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1854 and 1870, are the fixed authoritative symbol or confession of faith of the Church of Rome. Of the Protestant churches, the most notable confessions of faith are the Lutheran; the Continental Calvinistic or Reformed; the Anglican, or Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of England; and the Puritan, or Westminster Confession of Faith.
The Lutherans call their standard books of faith and discipline Libri Symbolici Ecclesiæ Evangelicæ, and reckon among them, besides the three Catholic creeds, the Augsburg Confession, 1530 (q.v.), the Apology for that confession by Melanchthon, the Articles of Smalkald drawn up by Luther, 1537, Luther's catechisms, 1529; and in some churches, the Formula of Concord, 1576, or the Book of Torgau.
Of the Continental Calvinistic or Reformed churches, there are numerous confessions, the principal of which are: (1) The Helvetic Confessions, that of Basel, 1530, and Bullinger's Expositio Simplex, 1566; (2) The Tetrapolitan Confession, 1531; (3) The Gallic Confession, 1559; (4) The Palatine or Heidelberg Confession, 1575; (5) The Belgic Confession, 1559.
The Thirty-nine Articles of the Church of Eng land have been already described. (See ARTICLES, THE THIRTY-NINE.) They were originally torty two, and are supposed to have been chiefly composed by Cranmer. In 1571 they were revised and approved by Convocation and Parliament. The Lambeth Articles, 1595, and the Irish Articles. 1615, became of great importance as affecting essentially the contents of the next great creed,
the Westminster Confession of Faith. This was the product of the great Puritan agitation of the seventeenth century. As soon as the Long Parlia
ment assembled in 1640, it set itself to consider
the question of the reformation of religion. It carried resolution after resolution directed against the existing government of the Church of England; and at length, on the 23d of November, 1641, it passed the famous remonstrance, in which it proposed that, "in order the better to effect the reformation in the Church, there should be a general synod of grave, pious, learned, and judicious divines, who should consider all things necessary for the peace and good government of the Church." Out of this proposal sprang the Westminster Assembly, although the Parliamentary ordinance actually summoning the Assembly was not issued until a year and half later, viz., June 12, 1643. According to this ordinance, the Assembly was to consist of 121 clergymen, assisted by ten lords and twenty as lay assessors. appointed members, however, never took their seat in the Assembly. The bishops were prevented from doing so by a counter ordinance of the King. Among the most notable divines who did assemble were Burgess, Calamy, Gataker, and Reynolds, and Gillespie, Henderson, Baillie, and Samuel Rutherford, the commissioners from Scotland, of the Presbyterian party; Goodwin, Nye, and Burroughs, of the Independent party; and Lightfoot and Coleman, with Selden, of the Eras. tians. The Presbyterians greatly predominated, and the acts of the Assembly bear throughout the stamp of Calvinistic Presbyterianism. It began its sittings in the autumn of 1643, and sat till February 22, 1649, having lasted upward of five years and a half. During this period it had met 1163 times.
The most important labors which it achieved were the directory of public worship and the Confession of Faith. This later document was completed in the third year of its existence (1646), and laid before Parliament in the same year. It was approved by the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland in 1647, and again in 1690, on the renewed establishment of Presbyterianism after the revolution.
The Confession of Faith is the latest of the great Protestant creeds, and the creed of the Presbyterian churches throughout the world. It
is also one of the most elaborate of all creeds. It extends to thirty-three chapters, beginning with Holy Scripture, and ending with The Last Judgment. Of its thirty-three chapters, twentyone may be said to be distinctly doctrinal-the first nineteen and the last two. The others concern such subjects as Christian Liberty, Religious Worship, Oaths and Vows, the Civil Magistrate, the Church, the Sacraments, Synods and Councils. The tone of the doctrinal chapters is that of the later and formal Calvinism which spread from astical spirit is Puritan-Presbyterian. Holland among the English Puritans. The ecclesi"God yet the "publishing of opinions contrary to the alone" is declared to be "Lord of the conscience"; light of nature, or to the known principles of Christianity," is at the same time declared to be matter of censure by the Church, and of punishment by the civil magistrate. In composition, the Confession is an able and comprehensive sumskill in the deduction of particular doctrines mary of theological truth, showing great logical from certain main principles. The third chapter, of God's Eternal Decree, may be said to be the key-note from which its most characteristic doctrines follow in immediate sequence and harof Christian learning, but the most representative mony. It is not only a remarkable monument expression of a great spiritual movement which Britain, and modified the course of its history. has deeply tinged the national thought of Great
The work of forming creeds did not, however, cease with Westminster, but many creeds of less importance have been produced since, and will continue to be produced in consequence of the changing conditions in which the Church labors. Thus, the great Methodist revival in the eighteenth century led to a revision of the Articles of the Church of England for the use of the newly arisen body; the Unitarian controversy in New England at the beginning of the nineteenth, to the formation of many more or less elaborate The Congregationalists of America put forth a new creed in 1883, the Presbyterians of England one in 1900, and the Northern Presbyterian Church of the United States in the General Assembly of 1902 adopted the revision of certain articles of the
Confession of Faith and a declarative statement of sixteen articles, which was substantially a new creed. The best work on the subject is: Schaff, Creeds of Christendom (New York, 1877-78), history and texts.
Church and Seminary creeds. Many of these
CREEK CHUB. The horned dace. See DACE. CREEKS (so called from the numerous creeks running through their land), or MUSCOGEE, mus-kō'je (Algonquin maskoki, creeks). An Indian confederacy, formerly holding the greater portions of Alabama and Georgia, and second in importance among the Gulf tribes only to the
1. BANANA QUIT (Coreba Bahamensis). 2. NATAL COLLARED SUNBIRD (Cinnyris collaris). 3. HAWAIIAN OÖ (Acrulocercus nobilis).
4. SLENDER-BILLED HONEYEATER (Acanthorhynchus tenuirostris)
7. ALPINE WALL-CREEPER (Tichodroma muraria).
Cherokee. The ruling tribe was the Muscogee, whose language was the court language, besides which there were the Alabama, Hichitee, Koasati, and others of the same Muskhogean stock, with the Uchee and Natchez (q.v), and a considerable incorporated band of Shawano. The Seminole of Florida were an offshoot from the Muscogee confederacy. They were agricultural, but warlike, living in villages of log houses, plastered on the outside with clay, and arranged in a rectangle about a central space reserved for public ceremonies, chief of which was the annual 'busk,' or green-corn dance. In the Colonial wars, and during the Revolution, they generally adhered to the English side. They made a treaty of peace with the United States in 1790, but in 1813, instigated by the English, again took up arms against the Americans, beginning hostilities by the terrible massacre of Fort Mims. They were completely crushed by General Jackson in a brief but bloody campaign, in three battles in which they lost respectively 200, 300, and 800 warriors killed. Utterly broken, the Creeks were compelled to sue for peace, which was granted only on submission to a peremptory 'demand' for the surrender of more than half their ancient territory. Other cessions quickly followed, until in 1832 they sold all their remaining territory and agreed to remove beyond the Mississippi to their present habitat in the Indian Territory. Like the other Southern tribes, they were divided in sentiment during the Civil War, and suffered severely in that struggle. Under the name of the 'Creek Nation' they conduct an autonomous government, similar in form to that of the Cherokees (q.v.). The nation numbers 16,000 citizens, of whom about two-thirds are of pure or mixed Creek blood.
CREEL/MAN, JAMES (1859-). An American editor and newspaper correspondent, born in Montreal, Canada. He was first associated with the New York Herald (1877), and eventually became editor of its London and Paris editions. During the war between China and Japan, he was correspondent for the New York World, and in the Turco-Greek War did similar work for the New York Journal, which paper he also represented at Santiago during the Spanish-American War, where his gallant conduct met with wide and well-deserved recognition. He was a voluntary aide on General Lawton's staff during the Philippine insurrection. His publications include: On the Great Highway: Wanderings and Adventures of a Special Correspondent (1901), and Eagle Blood (1902).
of beds of coal or ore.
CREEP (from creep, AS. créopan, Icel. krjapa, OHG. chriochan, Ger. kriechen, to creep). A miner's term for the depression which takes place in underground workings from the removal Masses of the coal-seam, like huge pillars, are left by the miners for the support of the superincumbent strata; the pressure, however, of these beds is so great that, in course of time, the roof gradually sinks, or, as is more frequently the case, because of the roof consisting of hard rock, the softer shale pavement rises up, until the intervening spaces between the pillars, left by the removal of the coal, are filled up. A consequent depression takes place in the beds above, as also an alteration of the surface level. But this, being so gradual, is seldom noticed, except when it is made evident from the
accumulation of surface-water, or in districts
CREEPER. A name very generally applied
and pointed, extending beyond the webs. The feet
CREEPING PLANTS. Plants whose stems tervals. See STEM; VEGETATIVE PROPAGATION. run close to the surface of the soil and root at in
CREESE, or CREASE. See KRIS.
CREIL, kra'y'. The capital of a canton and an important railway junction in the Department of Oise, France, on the Oise, 32 miles north of Paris by rail. The parish church dates from the twelfth century; the ruined twelfth-century Transition Church of Saint Evremont is situated on an island in the river; and there are remains of a royal castle of Charles V. Hardware, copper, machinery, and pottery manufactures are its chief industries, and it has an increasing rivertransit trade. Population, in 1901, 9125.
CREIZENACH, kri'tse-näG, THEODOR ADOLF (1818-77). A German poet and literary historian. He was born in Mainz, the son of Michael Creizenach, a famous Hebrew scholar, studied at Giessen, Göttingen, and Heidelberg, and was one of the founders of the Jewish Reform Society in Frankfort-on-the-Main. He embraced Christianity in 1854, and in 1863 was appointed professor at the Frankfort Gymnasium. He was a versatile writer, his poems, Dichtungen (1839) and Gedichte (1851), being distinguished by simplicity and an elegiac character. His publication of the correspondence between Goethe and Marianne von Willemer (1878) is a valuable contribution to the literature on the great poet.
esting frescoes. The circular Church of Santa Maria della Croce, built in 1490, has an octag onal interior adorned with paintings by Campi. The chief products of the district are wine, fruit, and cheese; lace, silk, and linen goods are manufactured. Crema was founded by the Lombards in the sixth century and suffered much during the wars the Guelphs and Ghibellines It was besieged, taken, and destroyed by Frederick Barbarossa in 1159-60. Population (commune), in 1881, 9111; in 1901, 9755.
CREMATION OF THE DEAD (Lat. crematio, from cremare, to burn; connected with Goth. haúri, coal, Icel. hyrr, fire). The process of disposing of the bodies of the dead by reducing them to ashes. Three methods of disposing of the bodies of the human dead have prevailed since the earliest times: simple exposure; burial in the earth, in caves, or in artificial tombs; and cremation. Among the factors which have determined which of these methods should be adopted by a nation or race have been physical conditions, such as the character of the soil and climate and the abundance or scarcity of fuel; sanitary considerations; and religious beliefs. Only the most uncivilized tribes have practiced simple exposure, depending on the elements and the wild beasts to dispose of the bodies of their dead. Such was the practice of the early Colchians, who, we are told, hung dead bodies on the limbs of trees, while the Syrians abandoned their dead to wild animals.
DISPOSAL OF THE DEAD AMONG THE ANCIENTS AND AMONG UNCIVILIZED TRIBES. Of the two methods employed by civilized nations, cremation and burial, the former is the one originally The prevalent among the Indo-European races. graves of North Europe, throughout the Bronze Age, contain, not skeletons, but only urns for the The Egyptians, on reception of funeral ashes. the other hand, embalmed their dead; the Jews laid them away in sepulchres; and the ancient as well as the modern Chinese buried them in the earth. The Chinese, influenced by religious doctrine, now, as of old, insist on properly placed graves in their own land, and for this reado not have cemeteries specially set apart for the son corpses are sent home from California. They burial of the dead, but may bury them anywhere, spots, which may not be desecrated, has proved and the frequent occurrence of these hallowed a serious obstacle to railway projects. The dry, hot climate of Egypt made the embalming proc ess possible, and the scarcity of fuel made it less expensive than burning. The same natural cause, lack of fuel, may have led to the practice of burial among the Jews and other tribes. Among the ancient Persians the bodies of the dead were exposed to the elements, as is the practice of the modern Parsis, or followers of Zoroaster. It is, however, probable that in some instances, especially in the case of kings, burial with a coating of wax was allowed. Many of the early American Indians burned their dead and disposed of their ashes in various ways, while the ancient Greeks practiced both cremation and burial, the former being introduced by the Phrygians, and burial by the Egyptians. Among the Roma cremation was the general practice during the and through four centuries of the Empire. BURIAL for a description of burial practices of
CRELINGER, krā'ling-er, AUGUSTE (DÜBING) (1795-1865). A German actress, born in Berlin. She made her first appearance at the Court Theatre, Berlin, May 4, 1812, and subsequently became one of the most famous actresses of her day, and frequently appeared as a star at the leading theatres of Germany, as well as in Saint Petersburg. Sappho, Lady Macbeth, Iphigenia, Phädra, and Adelheid in Götz von Berlichingen were some of her favorite rôles. She excelled also in comedy parts, and was distinguished alike for her beauty, numerous histrionic accomplishments, and consummate artistic train
CRELLE, krelle, AUGUST LEOPOLD (17801855). A self-educated German mathematician. He was born at Eichwerder, near Wriezen, and was an architect by profession, but is chiefly known as the founder of the Journal für reine und angewandte Mathematik (Berlin, 1826). This journal has given expression to many of the greatest mathematical developments of the nineteenth century. Abel's proof of the impossibility of solving the general equation of the fifth degree by algebraic methods appeared in the first vol ume. Steiner, the greatest geometrician since the time of Euclid,' was a leading contributor, and Möbius intrusted to it the publication of his most important researches. Crelle wrote quite extensively on algebra, trigonometry, the theory of numbers, the theory of functions, and various subjects of mathematical physics. His chief works are Tersuch einer allgemeinen Theorie der analytischen Facultäten (1825); Encyklopädische Darstellung der Theorie der Zahlen
(1843); Sammlung mathematischer Bemerkun
gen (1820-22); Elemente der Geometrie und ebenen und sphärischen Trigonometrie (1826-27).
He was also editor of the Journal der Baukunst.
CREMA, krāʼmȧ. A city in the Province of Cremona, north Italy, situated on the right bank of the Serio, 33 miles (by the winding railway) southeast of Milan (Map: Italy, D2). The cathedral has a Romanesque façade, and
the Church of Santa Maria delle Grazie has inter- ancient nations.