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the roots.

ing forms destroy grass and grain by injuring The wings of the crane-flies are generally clear, but are sometimes beautifully marked and spotted." See DADDY-LONGLEGS.


CRA'NIAL INDEX. See ANTHROPOMETRY. CRA'NIOMETRY (from Gk. кpavlov, kranion, skull +μérpov, metron, measure) and CRANIOLSystematic measurement and comparison of human crania. See ANTHROPOMETRY; MAN, SCIENCE OF.



CRANK. A mechanical device consisting of a bend or arm on an axle or shaft by which reciprocating motion is converted into rotary motion. The reciprocating motion of the pistonrod of a steam-engine is converted into rotary motion of the engine-shaft by means of a crank. The crank may consist of an arm on the end of a shaft or of a similarly located disk with a crank-pin, or of a U-shaped bend in the shaft between the ends. The piston-rod transmits its




1, single crank at end of an axle; 2, double crank in the middle of a shaft; 3, bell crank.

motion to the crank by means of an intermediate connecting-rod. The connecting-rod exercises the maximum force on the crank-arm when this arm is at right angles to the line of motion of the piston-rod, and it exercises no force tending to produce rotation when the crank-arm is parallel to the line of motion of the piston-rod. Maximum force occurs at two points in the rotation of the crank, and no force occurs at two points nearly at right angles to the points of maximum force. The two points of no force are called the dead points; and in order to carry the crank over these dead points, where only a single connecting-rod is used, the shaft is provided with a heavy fly-wheel, the momentum of which supplies the necessary power to keep up rotation when the connecting-rod is not supplying power. When two connecting rods are connected with the shaft by separate cranks, the two crank-arms may be set at right angles to each other, so that one rod is exerting its maximum force while the other is at the dead points of the revolution.

He was

bishops of Winchester and Hereford, happening to be in the neighborhood, the event proved a turning-point in the life of Cranmer. The King was then taking steps to secure his divorce from Catharine of Aragon, and, in conversation on the subject with Gardiner and Fox, Cranmer suggested that if the universities could be induced to declare that, in their opinion, the first marriage was unlawful, the King would be free to marry again. Henry was greatly pleased with this idea, and "swore by the Mother of God, that man hath the right sow by the ear." Cranmer was asked to reduce his suggestion to writing, and to have it submitted to the European universities. After this he was appointed Archdeacon of Taunton, and one of the royal chaplains. He was also sent to Rome on a special embassy in the matter of the divorce, but met with little success. Subsequently he was dispatched to the Emperor Charles V. on the same errand; and while in Germany he married a second time, a niece of the German divine Osiander. Shortly afterwards, on the death of Archbishop Warham, he was recalled to fill the vacant see of Canterbury. consecrated archbishop March 30, 1533. Under his auspices Henry's divorce was speedily carried through the Archbishop's Court at Dunstable, and on May 28 he announced the legality of the King's marriage to Anne Boleyn, which had taken place four months before. Anne's subsequent disgrace, and again in the affair of Anne of Cleves, the Archbishop took a part not very creditable to him. His position was no doubt a difficult one; but his character was naturally pliable and timid, rather than resolved and consistent. The same spirit characterizes the measures of religious reform which were promoted by him. On the one hand he joined actively with Henry in restricting the power of the Pope, though he seems to have had less to do with suppressing the monasteries; but, on the other hand, he was no less active in persecuting men like Frith, Forrest, and others, who, on matters of religious faith, were disposed to advance further than himself or the King. He did what he could, however, to resist the reactionary movement which took place in 1539, and which is known by the institution of the six articles. He was also instrumental in promoting the translation and circulation of the Scriptures. On Henry VIII.'s death Cranmer was appointed one of the regents of the kingdom, and, along with Latimer and others, largely contributed to the advance of the Protestant cause during the reign of Edward VI. He assisted in the compilation of the service-book and the articles of religion. The latter are said to have been chiefly composed by him. He was also the author of four of the homilies.


CRAN MER, THOMAS (1489-1556). Reformer of the English Church, and the first Protestant Archbishop of Canterbury. He was born at Aslacton, in the county of Nottingham, on July 2, 1489. In his fourteenth year he went to Jesus College, Cambridge, of which he was elected a fellow in 1510, but lost his position temporarily by marriage, being reelected on his wife's death. In 1523 he took his degree of D.D., and was appointed lecturer on theology. In 1529, during the prevalence of the sweating sickness in Cambridge, he retired with two pupils to Waltham Abbey; and Henry VIII., in company with Gardiner and Fox, afterwards

On the accession of Mary he was committed to the Tower, together with Latimer and Ridley. In March, 1554, they were removed to Oxford, and confined there in the common prison, called the Bocardo. Latimer and Ridley bore their cruel fate with magnanimous courage; but the spirit and principles of Cranmer temporarily gave way under the severity of his sufferings. He was induced to sign no fewer than seven recantations, though there is no ground for supposing that a hope of pardon was held out to him. On March 21, 1556, he suffered martyrdom, as his fellow-reformers had done, opposite

is administered by annual town meetings. Cranston, settled in 1638, was set off from Providence and incorporated in 1754. Population, 1900, 13.343; 1905, 17,570.

Balliol College. His courage returned at the end, and he showed an unexpected fortitude in the midst of the flames.

Cranmer's principal writings have been edited by Jenkyns, Remains of Archbishop Cranmer (Oxford, 1833), and by Cox, for the Parker Society, under the titles Writings and Disputations Relative to the Lord's Supper (Cambridge, 1844) and Miscellaneous Writings and Letters (Cambridge, 1846). Additional material is to be found in the appendix of Strype, Memorials of Thomas Cranmer (Oxford, 1848-54), and his Ecclesiastical Memorials (Oxford, 1822); in Nichols, Narratives of the Reformation, Camden Society, from the papers of John Foxe (London, 1859); but above all in Brewer and Gairdner, Calendars of Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII. (London, 1862-80). Among older works, consult: Foxe, Acts and Monuments (London, 1877); Burnet, History of the Reformation (New York, 1842); and the Lives by Todd (London, 1861) and Le Bas (London, 1833). More recent works are: Dean Hook, "Thomas Cranmer," in his Lives of the Archbishops, New Series (London, 1868); Green, History of the English People, vol. ii. (New York, 1879); Froude, History of England, vols. i.-vi. (New York, 1870); Pollard, T. Cranmer and the English Reformation, 1489-1856 (London, 1904).

CRAN'NOGS, or CRANNOGES (Ir. crannoy, Gael. crannag, pulpit, top of a mast, from Ir., Gael. crann, tree, Welsh prenn, Corn. pren, tree; probably connected with Gk. кpávov, kranon, Lat. cornus, cornel-tree, Lith. kirna, OPruss. kirno, shrub). Ancient lake-dwellings of Ireland and Scotland. Usually the dwellings were extended into villages, often occupying islands; they were analogous to the lake-dwellings (q.v.) or palafittes of Switzerland, and to types of structure still existing in various regions. Commonly they were supported wholly or in part on piles set in the lake bottom, and were connected by platforms. The type persisted in Ireland from an early prehistoric period, when stone implements were used, until the present millennium. The later examples were built by means of bronze and even iron tools, which are sometimes found in the ruins. The refuse heaps below the ancient structures are rich sources of relics, indicating the industrial and artistic status of the builders, their food habits, domestic and game animals, etc. Historical references to the structures began with the earliest Irish annals, about the ninth century, and continued until the middle of the seventeenth century. The archæologic survey and excavation of the ruins began in 1839, when Wilde explored a crannog in Lake Lagore, County Meath. Consult: Wilde's Catalogue of the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy; Munro's Lake-Dwellings of Europe; and Ancient Scottish Lake-Dwellings, or Crannogs,etc.

CRAN'STON. A residential town in Providence County, R. I., including several villages; on the New York, New Haven and Hartford RailWithin the road (Map: Rhode Island, C 2). precincts of the town are four village libraries, State reform schools for boys and girls, and the State prison, almshouse, insane asylum, and workhouse. The principal industries are marketgardening, brewing, and the manufacture of cotton and print goods and wire. The government

CRANSTON, EARL (1840——). An American Methodist Episcopal bishop. born at Athens, Ohio. After graduating at Ohio University, in his native town, he entered the cavalry service of his State, served from 1861 to 1864, and was advanced to the rank of captain. He was publishing agent of the Methodist Episcopal Church from 1884 to 1896, when he was elected bishop. In 1898-1900 he made a tour through China, Japan, and Korea.

CRANSTOUN, HENRY. A character in Sir Walter Scott's Lay of the Last Minstrel.

CRAN'TOR (Lat., from Gk. Kpárтwp, Kranfor). A Greek academic philosopher, who lived about B.C. 300. He was born at Soli, in Cilicia. He was the first commentator on Plato, and wrote, among other works, Teрì névlovs, Peri Penthous, or a Treatise on Affliction, and the lost treatise De Consolatione. Horace (Epodes 1, 2, 4) classes him with Chrysippus as a moral philosopher. Consult Kayser, Dissertatio de Cran

tore Academico.

CRAN/WORTH, ROBERT MONSEY ROLFE, Baron (1790-1868). An English jurist. He was educated at Cambridge, was called to the bar in 1816, and was a member of Parliament and Solicitor-General from 1832 to 1839, when he be came Baron of the Exchequer. In 1851 he was raised to the peerage, and in the following year was chosen Lord Chancellor in Lord Aberdeen's Cabinet. He resigned in 1858, but again occupied the post in 1865-66.


CRAPAUD, krȧ'po', JEAN, or JOHNNY. English nickname for a Frenchman, from the popular belief that all Frenchmen were frogeaters, crapaud meaning a frog or toad.

CRAPE (Fr. crêpe, OF. crespe, crinkled, from

Lat. crispus, crisp). A thin fabric made of raw silk which has been tightly twisted, without removing the viscous matter with which it is covered when spun by the worm. It is simply woven as a thin gauze, then dressed with a thick solution of gum, which in drying causes the threads partially to untwist, and thus gives a wrinkled and rough appearance to the fabric. It is manufactured both in black and colors. Black crape is usually worn as mourning apparel, a use of the material which originated at Bologna, Italy. The Japanese and Chinese crapes are often white. or highly colored, and sometimes are adorned with ornamental designs. Crape-cloth is made to imitate the silk fabric by passing a form of woolen cloth through rollers which impart the crinkled surface.


CRAPPIE (possibly connected with Fr. crape, crab-fish). A sunfish (Pomoxys annularis) of the rivers of the Mississippi Valley and Alleghanies, a food-fish resembling in appearance and habits the calico-bass. Also called "bachelor," "new light," "Campbellite," etc. See Plate of Bass. CRAPS. A game of chance, played by any number of persons with two dice. The person holding the dice "shoots." Should his first throw be two or twelve, it is "craps." and he loses; should he shoot seven or eleven, he wins. Should

he throw any other number, then he continues to "shoot" until he throws that number again and wins, or seven and loses.

ence on the minds of young men. He died in consequence of the excitement attending a debate in the Senate.

CRAPSEY, ALGERNON SIDNEY (1847-). An American Protestant Episcopalian clergyman, born in Hamilton County, Ohio. He prepared for the ministry at St. Stephen's College, Annandale, N. Y., and at the General Theological Seminary, where he graduated in 1872. He was ordained to the priesthood in 1873, and in 1874 was placed on the permanent staff of Trinity Church, New York, from which he resigned in 1879 to accept the rectorship of St. Andrew's Church, in a newly organized parish in Rochester, N. Y. In April. 1906, Dr. Crapsey was tried by an ecclesiastical court of his diocese, and was found guilty of her esy, for having criticized the doctrine of the virgin birth of Christ, and for having denied the resurrection and ascension of the literally physical body of Christ, though he had admitted the spiritual verity of the resurrection. For these utterances Dr. Crapsey was tried and deposed from ministry in the church. His publications include: The Five Sorrowful Mysteries (1884); The Five Joyful Mysteries (1888). The Voice in the Wilderness (1897), and Religion and Politics (1905).

CRASH'AW, RICHARD (c.1613-49). An Eng. lish poet. He was the son of a clergyman in the English Church, and was educated at the Charterhouse, and at Cambridge, where he obtained a fellowship in 1637. In 1644 he was ejected from his fellowship by the Parliament for refusing to take the covenant. He went to France, adopted the Roman Catholic faith, and suffered great pecuniary distress, until, through Cowley's influence, he was introduced to Queen Henrietta Maria, who recommended him to Cardinal Palotta at Rome. The cardinal made him an attendant, and afterwards sub-canon in the Church of Our Lady of Loretto. Just after this latter appointment, Crashaw died, August 25, 1649. In 1634 Crashaw published a volume of Latin poems, in which appeared the famous line on the miracle at Cana, Nympha pudica Deum vidit et erubuit (The modest water saw its God and blushed). In 1646 appeared a volume of poems in two parts, one containing religious and the other secular poems, under the titles (abbreviated), Steps to the Temple, and The Delights of the Muses. Another (third) edition, with additions, was published in Paris in 1652. This volume is ornamented with twelve vignette engravings, drawn by Crashaw himself. Recent

editions of Crashaw are by W. D. Turnbull (1858) and by A. B. Grosart (1872, with sup

plement in 1888).


CRAS'SUS. LUCIUS LICINIUS (B.C. 140-91). A Roman orator, who excelled all others of his time. He was as distinguished for his wit as for his rectitude in the capacity of proconsul. In P.C. 95 he was elected consul, along with Quintus Mucius Scævola (who had been his colleague in all his previous offices). During their consulship was enacted the Lex Licinia Mucia de Civibus Regundis, banishing from Rome all freemen who had not the full rights of citizens. This em bittered the feelings of foreigners toward Rome, and partly led to the Social War. As censor (B.C. 92) he closed all the schools of the rhetors -asserting that they had exercised a bad influ

CRASSUS, MARCUS LICINIUS (?-B.C. 53). A Roman triumvir. He was a zealous partisan of Sulla, and rendered him efficient service in the battle at the Colline Gate, B.C. 82, which sealed the fate of the Marians. As prætor he crushed the revolt of the gladiators under Spartacus in B.C. 71, and in the following year was made consul with Pompeius, a colleague whom he hated. On the other hand, Cæsar valued the friendship of Crassus, the most wealthy of Roman citizens. During his consulate Crassus gave a feast to the people, which was spread on 10,000 tables, and distributed a provision of corn for three months. Plutarch estimates the wealth of Crassus at more than 7000 talents, and Pliny states that his lands were worth 8000 talents. In B.C. 60 Cæsar, Pompeius, and Crassus entered into the first triumvirate. (See CESAR.) In B.C. 55, as consul with Pompeius, he obtained the Province of Syria, and professed to make preparations of war against the Parthians; but the acquisition of more wealth seems to have been his main object, and this he effected by plundering the towns and temples in Syria. At length, however, he undertook a campaign in B.C. 54, after which he returned to Syria. In the following year he set out again, but was misguided by a treacherous Arab, and utterly defeated at the river Bilechas by the Parthians. Crassus now retreated to the town of Carrhæ, intending to pass into Armenia; but was beguiled into a conference with the Parthian general, Surenas, and was slain at the appointed place of meeting. His questor, Cassius, with 500 cavalry, escaped into Syria; but the remaining Romans were scattered and made prisoners, or put to death.

krataigos, a kind of thorn). A genus of plants CRATE GUS (Neo-Lat., from Gk. кpárαiyos, of the natural order Rosaceæ, very nearly allied etc.). The species are about seventy, natives of to Mespilus (medlar) and Pyrus (pear, apple, being well represented in North America, and in the temperate parts of the Northern Hemisphere, general have flowers in beautiful terminal corymbs. They are all large shrubs or small trees, more or less spiny, hence the name thorn has been very generally applied to them. The hawthorn (q.v.) (Crataegus oxyacantha). Most only native of Great Britain is the common of the species resemble it in habit, size, form of leaf, etc. A number of species are now fre

quent in plantations and shrubberies. Of these, perhaps the most common is the cockspur thorn

(Crataegus crus-galli), a native of North America from Canada to South Carolina. Its leaves are not lobed; its fruit is rather larger than that of the hawthorn. The azarole (Cratægus azarolus), and the aronia, a native of the south of Europe and of the Levant, are OCcasionally cultivated for their fruit, which is about the size of the Siberian crab, and is used either for dessert or for pies. Cratægus orientalis and Crataegus tanacetifolia have also fruit of considerable size. The latter is much eaten in Armenia. Cratægus Mexicana has a large, but inedible, apple-like fruit. It is, however, very ornamental. After the cockspur thorn, the best-known of the American species are probably the scarlet thorn (Crataegus coccinea),

Washington thorn (Crataegus cordata), Crataegus Douglasi, and Crataegus punctata. The wood of most of the species much resembles that of the hawthorn. It is common to graft the rarer species on.the hawthorn.

CRATCH CRADLE (from OF. creche, Ger. Krippe, crib), also called CAT'S CRADLE and SCRATCH CRADLE. A childish game, played by two persons holding an endless string symmetri cally in the fingers of the two hands, and taking it off each other's hands, so as to form a new pattern at once.

CRATCH'IT, BOB. The father of Tiny Tim in Dickens's Christmas Carol-a good-hearted little man, the poorly paid clerk of the miserly Scrooge.

CRATCHIT, TIM. In Dickens's Christmas Carol, the crippled son of Bob Cratchit, known as Tiny Tim."

CRATER (Lat., from Gk. кpaτýp, kratër, mixing-bowl, from KƐpaνvývaι, kerannynai, to mix). The bowl-shaped or conical cavity through which materials are ejected during a volcanic eruption. At the bottom the crater communicates by a pipe or chimney with the heated interior of the earth. When of small size a volcano usually erupts through a single crater at the summit, but, as the mountain mass increases by accumulation of material, the lava may find lines of lesser resistance through fissures in the sides. In this way subsidiary craters are formed, one of which in the course of time may become the principal crater, or they all may be buried beneath the renewed outpourings of the primary crater. The Peak of Teneriffe has a number of minor funnels on its sides and summit. In volcanoes of an explosive type, the whole top of the mountain may be blown off during an eruption, forming an immense crater, within which subsequently new cones may arise in concentric arrangement. This structure, called 'cone-in-cone,' is shown by Vesuvius, whose active crater is partially encircled by a rampart (Monte Somma) many miles in diameter. Volcanello of the Lipari Islands has three craters on the summit. The craters of extinct or dormant volcanoes are sometimes filled with water, and thus are formed crater lakes. Many of the beautiful lakes of Italy and the well-known Crater Lake of Oregon originated in this way. See VOLCANO.

CRATER, THE. A novel by James Fenimore Cooper (1847), describing a Utopian settlement on the Pacific Coast.

CRATER LAKE. A lake in Klamath County, Ore., in the Cascade Mountains, lying at an altitude of over 6200 feet above the sea. It is of exceptional interest on account of its location in the crater of a partly destroyed volcano (Map: Oregon, C 7). It is about 20 miles in circumference and is completely surrounded by cliff's varying in height from 500 to 2000 feet. Judging from its existing state, the cone once must have extended upward a considerable distance above the present cliffs, the destruction of the upper portion being attributed to explosive activity.

CRA TERUS (Lat., from Gk. Kparepós, Krateros). One of the favorite generals of Alexander the Great. He commanded a division of the royal body-guard in the Asiatic campaigns, and was sent back to Macedonia as regent, by the

King, in B.C. 323. On the division of the empire after the death of Alexander, Craterus received, jointly with Antipater, the government of Macedonia, Greece, Illyria, and Epirus, Antipater taking command of the military forces and Craterus attending to civil affairs. He formed an alliance with Antigonus (q.v.) against Perdiccas and invaded Asia with an army, but was defeated and slain by Eumenes in Cappadocia (B.c. 321).

CRATES, krā'těz (Lat., from Gk. Kpárns, Krates). An Athenian comic poet of the fifth century B.C. He began his career as an actor in Cratinus's plays, and won his first victory in Aristotle says that he was the first B.C. 449. to give up personal satire in comedy; he likewise made the innovation of introducing a drunken character on the stage. We have the titles of fifteen plays and scanty fragments. Consult Kock, Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta (Leipzig, 1880).

CRATES. A cynic philosopher of Thebes, of the fourth century B.C. Scorning the large prop erty which he inherited, he moved to Athens and became an eager disciple of Diogenes and one excellent orator and skillful poet. of the most eminent of the Cynics. He was an Interesting Bergk, Poeta Lyrici Græci (Leipzig, 1882). The fragments of his poetry have been edited by thirty-six letters which bear his name are generally thought to be spurious. They are edited by Consult, also, Zeller, Philosophie der Griechen, Hercher, Epistolographi Græci (Paris, 1873). vol. i. (Tübingen, 1892).

CRATES. A Greek grammarian and Stoic of the second century B.C. He was the head of the Pergamene Library and the chief opponent of Aristarchus. He devoted himself to the interpretation of Greek authors, especially of Homer; he likewise defended the grammatical theory of anomaly in opposition to the Alexandrian doctrine of analogy. (See ANOMALISTS AND ANALOGISTS.) He assisted in enlarging and cataloguing the Pergamene Library; and his work on the Attic dialect was much employed by later grammarians. About 167 B.C. he was sent by King Attalus on an embassy to Rome, where he introduced the study of formal grammar. Consult: De Cratete Mallota Wachsmuth, (Leipzig, 1860); Susemihl, Geschichte der griech. Litteratur in der Alexandriner Zeit, vol. ii. (Leipzig, 1892).

CRATI'NUS (Lat., from Gk. Kparivos, Kratinos) (-c.421 B.C.). An Athenian comic poet. He was born in the latter part of the sixth century B.C., and was one of seven poets of the Old Comedy named in the canon of the Alexandrians. He first presented a comedy in 453; in all he left twenty-one plays with which he had won nine victories. He is said to have

been the first to give comedy a political turn, and by the introduction of a third actor to place it on a level with tragedy. A follower of Cimon and the Conservative Party, he sharply attacked Pericles in two plays; and in his 'Apxoxo, Archilochoi, he represented a contest of poets which may well have been Aristophanes's model in his Frogs. Aristophanes defeated Cratinus in 425 with his Acharnians, and in 424 with the Knights. In the parabasis of the latter play he refers to his elder rival as 'an ancient ruin.' whereupon Cratinus retorted in 423 with his

Wineflask, which won the first prize over Aristophanes's Clouds. The fragments of his work are collected by Kock, Comicorum Atticorum Fragmenta, vol. i. (Leipzig, 1880).

was at one time French ambassador to Berlin. She traveled widely, and after marriage lived much in England, writing articles on English politics, and biographical sketches of Sister Nathalie Narishkin and of Lady Georgiana Fullerton, as well as Reminiscences of England and Italy. She died in Paris, April 1, 1891. Her novels have been as popular perhaps English translations as in the original. The best are: Anne Severin; The Enigma's Answer; and Fleurange, in all of which she pleads persuasively the cause of Roman Catholicism, and seeks in emotional ecstasy the only life that seems to her worth the living. To some her books will seem morbid, to others strong, but her fervid spirit appeals to all.

CRATIP/PUS (Lat., from Gk. Kрάтiжжоs, Kratippos). A Peripatetic philosopher. He was a native of Mitylene, and a contemporary of Cicero. He appears to have been held in the highest estimation by the great men of his age. Cicero calls him the prince of all the philosophers whom he had known. Cratippus accompanied Pompeius in the latter's flight after the defeat at Pharsalia, and conferred upon him the consolations of philosophy; and Brutus went to Athens, where Cratippus had lately settled, to listen to his lectures even while making preparations to meet Octavius and Antonius. Nothing that Cratippus wrote has survived.

CRAUK, kra'uk', GUSTAVE ADOLPHE DESIRE (1827-). A French sculptor, born in Valenciennes. He was a pupil of Pradier, and won the Prix de Rome in 1851. His works are to be found in many of the public buildings and churches of Paris, and in the museums of Versailles, Amiens, Grenoble, Lille, and Valenciennes. Among them are: "Victory Crowning the French Flag" (1864), a bronze group, his masterpiece; "Twilight" (1870); the monument to Admiral Coligny (1899); "Youth and Love" (in the Luxembourg); and the bronze statue of Dupuytren.

CRA VEN, ALFRED WINGATE (1810-79). An American civil engineer, born in Washington, D. C. He was appointed engineer commissioner to the Croton Water Board in New York City in 1849, and his connection with that board was notable for the number and value of the works which he projected and superintended. Among these were the Central Park Reservoir, completed in 1867; the reservoir at Boyd's Corners, and the survey of the Croton Valley. The establishment of the sewerage system of New York is largely due to his endeavors. He was the first president of the American Society of Civil Engineers.

CRAVEN, ELIJAH RICHARDSON (1824-). An American clergyman, born in Washington, D. C. He was educated at the College of New Jersey and at Princeton Theological Seminary, and in 1865 he was appointed a director of Princeton. In 1878 he became chairman of the committee appointed to revise the Book of Discipline of the Presbyterian Church, and he was made Moderator of the General Assembly of that Church in 1885. Afterwards he served as president of the board of directors of the Newark German Theological Seminary, Bloomfield, N. J. For more than thirty years (1854-87) he was pastor of the Third Presbyterian Church in Newark, N. J. In 1887-1904 he was secretary of the Presbyterian Board of Publication. He translated Lange's Commentary on the Revelation.


CRAVEN, PAULINE DE LA FERRONAYS, Madame AUGUSTUS (1820-91). A French religious romancer, born in Paris. She is best known for her Histoire d'une sœur (1866), an idyllic picture of an aristocratic Roman Catholic French family and of the slow passing-away, through consumption, of a simple-minded, noble, and deeply religious woman. Madame Craven's father

CRAVEN, THOMAS (1808-87). An American naval officer, born in Washington, D. C. He entered the navy in 1822; took part in the capture of the pirate Federal, in the West Indies, in 1828; and commanded Captain Wilkes's flagship in the Antarctic exploring expedition in 1838. He was commissioned captain in 1861, commanded the Potomac flotilla, and in the same year took part in the capture of New Orleans and the operations on the Mississippi. In 1866 he was assigned to the command of the Mare Island Navy-yard and was raised to the rank of rear-admiral.

CRAVEN, TUNIS AUGUSTUS MACDONOUGH (1813-64). An American naval officer, brother of Thomas Craven (q.v.). He was born in Portsmouth, N. H.; entered the navy in 1829; took part in the conquest of California, and in 1857 made a survey of the Isthmus of Darien for a prospective ship-canal. He saved the fort at Key West for the United States Government at the beginning of the Civil War, and was promoted to the rank of commander. While chasing the Confederate ram Tennessee, in the battle of Mobile Bay, his vessel, the monitor Tecumseh, struck a torpedo, and sank with himself and nearly every one on board.

CRAWFISH, or CRAYFISH (OF. crevice, crevisse, Fr. écrevisse, from OHG. chrebiz, Ger. Krebs, crawfish). A fresh-water or terrestrial crustacean (Astacus fluviatilis) nearly allied to the lobster, from which, however, it differs in having the middle plate of the tail-fin transversely divided by a suture. It inhabits the rivers and streams of many parts of Europe, making burrows in clayey banks, and coming forth at night in search of food, which consists chiefly of mollusks, small fishes, larvæ of aquatic insects, and animal substances of almost any kind. It is esteemed for the table, and is readily attracted by a bait of decaying flesh or animal garbage inclosed in a net or in a bundle of twigs, by which many crawfish may be captured at a time. The use of the name has been extended until it is now applied to any of the fresh-water species of the family Astacidæ. In the United States it is universally applied to any one of several species of Cambarus, which agree very closely in structure and habits with the common crawfish of Europe. They are six inches or so in length and of a greenish-brown color. They frequently do much damage to dikes and levees by opening water passages, as told in Proc. Assoc. Econom. Entomologists for 1895 (U. S. Dept. Agric.. 1896). For general facts, consult Huxley, The Crayfish: An Introduction to

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