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THOMAS), and was present at the surrender of Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown. After the war he settled near Mount Vernon, and attended Washington in his last illness.
CRAIK, ROBERT (1829-). A Canadian physician, born in Montreal. He studied medicine at McGill University, and in 1854 became connected with the general hospital in Montreal. In 1856 he was appointed demonstrator of anatomy at the university, and three years later was made curator of its anatomical museum. From 1860 to 1867 he held the chair of clinical sur
gery at the university. Meanwhile, in 1866, he was called upon to substitute for the professor of chemistry while continuing his lectures in clinical surgery, and in 1867 he decided to resign the chair of surgery and retain that of chemistry. He resigned the latter chair in 1879, and in 1889-1901 served as dean of the medical faculty and professor of hygiene and public health.
CRAILSHEIM, or KRAILSHEIM, krilzhim. A town of Württemberg, Germany, on the Jagst, 47 miles northeast of Stuttgart. Its municipal offices are situated in the ancient castle of the Hohenlohes; the fifteenth-century Church of Saint John, a Gothic edifice, contains some good paintings and other interesting features, and there is a fine Rathaus. It has considerable trade, and manufactures of woolens and cement. Population, in 1900, 5255.
CRAIOVA, or KRAJOVA, kri-ō'vå. The capital of the Province of Craiova, Rumania, 112 miles west of Bucharest. It is the centre of a rich agricultural and forest region, and has considerable trade in timber, agricultural produce, and cattle. Salt is extensively mined in the neighborhood. It is a garrison town, and has large governmental industrial establishments for the manufacture of leather, rope, and carriages. In the Middle Ages it was the residence of a ban and the capital of Lower Wallachia. Population, in 1899, 45,438; in 1905, 45,756.
CRAKE, or CORN-CRAKE (from Icel. kraka, crow, so named from its cry). An English name for the land-rail (Crex crex), formed in imitation of its familiar cry, 'crek, crek,' which is heard from every field of grain in valleys and low grounds in Great Britain in early summer, and is associated with all that is pleasant in that pleasant season. It is a very pretty bird, of a reddish-brown color, marked with dark brown in streaks along the middle of the feathers, lighter below. (See Plate of RAILS, ETC.) Several other similar short-billed rails of the genera Crex and Porzana are often termed crakes, as the spotted crake (Porzana porzana), which is smaller than the corn-crake and is very similar to the American sora.
Old English History (1887). His best-known historical work is a History of the Church Under the Roman Empire (1873).
CRAKEBERRY. See CROWBERRY.
CRAKE, AUGUSTUS DAVID (1836-90). An English author. He was educated at London University, entered the ministry of the Church of England, and after holding pastorates at Bloxham and in the Isle of Wight, became Vicar of Cholsey, near Wallingford, in 1885, where he remained until his death. He was the author of a number of devotional books and of a long series of historical story-books, illustrating the history of the Church in England. His works include: Æmilius (1871); Evanus (1872); Edwy the Fair (1874); Alfgar the Dane (1874); Fairleigh Hall (1882); The Last Abbot of Glastonbury (1884); Yule-Log Stories (1887); Stories from
CRAMER, krä'mēr, GABRIEL (1704-52). A Swiss mathematician. He was born in Geneva, and was subsequently professor of mathematics there. His chief work is a treatise on algebraic curves (Geneva, 1750); but he contributed to the subject of equations (q.v.), revived the study of determinants (q.v.), which had been begun by Leibnitz, and wrote on the physical cause of the spheroidal shape of the planets and the moedited the works of Johann Bernoulli (4 vols., tion of their apsides (Paris, 1730). He also Lausanne, 1742) and Jakob Bernoulli (2 vols., Geneva, 1744). In his investigation of curves Cramer generalized the problem of Pappus, to inscribe in a given circle a triangle whose sides produced shall pass through three collinear points; proved Newton's rule for determining the infinite branches of a curve; and completed the classification of cubic curves. Consult: Cantor, Geschichte der Mathematik (Leipzig, 1898), and Muir, Theory of Determinants in the Historical Order of Development (London, 1890). See CURVES.
CRAMER, JOHANN ANDREAS (1723-88). A German preacher and poet, born in Jöhstadt, Saxony. He studied theology in Leipzig, and in 1750 became chief Court preacher in Quedlinburg. In 1754 the influence of his friends Klopstock and Bernstorff secured for him an appointment to a similar position in Copenhagen, where he also became professor of theology. Owing to the antagonism of Struensee, he was subsequently banished from the country, and accepted an appointment as superintendent in Lübeck, whence he was recalled to Denmark after Struensee's execution in 1772, and appointed professor of theology and chancellor at the University of Kiel (1774). As a preacher he was unexcelled in his day, and his odes and hymns were very popular. Many of them, such as Er ist gekommen her, Dein bin ich, Herr, and Der Herr ist Gott und Keiner mehr, are still frequently sung in the Protestant churches of Germany. His collected poems were published under the respective titles, Sämtliche Gedichte (1782) and Hinterlassene Gedichte (1791).
CRAMER, JOHANN BAPTIST (1771-1858). A German pianist and composer. He was born in Mannheim, but in his infancy went to London with his father, the violinist Wilhelm Cramer, who was also his first teacher. Having completed his studies under Clementi, he appeared in public with great success at the age of seventeen, and after a concert tour in 1788-91, settled in London as a teacher. He repeatedly traveled on the Continent, and from 1832 lived in Paris, whence he returned to London in 1845. He was much admired as a pianist for his correct technique and sympathetic interpretation; his numerous compositions for the pianoforte are now antiquated, with the exception of the Eighty-Four Studies, Op. 50, which in their rare combination of superior technical requirements with the highest musical value have become an accepted classic, and are used in the entire musical world as models of fundamental studies for the acquirement of solid and tasteful pianoforte playing.
CRA'MER, JOHN ANTONY (1793-1848). An English philologist, born at Mitlödi, Switzerland, of German parentage, and educated at Christ Church, Oxford. He was professor of modern history at Oxford from 1842 until his death, and during the last four years of his life was also Dean of Carlisle. The following are a few of his principal works: Dissertation on the Passage of Hannibal Over the Alps (in collaboration with H. L. Wickham; 2d ed., 1828); Anecdota Græca e Codicibus Manuscriptis Bibliothecarum Oxoniensium Descripta (4 vols., 183537); Catena Græcorum Patrum in Novum Testamentum (8 vols., 1838-41).
into the Fan country north and back to Corisco Bay. In the following year he was commissioned by the Comité de l'Afrique Française to penetrate to Lake Chad, and started from Stanley Pool with a small force of 30 Senegalese soldiers and 250 carriers, and accompanied by three Europeans. Having marched under great difficulties from Bangui on the Ubangi River northward to El Kuti, he was abandoned by his carriers, and while trying to force their way farther north, he and his remaining companions were surprised and massacred by the Senussi Moslems. Only one European escaped to bring the news to the Congo (July, 1891).
CRAMPFISH (so called from the temporary paralysis caused by its shock). The electric ray. See TORPEDO.
CRAMER, kräʼmēr, KARL EDUARD (1831-1901). A Swiss botanist, born in Zurich. He studied there and in Freiburg, taught for several years at the technological institute of Zurich, and in 1861 was appointed professor of botany at the Polytechnikum. In 1882 he was made director of the botanic garden in Zurich. His published works include the following: Pflanzenphysio: logische Untersuchungen, jointly with Nägeli (1855-58); Untersuchungen über die Ceramiaceen (1863); Bildungsabweichungen bei einigen wichtigeren Pflanzenfamilien (1864). He was also the author of a number of important monographs on botanical subjects, published in scientific periodicals.
CRAMP (OHG. chrampfa, Ger. Krampe, cramp, from OHG. krampf, curved, Icel. krappr, narrow; connected also with AS., OS. crumb, OHG. krump, Ger. krumm, crooked). An irregular, involuntary, and generally painful contraction of a voluntary muscle, without insensibility or other disturbance of the general system. Cramp is often the effect of cold, and has proved fatal to swimmers by attacking them suddenly when in the water. It is readily removed by warmth and friction, when due to a strained position, to cold, or prolonged contraction of a group of muscles, as in lifting a weight above the head. A swimmer attacked with cramp in the legs should turn on his back and, while floating, grasp and knead the affected muscles violently. Cramps are a distressing symptom in cholera (q.v.). They occur in colic (q.v.), in tetanus (q.v.), and in some cases of poisoning. Writers' cramp is an 'occupation neurosis' (q.v.) consisting of a spasmodic closure of the hand on attempting to write, which turns the pen over and prevents its moving. Telegraphers, brakemen on railroads, ballet-dancers, cigar-makers, and many others suffer from a cramp in the group of muscles which they use constantly in their occupations.
CRAMP, CHARLES HENRY (1828-). An American ship-builder, born in Philadelphia. He became a partner in, and later president of, the Cramp Ship-building Co. In the latter capacity he assisted in the reconstruction of the United States Navy, and the reëstablishment of the United States merchant marine. The destroyed battle ship Maine was built at the Cramp yards, in whose thirty-one acres of ground nearly 6000 workmen are employed. Consult Buell, Memoirs of C. H. Cramp (New York, 1906).
CRAMPEL, kräN'pěl', PAUL (1863-91). A French traveler in Africa. He first went to the French Congo in 1886 as secretary to Savorgnan de Brazza, and in 1888-89 conducted most successfully an expedition from the Ogowe River
CRAMPTON, CHARLES ALBERT (1858-). An American chemist, born at Davenport, Iowa. He received his education at the University of Michigan, became assistant chemist in the United States Department of Agriculture in 1883, and, seven years later, was made chief
chemist to the Internal Revenue Bureau. He
carried out a number of interesting investigations in agricultural chemistry and published numerous memoirs and reports on special topics of the chemistry of food and agricultural products.
CRAMPTON, THOMAS RUSSELL (1816-88).
An English railway engineer. He was born in
CRANACH, krä'nåG, LUCAS (1472-1553). A German painter, born in Upper Franconia. There is much dispute in regard to his family name, but it has been conclusively shown by Schuchardt, on Cranach's own testimony, that Müller. Cranach was a pupil of his father, and in 1504 became Court painter to Frederick_the Wise, Elector of Saxony, at Wittenberg, by whom he was held in high repute. His office included the duties of master of ceremonies at Court, and
besides this he found time for different business ventures at Wittenberg. In 1519 he was elected chairman of the town council; he became burgomaster in 1537, and again in 1540. Cranach tors of Saxony, and for two years remained with was in equal favor with the two following ElecJohn Frederick during his imprisonment. He died at Weimar, October 16, 1553.
Reformation, because of his active part in spreadCranach has been called the painter of the ing its doctrines. This he did by means of paintings and woodcuts ridiculing the Pope and explaining the teachings of the Reformers, and by his numerous portraits of Luther and Melanchthon, who were both his personal friends. Because of this activity and also on account of his great productiveness, he became the controlling influence in the art of middle and northern Germany, and founded what may be called the
Saxon School. He painted with great facilityin fact, the inscription upon his gravestone gives him the title of 'celerrimus pictor.' His early paintings were carefully executed, but in later life he did much negligent work. He paid great attention to detail, for which reason his smaller pictures were more attractive. His color was bright and clear, but his drawing was deficient, and he failed utterly whenever he attempted to represent the nude on a large scale. His work was always original, and though we see the influence of the Renaissance in his mythological subjects, his art was thoroughly German and national. It was, moreover, naïf and rich in fantasy, being best wherever there was a chance for genre.
Cranach's works survive in large numbers, especially in the German galleries. But he intrusted so much to his large school of pupils that it is difficult to decide how much is actually due to him. Among his best works are the "Repose in Egypt" (1504), now in Leipzig; "Christ Blessing the Children," in the Baring collection in London; "Samson and Delilah," in the Museum of Augsburg, and the "Fountain of Youth," in the Berlin Museum. All of these pictures possess a charming naïveté. Of his larger religious paintings, good examples are the "Marriage of Saint Catherine," in the Cathedral of Erfurt, of his earliest period, and his last great work, the "Crucifixion," in the town church of Weimar. This depicts the object of the Reformation, quaintly introducing the figures of Luther and of Cranach himself. His best
works are probably his portraits, for in these the detailed execution is more appropriate. But even here he falls far short of the strength of character of Dürer and Holbein. Among the best are "Cardinal Albrecht of Mainz as Saint Jerome," in the Berlin Museum; John Frederick of Saxony, in Dresden; and an "Unknown Female" (No. 291), in the National Gallery, London. His oft-repeated portraits of Luther and Melanchthon exercised a very great influence in spreading the Reformation. Cranach was also an excellent painter of miniatures, as may be seen in the album of the University of Wittenberg, now at Halle, and especially in John Frederick's "Book of Tourneys," now at Coburg, a work of 144 leaves. He also executed a few copper plates and a large number of drawings for woodcuts.
Consult: Kugler, German, Flemish, and Dutch Schools (Eng. trans., London, 1898); Schuchardt, Cranach des älteren Leben und Werke (Leipzig, 1855-71); also the monographs by Warnecke (Görlitz, 1879), Lindau (Leipzig, 1883), and Michaelson (Leipzig, 1902).
berry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) is native in similar situations in the United States, and is extensively cultivated for commercial purposes in Massachusetts, New Jersey, Wisconsin, and a few other Northern States. The cranberry is a firm, red, acid berry, of good keeping quality, and is used for sauce, tarts, and the like. In the improved commercial culture of cranberries, natural swamps or bogs are selected which can be drained by open ditches and flooded when desired. The native moss and swamp growth are removed, and the peat covered two to four inches deep with sand. The vines are planted about 14 inches apart, cuttings 6 to 8 inches in length being used. The sand keeps down the weeds, makes cultivation easy, and helps retain the moisture in the soil below. Additional sandings are given every four or five years, which keep the vines short and close. In some localities sanding is omitted altogether. The object of flooding is to protect the vines in winter and from early fall and late spring frosts, to destroy insects, prevent drought, and protect against fire. The berries are gathered preferably by hand, but often with special rakes and combs. There are three principal types of cultivated varieties, determined by the form of the berries-bell-shaped, bugle-shaped, and cherry-shaped-with many varieties of each. In 1904, 1,000,000 bushels of cranberries were marketed in the United States.
The cowberry or mountain cranberry (Vaccinium vitis-idæa) is common in both Europe and America, and, like Vaccinium oxycoccus, is gathered and sold in considerable quantities, but is not cultivated. The shrub Vibernum opulus is known as the high-bush cranberry. The fruit is tart, but is of little value, and is seldom eaten. The Tasmanian cranberry is the fruit of Astroloma humifusum, of the natural order Epacridaceæ.
CRANBERRY DISEASES. The scald and rot are the most serious fungus troubles of the cranberry, the names being derived from the appearance of the fruit. They are of fungus origin and may be recognized by the appearance of soft spots on one side of the berry. The skin becomes tense and of a reddish-brown color. Later the berry becomes shriveled and may or may not fall to the ground. Distinct brownish spots may also be seen on the leaves. The diseases are most troublesome in hot, moist seasons, and the most satisfactory treatment, where it can be followed, is to cover the bog with a thin layer of sand, which can best be done when the bog is flooded, and spraying with Bordeaux mixture, to which is These diseases added a resin-fish oil mixture. have been known to destroy more than half the berries on a bog in a short time. A gall-producing fungus, Synchytrium vaccinii, is common on of the fungus on the leaves and other parts of the the cranberry and related plants. The presence plant causes the formation of red galls. Burning over the bog in autumn is recommended as a preventive means, since the spores are ripened the second year. Common and conspicuous malformations of leaves, flowers, and young shoots of the cranberry are due to Exobasidium vaccinii. The parts attacked are swollen and the green color replaced by rose or red. But the disease
CRANBERRY INSECTS. The worst enemies of the cranberry are two moth caterpillars