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the black-headed fire-worm (Rhopobata vacciniana), which defoliates the bushes, and a span-worm (Acrobasis vaccinii), which attacks the fruit. For the first, Prof. J. B. Smith, author of a treatise on "Insects Injuriously Affecting Cranberries," in Special Bulletin K, New Jersey Agricultural College Experiment Station (New Brunswick, N. J., 1890), recommends reflowing the land and application of kerosene or Paris green; for the second, Paris green or London purple applied after the leaves are mostly gone and the berries are set. A scale, a leaf-hopper, and certain locusts and crickets are also harmful.

CRAN'BROOK, GATHORNE GATHORNE-HARDY, first Earl of (1814-1906). An English statesman, born at Bradford. He was educated at Oxford, and was appointed Under-Secretary of State for the Home Department in 1858, two years after his election to Parliament. In 1865 he was again elected to Parliament as the representative of the University of Oxford, defeating Mr. Gladstone in that electoral contest. In 1867 68 he was Home Secretary, and was subsequently Minister of War (1874-78), Secretary of State for India (1878-80) under Lord Beaconsfield, and Lord President of the Council under the Marquis of Salisbury (1885 and 1886-92). He was raised to the peerage in 1878 as Viscount Cranbrook, and was created Baron Medway in 1892.

CRANCH, CHRISTOPHER PEARSE (1813-92). An American artist and poet, born at Alexandria, Va. He studied theology at Cambridge, Mass., and became a Unitarian clergyman. In 1842 he retired from the ministry. He associated himself with the Transcendentalists, and wrote verse

for The Dial, but in 1846 went to Europe to study art, remaining there until 1863. He returned to America in 1864; but after 1871 devoted himself wholly to literature, to which he had already contributed Poems (1844), two juveniles, The Last of the Huggermuggers (1856), and Kobboltozo (1857). His later works were a blank verse translation of the Eneid (1872); Satan, a libretto (1874); The Bird and the Bell, with other poems (1875); Ariel and Caliban (1887). He was a man of genuine culture, who, growing up in the midst of more gifted spirits, failed to make a deep impression upon his generation. He is probably best remembered for his good stanzas beginning "Thought is deeper than all speech."

CRANCH, WILLIAM (1769-1855). An American judge, born at Weymouth. He graduated at Harvard, and was admitted to the bar in 1790. In 1801 he was appointed a justice of the United States Circuit Court for the District of Columbia, and in 1805 was made Chief Justice, which position he held until his death. He published: Reports of Cases in the United States District Court of the District of Columbia (1801-41); and the Supreme Court Reports (1800-15).

plan, and to open her school unreservedly to "young ladies and little misses of color." Accordingly she issued an announcement to that effect in the Liberator of March 2, and early in April received fifteen or twenty colored pupils. Her neighbors then began a systematic course of persecution, and endeavored by boycott, insult, and abuse, and by enforcement of an obsolete vagrancy law, to break up the school. Public meetings were called, petitions were circulated, and on May 24 the celebrated 'Black Law' of Connecticut was passed forbidding any one to "set up or establish in this State any school, academy, or literary institution for the instruction or education of colored persons who are not inhabitants of this State," or to instruct or teach in any such school. For refusing to obey this law Miss Crandall was arrested, was imprisoned in the Canterbury jail, and in October was convicted, though the Court of Errors reversed the decision of the lower court on a Soon afterwards

technicality, in July, 1834. Miss Crandall's house was assaulted and partially destroyed, and she finally decided to abandon her project. The whole affair attracted much attention throughout the country and served to intensify the conflict between the abolitionist and anti-abolitionist elements among the Northern people. A short time after giving up her school Miss Crandall married the Rev. Calvin Philleo, and passed the rest of her life in New York, Illinois, and Kansas. Consult May, Recollections of the Anti-Slavery Conflict (Boston, 1869).

CRAN'DALL (PHILLEO), PRUDENCE (180390). An American educator and philanthropist. She was born at Hopkinton, R. I., of Quaker parentage; was educated at the Friends' School in Providence, R. I.; taught for a time at Plainfield, Conn., and in 1831 established a private school for girls in Canterbury. Early in 1833 she admitted a colored girl into the school, and thereby aroused the violent opposition of her neighbors. This led her to abandon her original

CRANE. The largest of the wading birds (Gralle). They constitute the family Gruidæ, which occupies a very distinctive position between the trumpeters and the rails, being connected with the latter by the limpkins, or Aramidæ. All are tall, long-legged, long-necked birds, with the head more or less naked, but sometimes tufted, rather long, straight, compressed beaks, short but powerful wings, short tails, the feet unwebbed, and the hind toe greatly elevated; they are like herons in appearance, One remarkbut resemble rails in structure. able feature is the enormous development of the windpipe within the keel of the breastbone, where it is coiled and twisted before emerging into the neck; the extreme development of this is found in our American whooping crane, where the trachea reaches four or five feet in length in birth), and the convolutions act like those of a old age (it is perfectly straight and simple at dinary resonance of tone for which the voice of French hunting-horn in producing the extraorthis species (see IBIS) is noted. About eighteen species of crane are known, representing three genera and all parts of the world except South America and the Malayan and Polynesian archipelagoes. The best-known, perhaps, is the European crane, which is about four feet high, ashy gray, with a blackish face and throat. The tertial feathers of the wings are so prolonged as to droop over the quills; their webs are fibrous and disconnected, and formerly they were much used as ornamental plumes. This peculiarity characterizes most other species to a greater or less extent, and some species have the power to elevate these plumes at will, forming a striking ornament. All the cranes of the temperate zone migrate, some going annually to the far north to breed; and the coming of flocks in the spring,


1. SERIEMA (Seriema cristata).

2. CROWNED CRANE (Balearica pavonina).

3. LIMPKIN (Aramus pictus).

4. WHOOPING CRANE (Grus Americana).

5. TRUMPETER (Psophia crepitans).


always in a V-formation, and the extraordinary 'dances' with which some accompany courtship, have been observed for centuries and have caused a large body of myth and folklore to grow up about the bird during classical and mediæval times. On this point, consult C. de Kay, Bird Gods (New York, 1898).

The remote breeding of the European crane (Grus grus) in Lapland and along the northern border of Russia was little known until the mystery was solved by J. Wolley in 1853, who discovered among other new facts that the young run about as soon as they leave the egg, and that the sitting bird would not carry away eggs that had been handled, as had been commonly believed. The birds make their nests on the ground in the marshy plains that border the Arctic Sea. The whole account (Ibis, London, 1859) is exceedingly interesting, and is largely quoted by Stejneger in the Standard Natural History, vol. iv. (Boston, 1885). Other cranes of the Old World are the northwest African crowned or Balearic crane (Balearica pavonina), which has a top-knot like that of a peacock; and the smaller Numidian crane or demoiselle (Grus virgo), which in summer resides and breeds from Turkey eastward to China, and which is the one most famous for its dancing. The Manchurian crane (Grus viridirostris) is especially common in winter in Korea, where it is trapped in large numbers and sold to the Chinese and Japanese, who are especially fond of it, and endow it with many folklore qualities. The large Australasian crane (Grus Australasiana) is one of the most conspicuous birds of that region, and is known to the Australians as 'native companion' because of its friendly disposition. It will sometimes follow the plowman, picking up the insects he turns out of the soil. Consult Blyth, Natural History of the Cranes (London, 1881).

American cranes are of three species. The greatest is the whooping crane (Grus Americana), which is larger than the European crane, and is seldom seen except on the Western plains, where it has become rare. Two others are also species of the Western interior, and are diminish ing in numbers; one is the sand-hill crane (Grus Mexicana), and the other the little brown crane (Grus Canadensis)—both until recently regarded one species. Consult Cones, Birds of the Northwest (Washington, 1874). See Plate of CRANES, ETC.


linear motion. Rotary and rectilinear cranes are thus subdivided: (1) Swing cranes, having rotation but no trolley motion; (2) jib cranes, having rotation and a trolley traveling on the horizontal jib; (3) column cranes, identical with the jib crane, but rotating around a fixed column, which usually supports a floor or roof above; (4) derrick cranes, identical with jib cranes, except that the head of the mast is held in position by guy rods, instead of by attachment to a roof or ceiling; (5) pillar cranes, having rotation only, the pillar or column being supported entirely from the foundations; (6) pillar jib cranes, identical with the last, except in having a jib and trolley motion; (7) walking cranes, consisting of a pillar or jib crane mounted on wheels and arranged to travel longitudinally upon one or more rails; (8) locomotive cranes, consisting of a pillar crane mounted on a truck, and provided with a steam-engine capable of propelling and rotating the crane, and of hoisting and lowering the load; (9) bridge cranes, having a fixed bridge spanning an opening and a trolley moving across the bridge; (19) tram cranes, consisting of a trunk or short bridge, traveling longitudinally on overhead rails and without trolley motion; (11) traveling cranes, consisting of a bridge, traveling longitudinally on overhead tracks, and a trolley moving transversely on the bridge; (12) gantries, consisting of an overhead bridge carried at each end by a trestle traveling on longitudinal tracks on the ground, and having a trolley moving on the bridge; (13) rotary bridge cranes, combining rotary and rectilinear movements and consisting of a bridge pivoted at one end to a central pin or post and supported at the other end on a circular truck, provided with a trolley moving on the bridge.


CRANE (AS. cran, cornoch, OHG. cranuh, chranih, Ger. Kranich, crane; connected with Welsh, Corn., Bret. garan, OChurch Slav. cheravi, Lith. gérie, Gk. yépavos, geranos, crane; called from the resemblance of the arm of the machine to the neck of the bird). A term used in mechanics to designate a hoist which can also move the load in a horizontal or lateral direction. Cranes are divided into two classes, as to their motions-viz. rotary and rectilinearand into four groups as to their motive power— viz. hand, when operated by manual power; power, when driven by power derived from line shafting; steam, electric, hydraulic, or pneumatic, when driven by an engine or motor attached to the crane, and operated by steam, electricity, water, or air transmitted to the crane from a fixed source of supply; locomotive, when the crane is provided with its own boiler or other generator of power, and is self-propelling, usually being capable of both rotary and recti

VOL. V.-35.

Cranes are built of wood and iron, but at the present time cast iron and steel are employed nearly exclusively. Hand cranes are employed for handling comparatively light loads, and the manual power is usually applied by means of a crank or cranks operating a windlass, around the drum of which the hoisting rope is wound and unwound. For heavy loads some form of mechanical power is always employed, which is applied through a suitable train of mechanism for performing the various movements of hoisting, rotation, and horizontal travel. A great variety of such mechanisms are in common use for each of the principal kinds of motive power, and for details the reader should consult special treatises on hoisting machinery. Cranes are built with capacities of from a few hundred pounds to as much as 150 tons. The traveling crane in the 12-inch gun shop at the Washington Navy-yard has a capacity of 150 tons; the span of the bridge is 59% feet; the maximum travel of the trolley lengthwise of the bridge is 44 feet 2 inches, and its traveling speed is from 25 to 50 feet per minute; the effective lift is 40 feet, with four speeds of hoist; the speed of travel of the bridge is from 30 to 60 feet per minute.

The Finnisston Quay, at Glasgow, Scotland, is equipped with a pillar crane of 150 tons capacity. The jib is formed of two steel tubes, each 39 inches in diameter and 90 feet long; the radius of sweep for heavy lifts is 65 feet; the jib and its load are counterbalanced by a weight of 100 tons; and in a test a 130-ton load was lifted at a rate of 4 feet per minute, and a complete

revolution was made with this load in five minutes. The floating crane at Cramp's shipyard, in Philadelphia, Pa., has a steel mast 116 feet high and 3 feet in diameter, carrying a horizontal jib 65 feet long with a counterbalance arm 50 feet long which is stayed to the bottom of the mast and to the hull of the barge. The barge is 69 feet long, 62 feet wide, and 13 feet deep. This crane has a lifting capacity of 125 tons. A floating crane owned by the Chapman Wrecking Company, of New York City, has a mast 92 feet high and a jib 98 feet long, and is capable of lifting a load of 265 tons.

On board ship cranes are fitted for handling cargo, coal, boats, anchor, etc. The boat-crane of a large modern man-of-war is built up, boxgirder fashion; it rises 20 or 25 feet above the skid-beams on which the boats are stowed, and extends 10 or 15 feet beyond the ship's side when turned out for the purpose of lowering or hoisting a boat. The power is either electricity or steam, and serves to hoist and lower the boat, run it in or out on the horizontal arm of the crane, or train (i.e. turn horizontally) the latter. Consult: Glynn, Treatise on the Construction of Cranes and Other Hoisting Machinery (London, 1887); Marks, Notes on the Construction of Cranes and Lifting Machinery (London, 1889); and Towne, A Treatise on Cranes (New York, 1883). See DERRICK.

de la France (1891); and Tableau de la révolu tion française (6th ed., 1892).

CRANE, BRUCE (1857-). An American artist. He was born in New York. He has become famed for his winter and snow studies. Mr. Crane became a member of the National Academy in 1879. .

CRANE, ICHABOD. The hero of the adventure with the Headless Horseman, in Irving's "Legend of Sleepy Hollow," in The Sketch Book.

CRANE, STEPHEN (1870-1900). An American journalist and novelist, born at Newark, N. J. He was educated at Lafayette College and Syracuse University; began active life as a reporter and newspaper writer; was correspondent

for the New York Journal in the Greco-Turkish War (1897) and in Cuba, and then removed to England. His first essay in fiction was a story of slum life, Maggie, a Girl of the Streets (1891). This was followed by a collection of verses, The Black Riders and Other Lines (1895). The Red Badge of Courage (1896), a realistic though imaginary presentation of horrors in the Civil War, brought him deserved reputation. Less significant are: George's Mother (1896); The Little Regiment (1897); The Open Boat; On Active Service; Whilomville Stories, and other tales; although in such a short story as The Master he showed that he still possessed great power. Posthumous manuscripts have been collected by his wife under the title Wounds in the Rain and Great Battles of the World.

CRANE, THOMAS FREDERICK (1844-). An American folklorist and educator, born in New York City. He graduated in 1864 at Princeton, was appointed professor of modern languages at Cornell, and in 1868 professor of the Romance languages. In 1902 he became dean of the general faculty of the university. His researches in the history of the development of European folklore are especially valuable. His works include: Italian Popular Tales (1885); The Exempla, or Illustrative Stories from the Sermones Vulgares of Jacques de Vitry (1890); Chansons Populaires

CRANE, WALTER (1845—). An English painter and engraver, born in Liverpool, August 15, 1845. He was a pupil of his father, Thomas Crane, a portrait painter, and afterwards studied engraving under Linton in London. Among his best oil-paintings are the "Birth of Venus" and the "Fate of Proserpina;" among his aquarelles, "Plato's Garden," "Date Trees on Monte Pincio,” and the "End of the Year." He is, however, best known from his illustrations in juvenile works, done in a sort of antique style, mostly in outline. Among these are "Echoes from Hellas;" "Flora's Feast;" and "Queen Summer." He is also known as a designer for glass windows, tapestries, and the like, and has written extensively upon subjects of general artistic interest. He has received many medals, and is president of the Arts and Crafts Society of London. He was chairman of the Arts and Crafts Commission of Great Britain at the Saint Louis exposition, at which he exhib ited an oil-painting, "Peace." His most recent pictures include: "The Mower," "Walkyrie's Ride," and a "Mask of the Four Seasons" (1905). Consult the monographs by von Berlepsch (Vienna, 1897), and Schleinetz (Bielefeld, 1902); Konody, The Art of Walter Crane (London, 1902).

CRANE, WILLIAM HENRY (1845—). An American comedian. He was born in Leicester, Mass., and was educated in the Boston schools. In 1863, after some amateur experience, he made his début at Utica, N. Y., with the Holman Opera Company, taking the part of the notary in Donizetti's Daughter of the Regiment. In 1870 he became a member of the Alice Oates Company, with which he remained for four years. In 1874 he played at Hooley's theatre in Chicago. filling the leading comedy rôles, and later he acted in San Francisco for nearly a year. Returning East, he made his first marked success with Stuart Robson (1877), at the Park Theatre, New York City, in Grover's farcical play Our Boarding House. Among their other successes were those in the Comedy of Errors and The Henrietta (1889), after which he separated from Mr. Robson. His subsequent plays include: The Senator; The American Minister; On Probation; A Fool of Fortune; A Virginia Courtship (1898); David Harum (1900); and Business is Business (1905).

CRANE, WINTHROP MURRAY (1853-). An American politician and a manufacturer, born in Dalton, Mass., and educated in the public schools. In 1897 he was elected Lieut.-Governor of Massachusetts, and in 1900 Governor. He was appointed to fill the vacancy in the United States Senate caused by the death of Senator Hoar in 1904, and later was elected for the term ending in 1907.

CRANE-FLY (so called from its long legs). A big, slender-bodied fly of the family Tipulidæ, having excessively long, slender legs. These flies appear, often in swarms, in late summer, and about 300 of the thousand or more known species belong to the United States. Their modes of life and reproduction are not well known. "The larve of most species," accord ing to Howard, "live in the earth, but some live in water, in decomposing wood, and even upon the leaves of plants. Some of the earth-inhabit

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