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Berlin. He studied medicine in Berlin and in Heidelberg, and in 1852 was made director of the School of Midwifery and of the obstetric department of the Charité in Berlin. Four years later he was made professor of obstetrics and director of the lying-in hospital in Leipzig. His published works include the following: Klinische Vorträge über Geburtshilfe (1853-54); Die Verhütung der Augenentzündung der Neugebornen (1884); Gesunde und kranke Wöchnerinnen (1886); Lehrbuch der Hebammen (6th ed., revised by Leopold and Zweifel, Leipzig, 1897). From 1853 to 1869 he was co-editor of the Monatsschrift für Geburtskunde, and, for many years, of the Archiv für Gynäkologie.
CRE'DENCE (It. credenza, belief, cupboard, ML. credentia, from Lat. credere, to believe). A side-table, buffet, or sideboard, on which dishes were placed or kept before meals; a cupboard in which stores or household gear were kept. Also, in the ecclesiastical terminology of the Roman Catholic and Episcopalian churches, a small table or shelf near the altar or communion table on which the bread and wine are laid be
fore being consecrated; in the Greek Church it is called the trapeza prothesis. The Oxford movement was largely responsible for its reëstablishment in the Episcopal churches of Great Britain and America.
CREDI, krà'de, LORENZO DI (1459-1537). An Italian painter, born in Florence. He was pupil of Andrea Verocchio, the master of Da Vinci and Perugino. Ilis style was at first severe, like that of Verocchio, but in later life his manner became softer. He executed his work with great care-in fact, he paid almost too much attention to detail. Throughout his life he was influenced by the quality of Da Vinci's art. Their pictures have been mistaken for each other, and the charm of Lorenzo is of the subtle, intangible kind that made Da Vinci the master that he was. His favorite subject was the Madonna and Child, surrounded by angels, shepherds, or the worshiping kings. A beautiful example, the "Adoration of the Shepherds," is in the Accademia delle Belle Arti in Florence. Another equally fine is in the Louvre, and still another in the National Gallery, in London. In the Uffizi Gallery, Florence, there are some fine portraits by him.
CREDIT (Fr. crédit, from Lat. creditum, a loan, neut. p.p. of credere, to trust). In political economy this term indicates broadly the confidence which is reposed in the ability and purpose of men to meet future obligations. It is defined by J. S. Mill as permission to use another's capital, and by H. D. MacLeod as 'a right of action.' While it rests etymologically upon trust in human nature, the term embraces many operations in which this plays a small part, in which by the establishment of claims to portions of the debtor's estate the creditor assures himself of the repayment. A familiar illustration of such transactions are the loans of bankers upon collateral security.
From an objective point of view, the essence of a credit transaction is that on one side the transfer of goods or money is immediate, on the other that the return is deferred. Personal credit resting solely upon the good faith of the creditor is the earliest form in which credit appears, and is still widely prevalent, as in the
book accounts of retail merchants. But in the larger transactions of commerce credit could not have gained its prominent place without the intervention of instruments of credit. These assume various forms, notes, drafts, mortgages, bonds, etc.; but all have a common purpose-to insure the transferability of the claim against the debtor. Without them the lender-for whatever form the credit may assume it is always in the nature of a loan-must await the pleasure of the debtor or the termination of the contract before he can enter into possession of his own. With these instruments of credit he practically has control of his capital whenever he desires to use it. By transferring his claim to others he can secure his capital at any time.
Credit rests ultimately upon the fact that many persons possess wealth who have no present use for it and are willing that it should be employed by others. If circumstances arise, as in times of panic, when each seeks to secure for himself the actual possession of his wealth, then credit cannot be obtained, and those whose transactions require it must either pay exorbitant prices for it or be crushed out. This explanation of credit will serve to indicate the important function which banks play in the world of busiThey are reservoirs of credit. In them are gathered claims upon the unemployed wealth of the community, and through them this wealth is directed by loans into channels of usefulness. It is brought together in small and large quantities from all classes of persons who do not immediately need it, and who are unable or unwilling to loan it directly. From the point of view of individuals credit is frequently spoken of as capital, because, like capital, it increases their productive power. But credit from a national point of view is only to be regarded as capital in so far as it diminishes the amount of wealth which would otherwise lie idle, and increases that which is devoted to productive purposes. An effective organization of credit does not produce wealth, but draws out wealth, and enhances its usefulness. Hence a nation in which credit, as in Anglo-Saxon communities, is highly organized, will have a higher productive capacity than one in which a primitive organiza. tion prevails. Credit is not without its dangers, and when the credit organization is out of joint the results are disastrous. This is the price of progress. As the disasters to a railroad express train are more severe than those which overtake the lumbering wagons which preceded it, so the commercial disasters of a highly organized nation with a broad development of credit are more serious than those of less advanced peoples. The remedy is not to go back to the wagons, but to apply every device to insure the safety of the modern vehicle. For a clear analysis of credit, consult: MacLeod, Theory of Credit (London, 1889-91); Dunbar, Chapters in the History and Theory of Banking (New York, 1892); Report of Comptroller of the Currency, 1896. See BANKS; CRISIS, ECONOMIC.
CREDIT, LETTER OF. This term is applied in general to commercial instruments, usually in the form of a letter in which one party addresses a second, requesting him to pay certain sums of money to a third. It is in effect a draft, except that the amount to be paid is stated, not absolutely, but as a maximum not to be exceeded. It presupposes that arrangements exist by which
the party who sends the letter shall reimburse him who makes the payment. Such letters of eredit may be drawn on one or on several parties, being in the latter case sometimes called 'circular letters of credit.' They are much used by travelers, and the leading houses issuing them have correspondents in all parts of the world. Those who issue them are generally so well known to the banking fraternity that any banker, whether a correspondent or not, will, upon proper identification, make payment on the letter. When the letter is issued, the person to whom it is given either pays outright the amount named in the letter, or furnishes acceptable security that the maker shall be reimbursed for the drafts upon him.
The alternative for the letter of credit is the travelers' note. This differs from the letter in being issued in coupons, sometimes expressed on the face of the coupons for the currencies of other countries. Such travelers' notes were for merely issued extensively by the Cheque Bank of London, but the business in the United States has recently passed largely into the hands of the express companies. Such travelers' notes are sometimes designated circular notes.
various other important undertakings. The dividend declared for 1854 was 12 per cent. In 1855 it loaned two sums to the Government-the one of 250,000,000 and the other of 375,000,000 francs. Its operations were vast during this year, and the net dividend declared amounted to 40 per cent. The directors then proposed to avail themselves of their privilege of issuing their own obligations, and thought to issue two kinds of notes-the one at short dates, the other at long dates, and redeemable by installments. The proposed issue was to amount to 240,000,000 francs; but the public became alarmed at the prospect of so vast an issue of paper money, and in March, 1856, the French Government deemed it necessary to prohibit the carrying out of the proposed scheme. This was a severe blow to the institution. In 1856 its dividends did not exceed 22 per cent.; in 1857 they were only 5 per cent. Several attempts to resuscitate its credit failed, and finally, in November, 1871, it was reorganized and put under a new board of management. In 1877 its assets were 77,000,000 francs, but its shares, the par value of which was 500 francs, sold for 200 francs only. In 1878-79 the capital was first reduced to 32,000,000 francs, and then
raised to 40,000,000. In 1884 it was a second time reduced to 30,000,000 francs, but the company never regained its lost ground. The Crédit Mobilier was undoubtedly useful in developing the industrial power of France, but its operations were hazardous, and had they not been checked in time, they would in all probability have ended in disaster. See CRÉDIT MOBILIER OF AMERICA.
CRÉDIT FONCIER, krå'de' fôN'sya' (Fr., landed credit). The French name for a method of borrowing money on the security of landed property which is widely practiced in France and other Continental countries. The borrower takes a loan, in return for which he contracts to make certain annual payments, which are so adjusted as to make provision for the interest and for the gradual extinction of the principal, which is fully paid when the term of the contract has been concluded. These contracts are generally made with companies organized for the purpose of loaning their capital in this fashion. Another variety of this form of credit is found in the Pfandbrief institute of the large landowners of Germany. Loans are made in the same way, but
in return for the debt the borrower receives the securities of the association. He does not actually contract a debt until he sells these securities, which he may do in whole or in part.
CRÉDIT MOBILIER, krå'de' mo'bé'ya'. well-known financial institution of France. On November 18, 1852, the French Government sanctioned the statutes of a new bank under the name of the Société Générale du Crédit Mobilier, with a capital of 60,000,000 francs. The name was intended as a contrast to the Sociétés du Crédit Foncier, which are of the nature of land banks, and advance money on the security of real or immovable property, while the Crédit Mobilier proposed to give ilar aid to the owners of movable property. The declared object of the new bank was especially to promote industrial enterprises of all kinds, such as the construction of railways and the opening of mines, by placing loans and handling stock. Various privileges were conferred upon it under its charter; among others it was allowed to acquire shares in public companies, and to pay calls made upon it in respect of such shares by its own notes or obligations; also to sell or give in security all shares thus acquired. The operations of the society were conducted upon a very extensive scale. In 1854 it subscribed largely to the Government war loan, raised during the Crimean campaign, to the Grand Central Railway Company, to the General Omnibus Company of Paris, and to
CRÉDIT MOBILIER OF AMERICA. joint-stock company, whose alleged corrupt operations in connection with the building of the Union Pacific Railroad gave rise, in 1872-73, to the greatest Congressional scandal in American history. The company was chartered as the 'Pennsylvania Fiscal Agency,' in 1859, was organized for a general loan and contract business in 1863, and was reorganized under the above name in 1867, for the purpose of building the Union Pacific. This work, completed in 1869, was paid for A largely in stock and bonds of the Union Pacific, so that the stockholders of the two companies soon came to be identical. The Mobilier stock, at first almost worthless, soon began to pay enormous dividends; suspicions were aroused; and in the Presidential campaign of 1872 the company was charged with gross dishonesty, and many prominent Republicans, including the VicePresident, the Speaker of the House, three Senators, and a number of well-known Representatives, were freely accused by the Democratic press of having been bribed in 1867-71 to use their influence and votes in favor of the Union Pacific, the alleged bribes having consisted of the sale of Mobilier stock to the accused at prices below its actual value. A prolonged investigation, conducted in 1872-73 by special committees in both the Senate and the House, resulted in a recommendation of the expulsion of one Senator, upon which, however, no action was taken, and the censure of two Representatives, Oakes Ames, of Massachusetts, and James Brooks, of New York, respectively for having sold Crédit Mobilier stock to members of Congress 'with intent to influence the votes of such members,' and for having, indirectly, received such stock. The scandal caused intense excitement throughout the country, and
or the disposition made of them by the debtor. See BILL IN EQUITY.
the Mobilier Company met with almost universal execration; but subsequent investigation shown that the charges were greatly exaggerated, and were at least never conclusively proved. Consult: Crawford, The Crédit Mobilier of America, Its Origin and History (Boston, 1880); and Hazard, The Crédit Mobilier of America (Providence, 1881), the latter being a paper read before the Rhode Island Historical Society in February, 1881.
CREDITON, or KIRK'TON. A markettown of Devonshire, England, on the Creedy, a tributary of the Exe, eight miles northwest of Exeter (Map: England, C6). It lies in a narrow vale between two steep hills. Its chief industry is the manufacture of boots and shoes, but it has also chemical manufactures. Crediton was the birthplace of the Anglo-Saxon Winfred, or Saint Boniface. It was the seat of the bishopric of Devonshire until 1050, when the see was removed to Exeter. Population in 1891, 4359; in 1901, 3974.
CREDITOR (Lat. creditor, one who trusts, from credere, to trust). In its broadest sense, any person in whose favor a legal obligation exists, whether that obligation arises from the mutual assent of the parties, as in the case of contract (q.v.), or from a rule of law, as in the case of a tort (q.v.). The term is ordinarily applied, however, in legal usage only to him who has voluntarily given credit to another.
A general (simple or unsecured) creditor is one who has no lien (q.v.) on any property, and has only a personal claim or right of action against the debtor. If a lien on property has been given to him by way of collateral security, mortgage, or pledge, he is called a secured creditor. If the debtor or the law secures a priority to one creditor, or to a class of creditors over others, such favored ones are said to be preferred creditors. In the absence of statutory provision to the contrary, a debtor may pay one creditor in preference to others, or he may make an assignment for the benefit of creditors, and direct that one or more shall be paid in full before anything is paid to the others.
The common law gave certain creditors a priority over others. For example, creditors of a deceased person were to be paid out of his estate in the following order: (1) those having claims for funeral and probate expenses; (2) the State; (3) judgment creditors; (4) landlords having claims for rent, and bond creditors, that is, those who held bonds or sealed contracts of the deceased; (5) creditors by simple contract. This order has been modified to some extent by statute in the different States, and such legislation must be examined for detailed information on this point. The United States Bankruptcy Law of 1898 secures a preference to workmen, clerks, or servants for wages earned within three months before the commencement of proceedings, not to exceed $300 to each claimant.
When a person obtains a judgment for money against another, he is called a judgment creditor; and if an execution is issued and levied, he becomes an execution creditor. See CONTRACT; ARREST; ATTACHMENT; DEBTOR; COMPOSITION; etc.,
and consult the authorities there referred to.
CREDITOR'S BILL. A bill to enable the creditor to reach assets which could not be levied upon under execution because of their character
RICH (1809-76). CREDNER, krād'ner, KARL FRIEDRICH HEINWaltershausen (Saxe-Coburg-Gotha). A German geologist, born at He studied at the universities of Freiberg and Göttingen, and in 1836 was appointed by the Ducal Government warden of the mint. In 1839 he became surveyor of mines, in 1850 mining councilor, and in 1854 State and mining councilor. He was in 1858 appointed by the Government of Hanover superior mining councilor and reporting councilor to the Finance Ministry, in which capacity he had under his supervision all the Hanoverian mining works, including the important ones of the Harz. From 1868 until his death, he was mining privy councilor and director of mining in the Halle district. As a scientist, he was known for his study of the geology of those regions of Germany connected with his duties in the mining industry. He discovered a compound of oxides of copper and manganese, called in his honor Crednerite, and published some valuable treatises, including Versuch einer Bildungsgeschichte der geognostischen Verhältnisse des Thüringer Waldes (1855), and Ueber die Gliederung der oberen Juraformation und die Wälder Bildung im nordwestlichen Deutschland (1863).
CREDNER, HERMANN (1841-). A German geologist, son of the preceding, born at Gotha, and educated at Clausthal, Breslau, and Göttingen. He has made extensive geological investigations in North and Central America (186468), the results of which were published in the Zeitschrift der Deutschen Geologischen Gesellschaft, and the Neues Jahrbuch für Mineralogie. In 1870 he became professor of geology at the University of Leipzig, and director of the Geological Commission for the Kingdom of Saxony. In addition to a geological chart of the Kingdom of Saxony (1877 et seq.), and numerous works on the geological formations of that country, his works include Elemente der Geologie (8th ed., 1897).
In Sheridan's farce Saint Patrick's Day, an ignoCREDULOUS, JUSTICE, and Mrs. BRIDGET. rant, good-natured couple. The wife is a person of the Mrs. Malaprop type, and at times very amusing.
CREE, kre (possibly a corruption of creek). One of the largest and most important tribes of Algonquian stock, living chiefly in the British American territories of Manitoba, Assiniboia, Saskatchewan, about Lake Winnipeg and the Saskatchewan River. They are on friendly terms with the Assiniboin, but until brought under Government control were constantly at war with the Sioux and Blackfeet. They have numerous bands, commonly grouped under two main divisions, viz. Plains and Wood Crees. Soon after obtaining firearms from the traders, they began a war of conquest against the weaker Athabascan tribes, as far even as the Great Slave Lake and the Rocky Mountains, but afterwards retired to their present position. In language and customs they differ but little from the Ojibwa, to whom they are closely related. They number now probably 10,000, on several reservations within the territories mentioned.
CREECH, THOMAS (1659-1700). An English translator. He was educated at Wadham
College, Oxford, elected fellow of All Saints College in 1683, and was head master of Sherborne School from 1694 to 1696. He afterward returned to Oxford, and, in a state of melancholy, committed suicide. Creech was a man of solid learning. He translated Lucretius (1682); Horace (1684); elegies of Ovid, two eclogues of Vergil, some of Plutarch's Lives, Theocritus, thirteenth satire of Juvenal, etc. The Lucretius was long ranked by the side of Dryden's Vergil and Pope's
the originally simple elements of truth as they are recorded in Scripture. The study of the creeds would be nothing else than the study of theology in its highest historical developmentin its reflex settlements after the great agitations of Christian thought had run their course.
CREECH, WILLIAM (1745-1815). A Scottish publisher and author. He was born in Edinburgh, and in 1770 was the traveling companion of Lord Kilmaurs, afterwards Earl of Glencairn, on the tour of that nobleman through central and western Europe. His publisher's shop in Edinburgh was much frequented by men interested in literary pursuits, and his morning 'levees,' at which he was accustomed to entertain the most distinguished authors of the Scottish capital, became exceedingly popular. Among the works published by him were those of Burns, Blair, Beattie, Cullen, Mackenzie, and other notables of the time. Burns's well-known poem Willie's Awa' was addressed to him.
CREEDE. A city and county-seat of Mineral County, Col., about 165 miles (direct) southwest of Denver; on the Denver and Rio Grande Railroad (Map: Colorado, D 3). It is in a narrow gulch on Willow Creek, high up among the mountains, and is engaged exclusively in mining, having been formerly noted for its highly productive silver mines. Since 1903, however, the mining of lead and zine has been more profitable. Wagon Wheel Gap, Hot Springs, and Antelope Springs
are of scenic interest, and make the region attractive for tourists. Creede was founded in 1890 by N. C. Creede, who had established a mining claim there the previous year. It was nearly destroyed by fire in 1892, the year of its incorporation. Population, in 1900, 958.
CREED'MOOR. A village on Long Island, now included in New York City, 13 miles east of the borough of Manhattan (Map: Greater New York, K 5). The rifle-range located here was founded as a private enterprise by the National Rifle Association, and was later acquired by the State of New York. It is now used by the National Guard for target practice.
CREEDS AND CONFESSIONS (AS. creda, OF., Fr., Prov., Port., Sp., It. credo, creed, from Lat. credo, I believe, the first word of the Apostles' and Nicene creeds). The names given to the authorized expressions of the doctrine of the Church at large, or of the several main sections into which it is divided. Such statements of doctrine sprang up naturally in the course of the Church's progress. As the simple truths taught by Christ in an informal and concrete form became the subject of thought, of argument, of controversy, they could not fail to receive a more definite intellectual expression, and to be drawn out into more precise dogmatic statements. Men's minds could not be exercised on subjects of such vast importance to them without this result; and the great creeds, as they rise in succession before us, and mark the climax of successive controversial epochs in the Church, are nothing else than the varying expressions of the Christian consciousness and reason, in their efforts more completely to realize, comprehend, and express
Corresponding to this view, we find that the creeds of Christendom grow in complexity, in elaborate analysis and precision of doctrinal statement, as they succeed one another. The first are comparatively brief and simple in sense and form; the last are prolix and largely didactic. From the Apostles' Creed to the decrees of the Council of Trent, or the chapters of the Westminster Confession of Faith, there is a wide change, during which the Christian consciousness has grown from a childlike faith to a body of comprehensive critical opinions.
What has been called the Apostles' Creed has been referred by tradition to the Apostles themselves. The present text may be traced back to about the year 500, but evidently depends upon a still earlier and simpler form. This earlier form, which is called by scholars 'The Old Roman Symbol,' was in use in the Roman Church between the years 150 and 175, and was originally written in Greek. According to McGiffert (The Apostles' Creed, New York, 1902), it ran as follows: "I believe in God the Father Almighty and in Christ Jesus His Son, who was born of Mary the Virgin, was crucified under Pontius Pilate and buried; on the third day rose from the dead, of the Father, from whence He cometh to judge ascended into Heaven, sitteth on the right hand the quick and the dead; and in the Holy Ghost,
and resurrection of the flesh." This shorter
Roman symbol appears to be the root from which the later-received Roman text sprang, as well as the numerous other texts which are found, with the other Churches of the Occident. The intervarious differences, greater or smaller, among esting question as to its relation with the Oriental texts throws light on its own origin. The distinction must at once be made between various forms of confession used at baptism, and the proper, much briefer, 'rule of faith,' or creed. Oriental confessions display great variety of form, and great freedom in the choice of matter. The Eastern churches had no tradition, such as was prevalent at Rome, that the Apostles themselves composed the creed, and hence felt at liberty to modify it as was convenient. Hence, historical portions were replaced by dogmatic, additions were made here and there, various heresies were noted. All, therefore, became subjective, reflective, dogmatic in character, though in different degrees. Yet at the basis of all the forms there lay a single original, which agreed substantially with the shorter Roman text. The two chief forms, Oriental and Occidental, are twin forms, with unessential variations. Carrying the investigation now still further back, by the study of the forms of the baptismal confessions found in Irenæus, Tertullian. Hippolytus, and Cyprian, we find that the earliest creed must have had all three of the members of the present creed, must have been thought of as an enlargement of the command in Matthew (xxviii. 19) to baptize all nations, and must have contained the portions as to the 'Church,' the 'resurrection of the flesh,' the 'return to judgment,' and the 'crucifixion under Pontius Pilate,' but no anti-gnostic passages. We must put the date
back, therefore, to 175. But it must go still earlier, because of the lack of 'maker of heaven and earth.' etc., which were directed against the heresiarchs who began to come to Rome as early as 140. Hence, we must put the date at least as early as about 133. That the creed was brought to Rome from the Orient is probable, but not capable of proof. Consult: Harnack, in Her zeg, Apostolisches Symbolum; also his Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur (Leipzig, 1893).
The Nicene, or rather the Niceno-Constantinopolitan creed, is the next great expression of doctrinal truth that we meet in the history of the Church. It sprang out of the conflict, which had begun even in the second century, as to the dignity and character of Christ. From the beginning. Ebionitism had looked upon Christ as merely a Jewish teacher of distinction; Theodotus and Artemon openly taught such a doctrine in Rome toward the close of the second century. Others, on the contrary, taught a doctrine which identified Christ with God absolutely in such a manner as to destroy all distinction of persons in the Godhead. Monarchianism, as it was called, which held rigorously and formally to the unity of God, was the ruling principle of both doctrines, opposite as were the expressions it assumed in the two cases.
The controversy thus begun in the second, perpetuated itself in the third century, under various modifications. Paul of Samosata carried out the Unitarian tendency, which reduced Christ to the level of a mere man; Sabellius carried out the same tendency in the opposite direction, which made Christ not merely divine, of the same substance with the Father, but looked upon Him as merely a manifestation of the Father, without any distinct personality. Sabellianism recognized a Trinity of manifestations, but not a Trinity of essences. God was one and all-comprehending, and the Son and the Spirit were merely names or expressions for the different modes in which He successively reveals Himself. Sabellius flourished about the middle of the third century, and Paul of Samosata somewhat later. Arius, who was a presbyter of Alexandria, grew up in the midst of these influences, and soon distinguished himself in the Alexandrian Church by his advocacy of the doctrine that Christ, although in a true sense divine, or the Son of God, was yet not the very God. He denied that He was ‘of the substance of God,' or 'without beginning'; He was only the highest created being, promoted' to divinity, but not the same in substance with the Father, nor equal with Him in power and glory. Athanasius came forward as the opponent of Arius, and the contest between them raged keen and wide throughout the Church.
(homoiousios), but of the same substance (homoöusios) with the Father.
The Council of Nicea was summoned in 325 by Constantine, with the view of settling this controversy; and the Nicene Creed was the result. There were thus three parties in the council-the Athanasians, or extreme orthodox party; the Eusebians, or middle party; and the Arians, or heretical party. The heretics were few in number, and possessed but little influence; but the Eusebians were a strong party, and for some time resisted certain expressions of the orthodox or Athanasians, which seemed to them extreme and unwarranted; but at length the Homoöusians, as they were called, carried the day; and Christ was declared not merely to be of like substance
The creed was formed by extending the Apostles' Creed to include the new definitions. The essential parts are: "And [I believe] in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only-begotten Son of God; begotten of the Father before all worlds, Light of Light, very God of very God, begotten not made, consubstantial [of one substance, homoöusios] with the Father." The Council of Constantinople (381) simply reaffirmed this creed. Later the so-called Nicene-Constantinopolitan Creed arose by the incorporation of the Nicene Creed in the baptismal confession of the Church at Jerusalem, and was erroneously recognized by the Council of Chalcedon as the creed of Constantinople. It adds definitions as to the Holy Spirit, "Lord and Giver of Life, proceeding from the Father [Latin form adds "and the Son" (see FILIOQUE)], who with the Father and Son together is worshiped and glorified, who spake by the prophets." It also adds the word 'one' to the definitions of the Church and of baptism, putting the latter, "We confess one baptism for remission of sins."
The Christological controversies produced the council and creed of Chalcedon in 451. (See CHRISTOLOGY.) This creed pronounced in the most decided and elaborate way for the full and unchanged divinity and humanity of our Lord, these two natures being comprised in the unity of one person. It thus defined the elements of the doctrine of the person of Christ, and became one of the great doctrinal councils of Christian history, if not the greatest after Nice.
The next remarkable monument of doctrinal truth in the Church is what is called the Athanasian Creed, a product of the fifth century, much later than Athanasius himself, but representing, with great formal minuteness and fidelity, his doctrine of the Trinity, as apprehended and elaborated by the Western Church. See ATHANASIAN CREED.
The Apostles', the Nicene, the Chalcedonian, and the Athanasian may be said to form the great Catholic creeds of the Church. After the time of the last-mentioned formula, there is no general symbol of faith that claims our attention till the period of the Reformation. Theology continued to be cultivated during the Middle Ages, and especially during the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, with great assiduity. Scholasticism is nothing else than the vast expression of the intellectual labor bestowed upon this subject during these ages, when scarcely any other subject can be said to have engaged men's minds. It was characteristic of scholasticism, however, to work mainly upon the doctrinal data already adopted and authorized by the Church, developing these data in endless sentences and commentaries. There was, withal, no real freedom of inquiry, nor life of speculation. But as soon as the eye of free criticism and argument was turned upon Scripture with the Reformation, new creeds and confessions began to spring up. On the one hand, Protestantism had to defend its position and its scriptural authority by appeal to its system of belief; and, on the other hand, the Church of Rome, after many delays, gave forth at the Council of Trent (1545-63) a more extended and detailed statement of its doctrine than was to be found in any previous creed. The decrees of Trent, with the additions made in