAU-JOLY, krâ'té'no' zhô'lê', JACQUES (1803-75). A French author. born at Fontenay-le-Comte, Vendée. His first publications were verses, of which Les chants

romains (1826) are the best known. He then historical studies, particularly of the war of the wrote for the newspapers, and made special Vendée. gieuse, politique et littéraire de la Compagnie His principal work is l'Histoire relide Jésus (1844-46). This may be called the official history of the Order, and is written from unedited and authentic documents.

CRE'TINISM (Fr. crétinisme, from crétin, idiot; possibly from OF. christien, chrestien, Fr. chrétien, Christian, as being one of simple mind). A term applied, in a general sense, to idiocy, or defective mental development, depending upon local causes and associated with bodily deformity or arrested growth. Cretinism is very often found in connection with goitre (q.v.), in the lower Alpine valleys, not only of Switzerland and Italy, but of the Pyrenees, Syria, India, and hina. In Europe it is rarely met with at a higher elevation than 3000 feet, and haunts chiefly the valleys surrounded by high and steep walls of rock, which exclude the light and limit the free circulation of air. Cretins are either imbeciles with intelligence or idiots; their bodies are dwarfed, with curvature of the spine forward, pendulous belly, distorted legs, small, deepset eyes, large mouth, with protruding lower lip, sparse harsh hair, dry skin, and irregularly large or small skull.

Cretinism was thought to be due to lime in the drinking water of the districts in which these people live, but has been proved to be dependent upon disease of the thyroid gland. Treatment of adult cretins with thyroid gland, administered by the mouth, or by implanting thyroid glands from animals in the patients' bodies, has resulted in great improvement. Treatment of infant cretins with doses of the gland has resulted in a cure; but the thyroid must be taken as food for life, otherwise the patient relapses into an imbecile and the physical changes See GOITRE; THYROID GLAND.


CRETONNE, krê-ton' (so named after its manufacturer). Originally a white cloth of French manufacture. The name is now applied to a printed cotton fabric introduced about 1860 and used for curtains or for covering furniture. Chintz (q.v.), so much employed for the same purpose in former years, is a comparatively thin printed cloth highly glazed. Cretonne, however, is generally thick and strong, and with a twilled, crape, basket, wave, or other figure produced on the loom. When a pattern is printed on this uneven surface, it has a rich, soft appearance. cretonne is rarely calendered or glazed. thick weft threads of inferior qualities are commonly formed of waste cotton, and the patterns upon these, though often bright and showy, are as a rule printed in more or less fugitive colors.

A The

Some cretonnes are now printed on both sides with different patterns.

CREÜSA, krê-ú'sȧ (Lat., from Gk. Kpéovoa, Kreousa). (1) The wife of Jason, and daughter of King Creon of Corinth. She was burned to death with her father by the magical poisoned diadem and robe given to her as bridal gifts by Medea. (2) The daughter of Priam and Hecuba, and wife of Eneas. She disappeared during the flight from Troy, and when Eneas returned to the burning city to search for her she reappeared, announcing her adoption as a nymph by Cybele, and prophesying his coming good fortune in Italy.

CREUSE, krěz (Fr., hollow). A central department of France watered by the river from which it derives its name (Map: France, H 5). Area, 2150 square miles. Population, in 1896, 279,366; in 1901, 277,831. Low mountains and chains of hills, intersected by winding valleys, deep and narrow, occupy the greater part of the land. The streams, with the exception of the Creuse, are insignificant. The climate is moist and variable, and the soil poor. The products are rye, buckwheat, oats, and potatoes; but the rearing of cattle forms the chief branch of rural industry. Large quantities of chestnuts and fruit are grown. Coal is mined at Ahun and Bourganeuf, while iron, lead, tin, and antimony are found at various points. The people of Creuse use a coarse patois; they are generally industri us, and annually migrate in large numbers to find work in various parts of France. Capital, Guéret.

CREUSE. A river of France, rising in the mountains on the southern border of the Department of Creuse, flowing in a generally northnorthwest direction through that department, then in a northerly and westerly direction through Indre, then on the borders of the departments of Vienne and Indre-et-Loire, and falling into the Vienne, a tributary of the Loire, about 12 miles north of Châtellerault, after a course of 150 miles.

CREUSOT, krē'zo', LE. A town in the Department of Saône-et-Loire, France, 12 miles southeast of Autun (Map: France, L 5). It is situated in the midst of a district rich in coal and iron, and is noted as the seat of Schneider's immense works, comprising coal mines, ironfoundries, and extensive factories for the production of heavy cannon and other ordnance, locomotives, stationary engines, etc. These works employ 16,000 persons. Le Creusot also has glass manufactures. A statue of Eugène Schneider (1805-75), by Chapu, is a feature in the town. From a small hamlet, known as Charbonnière, Creusot rose to its present importance after the establishment of iron-works in 1770, and their development from 1837 by Messrs. Schneider. The population. which in 1841 was 4000, reached 32.034 in 1896; but by 1901 it had decreased to 30,584.

1761), which, with ten other poems, appeared in a volume edited by Gyllenborg (1795). A new edition of his poems was published in 1862.

CREUTZ, kroits, GUSTAF PHILIP, Count (1731-85). A Swedish politician and poet, born in Finland. In 1763 he was sent as Minister to Madrid, and in 1766 as Minister to Paris, where in 1783 he concluded with Benjamin Franklin a commercial treaty between Sweden and the United States. He was subsequently chancellor of the University of Upsala. He is chiefly known for the idyl Atis och Camella (Atys and Camilla,

CREUZER, kroi'tser, GEORG FRIEDRICH (17711858). A German philologist. He was born at Marburg, and studied there and at Jena. In 1802 he was appointed a professor at Marburg, and in 1804 obtained the chair of philology and ancient history at Heidelberg, which he occupied for forty-four years with great credit. In 1848 he retired to private life. He died at Heidelberg, February 15, 1858.

Creuzer's whole life was devoted to the study of antiquity. His first, and probably his greatest work, was Symbolik und Mythologie der alten Völker, besonders der Griechen (1810-12). This treatise, which asserted the symbolical character of ancient mythologies, excited a lively controversy, in which Hermann and Voss appeared as the opponents of Creuzer. His next work in importance was a complete edition of the works of Plotinus (3 vols., Oxford, 1835). Along with G. H. Moser, Creuzer edited several works of Cicero-De Natura Deorum (1818); De Legibus (1824); De Re Publica (1826); and De Divinatione (1828). Between 1837 and 1848 he published a partial collection of his writings in ten volumes (Deutsche Schriften, Leipzig and Darmstadt), the last of which contains an autobiog raphy of Creuzer under the title Aus dem Leben He was also a prolific eines alten Professors. In writer of essays on archæological topics. 1854 apeared Friderici Creuzeri Opuscula Selecta. CREUZNACH, kroits'näG. See KREUZNACH. CREVALLE (from Sp. caballa, horse-mackerel, from caballo, horse, from Lat. caballus, horse), or CAVALLY. A name in Florida and the West Indies for various edible mackerel-like seafish of the genus Caranx (family Carangida), especially the large horse-crevalle or jack (Caranx hippos), which is found on both coasts of the warm parts of America, and also in the East Indies. It is olivaceous above; sides and below golden; opercle marked with a large black blotch; canines of the lower jaw very prominent. It frequently exceeds fifteen pounds in weight, and is common in Florida, where it is regarded as a fine food-fish. A closely related species (Caranx caballus) of the Pacific Coast of Mexico is called 'cocinero' or 'cocinero dorado.' See JUREL; Plate of HORSE-MACKERELS, ETC.

CREVASSE, krâ-vȧs'. See GLACIER.

CREVAUX, krâ'vo', JULES NICOLAS (1847$2). A French explorer, born at Lorquin, Lor raine. He made four extensive tours through South America. On the first of these (1877) he visited the interior of Guiana and crossed to the Tumuchumac mountains, the first European to perform that feat. In the following year he visited the valley of the Rio Oyapok, and after exploring the Amazon region, returned to Paris. On his next tour, undertaken for the purpose of exploring the left affluents of the Orinoco, he traveled from Bogotá, along the upper Rio Negro to the Rio Guaviare, which he reached October 20, 1880. In 1882 he journeyed through the valley of the Paraná, explored the Tapajos and several other rivers, and discovered numerous remains of Inca civilization. While endeavoring to ascend the Pilcomayo, in order to visit certain Indian tribes, he was attacked by the Tobas and killed with nineteen of his companions; two Bolivians

it passed into the hands of the Moors, by whom it was held until 1263. Population, in 1900, 10,865.

of his escort alone escaped to relate the details of the catastrophe. An account of his explorations has since appeared under the title, Voyages dans l'Amérique du Sud (1883). work published by the Geographical Society of Paris, and entitled Fleuves de l'Amérique du Sud (1883), is also based upon his researches.


CRÈVECŒUR, krěv'ker', JEAN HECTOR SAINT JOHN DE (1731-1813). A French agriculturist, traveler, and author. He was born at Caen, and was educated in England. He came to America in 1754, bought an estate near New York, and married the daughter of an American merchant. He suffered much from the Revolu tionary War, and in 1780 was imprisoned three months in New York on suspicion of being a spy. He was sent to England as a prisoner, was exchanged, reached France in 1782, and introduced there the culture of the American potato. On his return to New York (November, 1783) as French Consul, he found his wife dead, his house burned; his children, too, had disappeared, but were finally found in the care of a kindly merchant. He had previously published Letters of an American Farmer (1782), which he translated into French and published in Paris. They gave such glowing accounts of the climate and fertility of America that five hundred families are said to have left France for the Ohio Valley on the strength of his statements. Most of them soon died there. He wrote also a volume on Potato Culture (in French), and A Journey in Upper Pennsylvania and in New York State (2 vols., in French, 1801). In his most important work, the Letters, Crèvecœur, disguising his French nationality, writes as a simple-hearted American farmer of slight education and narrow horizon. Internal evidence in his writings tends to indicate that he was a Quaker. He was a man of much cultivation, who refused to take any part in the fierce political and military controversies of the Revolution. His idyllic descriptions of life in the New World, with its approximation to Rousseau's state of nature, transformed crudity into an idealistic mirage that fascinated the philosopher. Yet in some ways Crèvecœur's ideals were such as typical Americans have rarely been without-he saw in prophetic vision the future glory of the country. He had an exquisite sympathy with natural life that makes some of his descriptive passages prose idyls of great beauty; for example, the beautiful passage describing him feeding quails in the snow. The Letters were translated into German and Dutch, and their idealized treatment of American rural life may perhaps be traced in Campbell, Southey, Coleridge, and Byron-possibly in Chateaubriand. After holding his consulship for ten years, Crèvecœur returned to France, dying at Sarcelles. Consult Tyler, Literary History of the Revolution (New York, 1897).

CREVILLENTE, krā'vê-lyān'tà. A town of Spain, in the Province of Alicante, about 20 miles west-southwest of the city of that name (Map: Spain, E 3). It is picturesquely situated at the foot of the hills near the boundary of Murcia and has a pretentious town hall, and a castle, formerly the possession of the Count of Altamira. Weaving and agriculture are the principal industries. Crevillente is supposed to have been founded by the Romans. Under the Goths it formed part of the Kingdom of Todmir;

VOL. V.-37.

CREW (older form also crue, apocopated from acreistre, Fr. accroître, to increase, from Lat. accrue, OF. acrewe, acreue, increment, from accrescere, to increase, from ad, to + crescere, to grow). A term used to designate the body of men employed to man a ship, boat, gun, etc. The crew of a full-rigged sailing ship is divided into five parts-forecastlemen, foretopmen, maintopmen, mizzentopmen, and afterguard; these are called the parts of the ship, and they are again subdivided into port and starboard watches, and each watch is again separated into first and second parts port (or starboard). Modern menof-war without sail-power usually have the crew divided according to the arrangement of the battery. It is customary to have four deck divisions and the guns are manned by them. In addition to these there are the powder division, engineer's division, and marines.

CREW, HENRY (1859-). An American physicist, born at Richmond, Ohio. He graduated at Princeton in 1882, was fellow in physics at the Johns Hopkins University in 1884-87, and instructor in physics at Haverford College in 1888-91. In 1891-92 he was astronomer of Lick Observatory, and in 1892 was appointed professor of physics at Northwestern University (Evanston, Ill.). He also became assistant editor of the Astrophysical Journal, and published Elements of Physics (1899).

CREWE, krōō. A town of Cheshire, England, about 43 miles southeast of Liverpool (Map: England, D 3). It is a central station of several railways and owes its importance to the establishment in 1843 of the immense workshops of the London and Northwestern Railway, which now employ more than 7000 men. Crewe was incorporated in 1877. Its affairs are administered by a mayor, a municipal council of nineteen, and a board of aldermen of seven members. (See GREAT BRITAIN, paragraph on Local Government.) Its supply of gas and water is provided by the London and Northwestern Railway. It has a modern system of sewerage connected with a sewage farm. Two hospitals, a technical school and school of art, public baths, and a large general market are maintained by the corporation. Among its chief industries are the manufacture of locomotives, railway-cars, clothing, and fustian. In 1851 its population was only slightly over 4000, in 1874 it had reached 18,000, in 1891 it was 32,774, and in 1901, 42,075.

CREW'LER. The name of an indigent clergyman's family in Dickens's David Copperfield. The wife has an infirmity of the legs which makes them susceptible to the least domestic trial. Traddles marries one of the daughters, after a long engagement.

CREYTON, krāʼton, PAUL. A pseudonym of J. T. Trowbridge.


CRIBBAGE (from crib, rack, Ger. Krippe, OHG. krippa, also chripfa; connected with MHG. krebe, basket, which is probably related to Lat. corbis, basket). A game of cards, which can be played by two, three, or four persons, but is

mostly played by two with a pack of fifty-two cards. When four persons are engaged, they take sides. The value of the cards is: face cards ten, ace one, and the rest as marked. The number of cards dealt is usually five. The points are scored on a board, and sixty-one constitutes game. The players cut for deal; the player who loses the deal takes three points, as a makeweight for the adversary's advantage. Five cards in alternate succession are then dealt, the rest of the pack being placed face downward on the table. The players gather up their five cards, inspect them and select two to place them on the table face down. These cards are called 'the crib,' and become the property of the dealer. The nondealer then cuts the remainder of the pack and the dealer turns up the top card. The play then begins, the player announcing the value of each card as he plays it: thus suppose it is a king he calls 10-the next player says, for example, 8; then another card is played by the first player, and so on until the whole amount reaches 31, or as near it, without exceeding it, as can be accomplished. The details of counting the points made in play are too intricate to exemplify in a general description. After the play of the hand is completed, each player counts all the fifteens he can by any combination make out of the cards he holds in conjunction with the 'turn up' card. Then the dealer takes up the four cards thrown out for the 'crib' by the two players as already mentioned and counts them in the same way in conjunction with the turn up or start card. Each party is entitled, in addition to the points made in play or in crib, to count 'pairs,' pairs royal,' 'double pairs royal,' and for 'the knave,' as well as to count sequences-three or more cards following in successive numbers-and flushes, when all the cards in crib are of the same suit. Consult: Cady, Cribbage (New York, 1897); 'Aquarius,' Piquet and Cribbage (Lon

don, 1883).

CRIBBING, or CRIB-BITING. A bad habit met with especially in the lighter breeds of horses, and those spending a considerable amount of time in the stable. The act consists in the animal seizing with his teeth the manger, rack, or any other such object, and taking in at the same time a deep inspiration, technically called wind-sucking. Cribbing springs often from idle play; may be first indulged in during groom ing, especially if the operation is conducted in the stall, and the animal be needlessly teased or tickled; is occasionally learned, apparently, by imitation from a neighbor; and in the first instance is frequently a symptom of some form of indigestion. Its indulgence may be suspected where the anterior edge of the front teeth is worn off, and will soon be proved by turning the animal loose where he can find suitable objects to lay hold of. It usually interferes with thriving and condition, and leads to attacks of indigestion. It can be prevented only by the use of a muzzle or throat-strap, by covering the mangers and other stable fittings with iron or by using box stalls without any manger or projecting wood.

Lord Advocate of Scotland from 1562 to 1573, and from 1573 to 1581. On his mother's side he claimed descent from the old Scottish kings. He was educated at Saint Andrews University. Before he reached his twentieth year he had, it seems, "run through the whole circle of the sciences," mastered ten different languages, and perfected himself in every knightly accomplishment. In Paris, Rome, Venice, Padua, and Mantua, he achieved the most extraordinary victories in disputation on all branches of human knowledge, and excited universal amazement and applause. The beauty of his person and the elegance of his manners also made him a great favorite; while, as if to leave no excellence unattained, he vanquished a famous swordsman in a duel at Mantua (1582). The Duke of Mantua appointed him preceptor to his son, Vincenzo di Gonzaga, a dissolute and profligate youth. One night, between 1585 and 1591, during a carnival, Crichton was attacked in the streets of Mantua by six masked men. He pushed them so hard that their leader pulled off his mask, and disclosed the features of Vincenzo. With an excess of loyalty, Crichton threw himself upon his knees and begged the young prince's pardon, at the same time presenting him with his sword, which the heartless youth plunged into the body of his tutor. What degree of truth there may be in the eulogies of his biographers it is impossible to determine, but he is known to have associated himself with the Venetian publisher Aldus Manutius, who is the authority for many otherwise unauthenticated biographical details. W. H. Ainsworth wrote a romance founded on the story of Crichton in 1837. Consult Tytler, The Life of James Crichton (London, 1819; revised ed. 1823).

CRICHTON, kri'ton, JAMES (1560-c.85), called THE ADMIRABLE CRICHTON. A Scotchman famous for his versatility and his universal accomplishments. He was the son of Robert Crichton, of Eliock, Dumfriesshire, who was joint

CRICKET (OF. crequet, Fr. criquet; ultimately imitative in origin). Any of the saltatorial insects of the orthopterous family Gryllidæ, distinguished from the Locustida by the cylindrical spear-shaped ovipositor of the female. The family contains three very distinct groups: (1) Mole-crickets (q.v.), with fore legs developen for burrowing; (2) tree-crickets (q.v.); (3) true crickets, including the common field and house crickets. Most of them in all parts of the world are black or of some dull color, and are mainly nocturnal. They are herbivorous, and the American black field-crickets are most abundant in neglected fields, or where layers of old straw, etc., give them warmth and hiding. They dig holes in the ground and sit there during the day, chirping, as if with contented enjoyment, and going abroad at night; but any disturbance near them will produce instant quiet. Their eggs are laid in the loose soil, chiefly in the autumn, and hatch in the spring, few adults surviving the winters of cold climates. The commonest species in the northeastern United States (Gryllus neglectus) occasionally comes into houses; but the house-cricket proper is a European one (Gryllus domesticus) which habitually domesticates itself, and is especially fond of the crevices about old-fashioned fireplaces, where its merry chirping has woven itself into the romance and poetry of all Western nations, as a sound suggestive of domestic cheer. This species is now acclimatized in Canada and some of the Northeastern States. The wingless crickets are represented in the United States by a species

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is generally agreed that the sounds serve either to call or excite the mute females. A certain Sicilian species is said to make a noise audible a mile away. The apparatus and the musical characteristics of the sound have been exhaustively studied by S. H. Scudder, who says that the notes of the black field-cricket are pitched at E natural, two octaves above middle C. The songs of other sorts of crickets vary from this, each in its own way. To this same group belong some curious forms of the tropics in which "the front of the head is produced into a leaf-like projection." Another group are of very diminutive size, and resemble minute roaches; one genus (Myrmecophila) dwells altogether in the nests of ants, both in Europe and in North America. Several species have been described. Other Gryllids are among the insects inhabiting caves. Consult: Howard and Marlatt, "Principal Household Insects of the United States," in United States Department of Agriculture, Division of Entomology, Bulletin 4, new series (Washington, 1896). See CAVE ANIMALS and SYMBIOSIS, and compare LOCUST; KATYDID; MOLE-CRICKET; and TREE-CRICKET.

CRICKET (probably from OF. criquet, stick used as a marker in the game of bowls). The national game of England is played wherever Englishmen have colonized, and in many of Great Britain's possessions, notably in the West


1. Common black cricket (Gryllus neglectus). 2. A wingless cricket (Centhophilus maculatus). 3. A tree-cricket, the small green or 'snowy' cricket (Ecanthus niveus), female. 4. Same; male. 5. A mole cricket (Gryllotalpa borealis).

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are regulated at meetings of this club. This has always been the custom since the club was founded, about the year 1744. Philadelphia, which is the home of cricket in America, has more clubs than any other place in the United States or Canada, and the four larger clubs, Germantown, Belmont, Merion, and Philadelphia, compete annually for the Halifax Cup. Two other cups are also competed for by some fifteen minor clubs and second elevens from the principal clubs. Cricket in Philadelphia is controlled by the Associated Cricket Clubs of Philadelphia, in an organization composed of three delegates from each of the four large clubs. This organization publishes a periodical, the American Cricketer, founded in 1877. The Metropolitan District Cricket League, and the New York Cricket Association, which has assumed more importance of late years, regulate the matches within twenty miles of the City Hall in New York. The other organizations in the United States are the California Cricket Association, the Northwestern Cricket Association, with headquarters in Chicago, and the Massachusetts Cricket Association. International matches are played annually between the United States and Canada, and on three occasions teams from Philadelphia have visited England, while in 1900 a team was sent from Haverford College to play a series of matches against English colleges and

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