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the way to the realism of Wordsworth. What he lacked was the imagination necessary to give lasting interest to his subject. His great excellence is the directness with which he portrays the tragic life of men and women whom he knew and the scenes in which they lived. Consult: Works, with memoir, by his son G. Crabbe (8 vols., London, 1834-35); selections from poems, by Lamplough (London, 1888), and by Holland (London, 1899); Stephen's essay in Hours in a Library (London, 1876); Courthope's essay in Ward, English Poets (London, 1884); the Life, by Kebbel (London, 1888); and Ainger, Crabbe, in "English Men of Letters" Series (New York, 1902).




CRABETH, kräʼbět, DIRK and WOUTER. Dutch painters on glass. They were brothers, born at Gouda, in South Holland, and they flourished in the latter half of the sixteenth century. As the brothers worked together and were the most famous glass-painters of their time, they cannot be separated in biography. Very little is known of their lives, but they executed a number of excellent works in the churches of Belgium and France. Their chief works are fourteen of the seventy-five windows of the great church at Gouda. Among the best of these are the "Baptism of Christ" and the "Last Supper," by Dirk, and the "Nativity" and the "Sacrilege of Heliodorus," by Wouter. The latter excels in brilliancy of color, but Dirk has a more vigorous style. The works of both show a somewhat mannered imitation of the Italian, but they still retain much of the brightness of the medieval coloring. Dirk died in 1581; his brother about 1601. Consult Westlake, History of Design in Painted Glass, vol. iv. (London, 1894).

CRAB-GRASS. A name applied to Panicum sanguinale, an annual grass common throughout many parts of the United States. It is frequently seen to spring up in fields after the period of cultivation has passed. It grows to a height of two or three feet, bearing at the top three to twelve spreading purplish spikes which carry the flowers and seed. In many places it is considered a weed, but in the South it is valued for the hay it yields as well as for pasturage. The hay must be cured without rain falling upon it or its value is greatly impaired. It ranks close to Bermuda grass in the value and cheapness with which a crop may be produced. Eleusine indica is sometimes called crab-grass.

CRABIER, krå'bya' (Fr., crab-eater). The name in the French West Indies and Jamaica for several herons, especially the common nightheron (Nycticorax violaceus). See NIGHTHERON.


CRAB'S-PLOVER. A singular shore-bird (Dromas ardeola) nearly related to the oystercatchers, but set apart in a family, Dromadidæ, of its own, which is to be found sparingly on the coasts and islands of the Indian Ocean. "Its habits remind us both of the plovers and the terns, and so do the unusually large eggs," but in India, according to Hume, it nests in burrows in sand-hills.


CRAB'SHAW, TIMOTHY. A plowman and carter, who becomes squire to Sir Launcelot Greaves, in Smollett's novel of the latter name. Thomiside, so named on account of the short, A spider of the family broad body and the fact that, like a crab, it runs forward. These spiders spin no web, but await more successfully sideways or backward than their prey hidden among foliage, and are colored species are bright-colored and hide in flowers. in harmony with their background; but a few The most common American form (Misumena vatia) is milk-white, occasionally with lightcrimson markings. Another species (Philodromus vulgaris) eats house-flies almost exclusively. Consult: Emerton, The Common Spiders of the United States (Boston, 1902). Compare BIRD-SPIDER.

CRABTREE. Uncle of Sir Benjamin Backbite-a deaf, cross-grained old scandal-monger— in Sheridan's comedy The School for Scandal.

CRABTREE, Sir CADWALLADER. In Smollett's Adventures of Peregrine Pickle, the friend of the hero.

CRABTREE, CHARLOTTE (1847-). An American actress, known as Lotta. She was born in New York, and when a child of ten began her career in California. After starring for a about 1860. In 1867, as Little Nell and the time in the West, she came again to New York Marchioness in a dramatization of Old Curiosity Shop, she made her first great impression there, and became a popular favorite. Her success was found little to approve in the pieces in which entirely due to her personal charm. Critics she appeared, such as The Little Detective, Zip, Musette, and The Firefly, but her stage appearance was characterized by a naturalness and grace which won the hearts of the audience. She retired from the stage, still unmarried, in 1891, having acquired a fortune. Consult: Welch, in McKay and Wingate's Famous American Actors of To-Day (New York, 1896); and Clapp and Edgett, Players of the Present, Dunlap Society Publications (New York, 1899).



CRACKERS. A name given in the southern part of the United States to the poor and ignorant whites, probably because of their usual diet, which is cracked corn ground into a coarse meal. The term 'corn-crackers' is employed in the same sense.


CRACKLIN, or CRACKLE WARE. A kind cracked in the kiln, as an ornament, the effect of chinaware, the glazing of which is purposely being produced by a glaze which tends to contract in the burning more rapidly than the vessel itself.

CRACOW, krā ́ko (Pol. Krakov, Ger. Krakau, Fr. Cracovie, Lat. Cracovia, Carodunum: said to be named after its founder, Krakus, a legendary Slavic chief). The ancient capital of the Kingdom of Poland and residence of the Polish kings, now a fortified city of Crownland of Galicia (Map: Austria, F 1). It is situated on the left bank of the Vistula, at its confluence with the Rudowa, about 10 miles from the frontier of Russian Poland and 256 miles north

as the seat of a bishopric and a centre of com merce and trade, its prosperity being enhanced by the influx of German immigrants. It suffered terribly at the hands of the Tatars in the thirteenth century. It became the capital of Poland in 1320, and after having been superseded by Warsaw in 1610, it still remained the place where the Polish kings were crowned and buried. It later became exceedingly impoverished, so that at the end of the eighteenth century its population was only about 10,000. In 1655 and 1702 the town was taken by the Swedes. It was the starting-point of the rising of the Poles for independence under Kosciuszko in 1794, and came into the possession of Austria at the third partition of Poland, in 1795. From 1809 to 1815 Cracow formed a part of the Duchy of Warsaw. The short-lived Republic of Cracow, established at the Congress of Vienna in 1815, under the protectorate of Russia, Prussia, and Austria, was the last remnant of an independent Poland. It consisted of the city of Cracow and some adjacent territory, with a total population of about 140,000. The participation of a portion of the population in the Polish uprising of 1830 gave Russia an opportunity for military occupation. After that Cracow was repeatedly occupied by foreign troops. The little republic took a leading part in the Polish insurrection of 1846. The patriots were at first successful, but their overthrow soon ensued, and Cracow was annexed to Austria in the same year. In 1849 it was incorporated with Galicia. Cracow remains to the present day a great focus of Polish national life.

east of Vienna. Cracow, with its numerous churches, towers, and old castle, presents an imposing aspect from without. It consists of the inner town and a number of suburbs. The old walls surrounding the inner town have been demolished, and promenades laid out on their site. Cracow is one of the oldest cities of Poland, and bears the marks of its age in its imposing buildings as well as in its general appearance. First among the numerous churches of Cracow is the old Gothic cathedral, situated near the castle. It was erected under Casimir the Great, in the fourteenth century, and is famous for the numerous tombs of Polish kings and heroes it contains, including those of Sobieski, Poniatowski, and Kosciuszko. It is also adorned with numerous monuments, several of them by Thorwaldsen, and its treasury contains some remnants of the former splendor of Poland. The Church of Saint Mary, a Gothic basilica, was founded in the thirteenth century, and several times rebuilt since then. It contains a magnificent high altar by Veit Stoss, and a number of monuments. Besides these churches there are a number of very interesting mediæval ones. Among the interesting secular buildings is the former royal castle, situated on a broad hill at the southwestern end of the town; it was built in the thirteenth century, and suffered greatly from conflagrations; its remnants are used as barracks and a hospital. The old cloth-hall, dating from the thirteenth century, is now used as an art museum, and contains paintings by Polish artists, such as Matejko, Siemiradzki, and others. In front of the cloth-hall is a bronze statue of Mickiewicz, one of Poland's greatest poets. Among other notable buildings and historical monuments are the university, the old and new theatres, and the Rondell, a relic of the old for

tifications. The chief educational institution is the famous university, styled the Jagellonian University, founded by Casimir the Great in 1364. It developed very rapidly, and eventually became the intellectual centre of Poland. It has faculties of jurisprudence, medicine, philosophy, and theology, with an attendance (1905) of 2023 students. The university library contains over 300,000 volumes, besides numerous manuscripts, engravings, ancient documents, etc. Attached to the university are also an observatory, a botanical garden, a natural history museum, and a number of other institutions. Among other prominent educational establishments are the Royal Academy of Sciences, and the art school (until 1893 under the supervision of Matejko), several seminaries, and a number of artistic and literary societies. The Czartoryski Museum contains a collection of sculptures and antiquities and a fine picture gallery, with samples of the Italian and Dutch schools.

Economically Cracow is only of slight importance. The manufacturing industries include the production of machinery, textiles, leather, chemicals, etc. The trade is mostly in raw products, such as grain, wood, salt, animals. In the vicinity of the city is situated Kosciuszko Hill, a mound 65 feet high, erected in 1820-23 by the residents of Cracow, in honor of Kosciuszko, and since converted into a fort. The fortifications of Cracow are very extensive. Population, in 1890, 74,593; in 1900, 91,310; consisting mostly of Catholic Poles and Jews. Cracow rose into importance in the Middle Ages


CRAD'DOCK, CHARLES EGBERT. The nom-deplume of Mary N. Murfree (q.v.), the Southern


CRADLE OF LIBERTY, THE. The name popularly given to Faneuil Hall, Boston, as the scene of early popular protests against British rule.

CRADOCK, kråd'ok, Sir. See CARADOC. CRAFT OF LOVERS, THE. A poem assigned to Chaucer by John Stowe, who added this poem and a number of other spurious compositions, most of which were extremely inferior, to the edition of 1561. The author is unknown.

CRAFTS, JAMES MASON (1839-). An American chemist. He was born in Boston, and received his education at the Lawrence Scientific School of Harvard. In 1859 he went to Germany, and studied at the Academy of Mines of Freiberg and at the University of Heidelberg. At the latter institution he acted for some time as private assistant to Robert Bunsen. In 1861 he went to Paris, and there, in Würtz's laboratory, he first met Charles Friedel, in conjunction with whom he later carried out some of his most brilliant researches. In 1865 he returned to the United States, and, after devoting some time to mining, accepted the position of head professor of chemistry and dean of the faculty at Cornell University, where he remained until 1870. During the following four years he acted as professor of chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, but in 1874 took leave of absence, joined Friedel in Paris, and devoted himself ex clusively to scientific research. His investiga tions were mainly in the field of organic chemis try, but his name is connected also with many

interesting achievements in physics and in physical chemistry. He invented a new hydrogen thermometer; measured the densities of iodine at very high temperatures; demonstrated an interesting regularity in the variation of the boiling-points of chemically allied substances with the external pressure; prepared a number of new compounds of the element silicon, which are interesting because of their chemical resemblance to the corresponding compounds of carbon; and also prepared new compounds of arsenic. But his most important achievement was the discovery, jointly with Friedel, of one of the most fruitful synthetic methods in organic chemistry. According to an estimate published several years ago by Emil Fischer, the story of the results obtained by the method, or 'reaction,' of Friedel and Crafts is one of the most wonderful in the whole range of the science of chemistry. Hundreds of new carbon compounds have been brought into existence by this method, which is based on the action of the chloride of aluminum; and a host of compounds that had already been prepared by other methods of much greater complexity were produced by this method without any difficulty whatever.

was the organ of the Opposition against Sir Robert Walpole.

In recognition of Crafts's services to science,

the French Government made him a chevalier of the Legion of Honor (1885), and the British Association for the Advancement of Science made

him one of its corresponding members. In 1891 he again returned to this country, and from 1892 to 1897 acted as professor of organic chemistry at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. In 1898 he became the president of the institute, and in the same year Harvard University conferred upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Laws. In 1900, however, he resigned the presidency of the Institute of Technology, and again turned to the investigation of problems in organic and physical chemistry. The numerous results of Dr. Crafts's researches were published in various scientific periodicals, mainly foreign. He also wrote a text-book of Qualitative Analysis (1869, and several later editions).

CRAFTS, WILBUR FISK (1850-). An American clergyman. He was born in Fryeburg, Maine; was educated at Wesleyan University and at the Boston University School of Theology; held various positions in the Methodist Episcopal Church, and in 1880 became a Congregational minister. From 1883 to 1888, however, he was the pastor of the First Union Presbyterian Church of New York. He conducted an International Sunday-School Parliament at the Thousand Islands in 1876-77, and is the author of a number of books designed primarily for the Sunday-school. He has also written: Must the Old Testament Go? (1883); Successful Men of To-day (1883); The Sabbath for Man (1885); The March of Christ down the Centuries (1902); and That Boy and Girl of Yours (1905). He resigned his pastorate in 1888, to become Secretary of the American Sabbath Union, and later became superintendent of the International Reform Bureau, organized to obtain legislation for moral purposes in the United States and Canada.

CRAFTSMAN, THE. A powerful journal organized in 1726 by Bolingbroke and Pulteney, with Nicholas Amhurst, who conducted it under the name of 'Caleb D'Anvers of Gray's Inn.' It


CRAG - MARTIN, or ROCK - SWALLOW. swallow (Clivicola rupestris), closely allied to the bank-swallow (q.v.), which is found from Portugal eastward to China in the breeding season, migrating to the tropics for the winter. It frequents mountains and rocky river - banks among hills, but does not ascend to Alpine regions. It builds in niches of the rocks a large, open-topped nest of mud, occasionally (as in the villages of the Pyrenees) placing this on the timbers of buildings or among ruins, and lays profusely speckled eggs. "The general color of the adult bird is a light ashy brown above, the lower parts being creamy buff, and the tailfeathers are dark brown, the central and outer pairs being conspicuously spotted with white." Consult Sharpe and Wyatt, Monograph of the Hirundinide (London, 1885-94).

CRAIG, krag, Sir JAMES HENRY (1748-1812). In 1763 An English soldier, born in Gibraltar. he was gazetted an ensign, and in 1771 was appointed captain in the Forty-seventh Foot. He accompanied his regiment to America, fought and was wounded at Bunker Hill, in 1776 was transferred to Canada, and in 1777 was present at the capture of Fort Ticonderoga. During the earlier part of General Burgoyne's advance upon Saratoga he so distinguished himself as to be intrusted by that commander with dispatches to England. He was promoted to be major in the Eighty-second, proceeded to Nova Scotia, and

in 1781 served under Lord Cornwallis in North Carolina. In 1795, having then risen to the rank of major-general, he was placed in command of the expedition against the Dutch colony at the Cape of Good Hope. Aided by Rearhe obtained the surrender of the colony on SepAdmiral Elphinstone and Major-General Clarke, tember 14. He went in 1797 to India; and in 1805, as a local general in the Mediterranean, landed with 7000 troops at Castellamare, with orders to coöperate with the Russian forces under General Lacy in an attack upon the French army. After Austerlitz he prudently withdrew to Sicily. In 1807 he was appointed Governor-General of Canada, a post rendered difficult by reason of the French-Canadian hatred of British dominion. After a somewhat vexed administration he resigned in 1811, and was in 1812 promoted to be general.

CRAIG, JOHN (1512-1600). A preacher of the Scottish Reformation. He was born in Aberdeenshire, and educated at Saint Andrews. He entered the Dominican Order, but fell under the suspicion of heresy, and was cast into prison. On his release (1536) he trav


eled on the Continent, and after some time was,

through Cardinal Pole's influence, made novicemaster in the Dominican convent at Bologna, and later was rector. While here Calvin's Institutes doctrines. He was brought before the Inquisifell in his way, and converted him to Protestant

tion and sentenced to be burnt-a fate from which he was saved by the mob, on the death of Pope Paul IV., breaking open the prisons of Rome. Craig escaped to Vienna, and obtained favor at the Court of Maximilian II.; but the Pope demanded his surrender as one condemned for heresy. The Emperor, however, instead of complying with the request, gave Craig a safe con

a translation of Dufour's Cours de tactique (1863).


duct out of Germany. He now returned to Scotland (1560), and was appointed the colleague of John Knox in the parish church of Edinburgh. Thinking the marriage of Queen Mary and Bothwell contrary to the Word of God, he boldly refused to proclaim the banns, but afterwards yielded under protest. In 1572 Craig was sent "to illuminate the dark places" in Forfarshire until 1579, when he was appointed chaplain to King James VI. He now took a leading part in the affairs of the Church, was the compiler of part of the Second Book of Discipline, and the writer of the national covenant signed in 1580 by the King and his household. He was a man of great conscientiousness, and was not slow to oppose the proceedings of the Court when he deemed them contrary to Scripture, and to speak wholesome but unpleasant truths to majesty itself. He died December 12, 1600. Consult the blackletter facsimile reprint of Craig's Catechisms (Edinburgh, 1885), with introduction by T. Graves Law.

CRAIG, Sir THOMAS (1538-1608). A Scottish lawyer, author, and poet. Educated at Saint Andrews and in Paris, he passed as advocate at the Scottish bar in February, 1563, and was appointed justice-depute. He gained the favor of James VI., who, notwithstanding his modest and persistent refusal, created him a knight in 1603. Besides some much-admired Latin verse and prose, he wrote Jus Feudale (ed. Burnet, 1655; new ed., with notes and corrections by James Baillie, 1766). This learned work is still an authority on feudal law.

CRAIGENGELT, kra'gen-gelt', CAPTAIN. In Scott's Bride of Lammermoor, a bully and adventurer, the friend of the Laird of Bucklaw, Frank Hayston.


CRAIGENPUTTOCK, krā'gen-put'tuk. farm in the southwestern part of Dumfriesshire, Scotland, situated 12 miles north of Castle Douglas, and celebrated as the residence of Thomas Carlyle. It belonged to Jane Welsh before her marriage to the author. The Carlyles lived there most of the time between 1828 and 1834. Much of Carlyle's writing was done at Craigenputtock, and there are frequent references to it in his published correspondence. Consult "Homes and Haunts of Carlyle," in Westminster Gazette (London, 1895).

CRAIGHILL, krā'gil, WILLIAM PRICE (1833 -). An American military engineer, born at Charlestown, Va. He graduated in 1853 at the United States Military Academy; in 1854-55 superintended the building of Fort Sumter, and in 1858 that of Fort Delaware, and was for several years an instructor at the Academy. In 1863 he constructed the defenses of Pittsburg, and in 1865 was brevetted a lieutenant-colonel for service in the defense of Cumberland Gap. He was promoted to the rank of major, and from 1865 to 1867 was in charge of the defenses of Baltimore Harbor. Subsequently he was concerned with several public works, such as the improvement of the Potomac River (1870-74) and the Delaware River (1873). He was chief of engineers of the United States Army, with the rank of brigadier-general, from 1895 until his retirement at his own request in 1897. In 189495 he was president of the American Society of Civil Engineers. His publications include an Army Officer's Pocket Companion (1862), and

CRAIGLEITH (krāg'leth') STONE. A siliceous sandstone belonging to the Carboniferous series, quarried at Craigleith, near Edinburgh. It is largely used in that city for building purposes, for which it is admirably adapted by its purity, durability, and the ease with which it can be wrought.

CRAIK, krāk, DINAH MARIA (1826-87). An English novelist, better known as Miss MULOCK. She was born at Stoke-upon-Trent, Staffordshire. In 1849 she published The Ogilvies, her first novel, and rapidly afterwards: Olive (1850); The Head of the Family (1851); Alice Learmount (1852); Agatha's Husband (1853); John Halifax, Gentleman (1857); A Life for a Life (1859); and Christian's Mistake (1865); and a great number of short papers. A pension of £50 was granted to her in 1864. In 1865 she married George Lillie Craik. Among her later works is Sermons Out of Church (1875). Her literary reputation rests chiefly upon John Halifax, Gentleman, a classic picture of middle-class English life, which had a remarkable success, and has appeared in frequent later editions. Some of her Poems of Thirty Years, New and Old (1881), such as “Douglas” and “Philip, my King," have been popular.

An CRAIK, GEORGE LILLIE (1798-1866). English miscellaneous writer. He was born at Kennoway, Fifeshire, and was educated for the Church at Saint Andrews University; but, preferring a literary career, he went to London in 1826. His first work of importance was the Pursuit of Knowledge Under Difficulties (183031), forming part of the series of publications issued by the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. He also contributed largely to the Penny Magazine and the Penny Cyclopædia. In 1837 Craik became editor of the Pictorial History of England, some of th most valuable chapters of which were written by himself, and afterwards enlarged and republished separately as independent works. Such are his sketches of the History of Literature and Learning in England from the Norman Conquest to the Present Time (1844-45), and his History of British Commerce (1844). In 1845 he published Spenser and His Poetry, and in 1846-47 Bacon and His Writings. In 1849 Craik was appointed to the chair of history and English literature in Queen's College, Belfast, a situation which he occupied till his death. In 1848-50 appeared his Romance of the Peerage; in 1851 his Outlines of the History of the English Language, which has passed through various editions; and in 1856 his essays through several editions. He possessed an eneron The English of Shakespeare, which passed getic mind, his thinking was clear, and he was careful in his statement of facts.

CRAIK, JAMES (1731-1814). The favorite physician of George Washington. He was born in Scotland. He accompanied Washington in the Braddock expedition, and subsequently entered the medical service of the Revolutionary Army, and was director of the hospital at Yorktown. He was active in the disclosure of the plot to remove Washington from command during the winter at Valley Forge (see CONWAY,

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