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due chiefly to his initiative, for which reason he is frequently called the 'father of the Americotton industry.' Among his numerous works on economic subjects are: An Inquiry into the Principles for a Commercial System for the United States (1787); View of the United States (1787-94); and On the Navigation Act (1809).

that in the former case the joint becomes immovable, or, in the latter case, the bones forming the joint become disintegrated.

COXCIE, kõk'sê, or COXIE, MICHIEL (14991592). A Flemish painter, known by his copy of the "Adoration of the Lamb," from the original, made by the brothers Van Eyck, for Philip II. of Spain. Parts of this copy are now in the galleries of Berlin, Munich, and Ghent. His illustrations of the story of Cupid and Psyche have furnished models for innumerable paintings and engravings.

COXCOMB, kõksʼkōm, THE. A comedy by Beaumont, Fletcher, Rowley, and others (1812), dealing with an experiment in self-sacrifice made by the coxcomb Antonio.

COX'COX'. The legendary Noah of the Mexican tribes, who with his wife escaped the Deluge. In its present form the legend shows

probable Christian influence from early Spanish


COXE, ARTHUR CLEVELAND (1818-96). An American prelate, second Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Western New York. He was born at Mendham, N. J., graduated at the University of New York in 1838, and at the General Theological Seminary in 1842, and in the same year was ordained priest. Rector at Hartford, Conn., in 1842-54, at Baltimore, Md., in 1854-63, and at New York City in 1863-65, he was in 1865 appointed to the bishopric of Western New York. În 1872 he visited Haiti, for the purpose of establishing churches and ordaining clergy in that island. He also founded the Christian Literature Company, of whose publications he edited a series of the Ante-Nicene Fathers. His writings include several volumes of verse, of which the Christian Ballads (1840; rev. ed., 1887) is the best known; and several theological works, such as The Criterion (1866), in opposition to the Tractarians; Apollos, or the Way of God (1873); and The Institutes of Christian History (1887).

COXE, HENRY OCTAVIUS (1811-81). An English scholar. He was born at Bucklebury and was educated at Oxford. From his appointment as under librarian at the Bodleian Library in 1838 until his death he devoted himself to the compilation of the colossal catalogue, compris ing 723 folio volumes. In 1860 he became chief librarian of the institution. His other important publications include Roger de Wendover's Chronica sive Flores Historiarum (5 vols., 184144); Metrical Life of Edward the Black Prince (written in French, by Chandos Herald), with a translation and notes (1842); and Gower's Vox Clamantis (1850).

COXE, REGINALD CLEVELAND (1855-). An American artist, born in Baltimore, the son of Arthur Cleveland Coxe, Bishop of Western New York. He was a pupil of Bonnet in Paris, and is known especially as a painter of marines, and

also as an etcher.

COXE, TENCH (1755-1824). An American political economist, born in Philadelphia. He served in the Continental Congress (1788), and was appointed Assistant Secretary of the Treasury in 1789. In the same year he proposed the introduction of Sir Richard Arkwright's cottonspinning frame into the United States. The extensive planting of cotton in the South was

COXE, WILLIAM (1747-1828). An English historian. He was born in London, and was educated at Cambridge. In 1771 he took the curacy of Denham, but soon resigned to become the tutor of several young noblemen. With them he spent many years in travel, and with great industry collected information of all kinds, which appears in many volumes of travels and history, all of which are characterized by close observation, care, and research. One of the best known of Coxe's works is his History of the House of Austria from 1218 to 1792 (1807). He also from 1700 to 1788 (1813); Memoirs of John, wrote: Memoirs of the Bourbon Kings of Spain Duke of Marlborough (1818-10); a Life of Gay, published separately from his Fables (1797); Memoirs of Sir Robert Walpole (1798); and Memoirs of Horatio, Lord Walpole (1802).

from OF., Fr. coque, boat, probably from ML. COXSWAIN (also cockswain, from cock, concha, small boat, from Lat. concha, Gk. koyxŋ, konche, Skt. sankha, shell + swain, AS. swein, from Icel. sveinn, OHG. surein, herdsman). petty officer in the navy who has charge of a



boat and crew in the absence of officers. double-banked boats he steers, and has a small seat in the coxswain's box, or after part of the boat abaft the stern-sheets. In single-banked The steersman of a racing or other crew is also boats the coxswain usually pulls the stroke oar. known as a coxswain.

COX'WELL, HENRY TRACEY (1819-1900). An English aëronaut. He was born at Wouldham, near Rochester Castle, and was educated at the Chatham Military School. He invented a balloon from which aërial torpedoes could be discharged, and made hundreds of ascensions, the most important being that undertaken with Glaisher in 1862, when the balloon sailed to a height of seven miles. During the Franco-German War he joined the aeronautic corps of the German Army. In 1845 he established the Aerostatic Magazine. His principal work is entitled Life and Balloon Experiences (1887-89).

COYOTE, k1ô-tê or kiôt (Sp., from Mex. ccyott). The modified native Mexican name of the prairie-wolf (Canis latrans), now universally adopted throughout the western United States. The coyote in several varieties is abundant almost everywhere from the Plains to the Pacific, south of central British Columbia, and is famous for its monotonous and reiterated yelping at night. This more resembles the barking of a dog than the howl of the ordinary wolf, and an early name was 'barking wolf.' One thinks half a dozen are yelping in chorus as he listens to it. It generally travels in packs, like other wolves, but, unlike them, it rarely attacks human beings. It is of rather small size, about as big as a setter dog, of a light reddish or yellowish-gray color, the longer hairs of the back tipped with black. The pelage is rather full and soft, the tail is bushy, the ears are upright, and the muzzle is slender and pointed. Several species are recognized by some naturalists, which others regard as geogra

ride." For further interesting facts, consult: Hudson, The Naturalist on the La Plata (London, 1875); Proceedings Zoological Society (London, 1894); Semper, Animal Life (London and New York, 1881). See Plate of BEAVER, ETC.

phical races only. Coyotes live in hollows among rocks, or take possession of old burrows in the ground, and usually produce four puppies in late spring. They hunt chiefly in the dusk. They are very fleet of foot, and two or three by acting in concert will run down a pronghorn; they seek to detach and seize the fawns, however, rather than to pull down adults. Their food consists mainly of gophers, ground-squirrels, mice, ground-nesting birds, and similar small animals; and they have become a great nuisance in the neighborhood of ranches and isolated settlements, especially in winter, by attacking sheep, poultry, calves, etc. Adapting themselves thus readily to circumstances, and having extreme cunning in avoiding traps and poison, they survive among the sparser settlements of the West, and in some regions increase rather than diminish. They will cross with the domestic dog, producing fertile hybrids; and the Indians were accustomed to induce such mixture of blood. This animal entered more largely than almost any other into the mythology and folk-lore of the aborigines, especially west of the Rockies. Consult: Ingersoll, Wild Neighbors (New York, 1897); Elliot, Synopsis of Mammals (Chicago, 1901). See WOLF; and illustrations on Colored Plate of CANIDE, and on Plate of WOLVES AND DOGS.

COYPEL, kwä'pěl', NATALIS or NOËL (16281707). A French historical painter, born in Paris. He was employed by Louis XIV. on the large decorative works in Versailles, the Louvre, the Tuileries, and Fontainebleau. In 1695 he was made perpetual director of the Academy. When past seventy-five, he painted two frescoes in the dome of the Hôtel des Invalides in Paris. His pictures are very numerous, and, in a somewhat theatrical style, impressive. His two sons, ANTOINE and NOËL NICOLAS, and his grandson CHARLES ANTOINE, became well-known painters

and engravers.

COYPU, koi-poo' (native South American name), or NUTRIA. An aquatic rodent (Myopotamus coypu), widely common in South America. Its name in Chile is 'coypu,' and on the Pampas 'quuiya,' but it is always called by Spanish-speaking people of education nutria ('otter'), by which name its fur is known in commerce. It is not an otter, however, but is nearly allied to the beaver, yet somewhat smaller, and with a ratlike tail. It is dull brown, with a grayish muzzle and bright-red incisors; the nostrils are very high, allowing it to breathe with only the tip of the nose above water; and the teats are high on the flanks. When the beaver became scarce the fur (nutria) of this animal was in great demand for making hats, etc., and the coypus were nearly exterminated, but with less demand and the protection of local laws they have again become numerous. It is thoroughly aquatic, dwelling preferably in the permanent ponds (lagunas) of the La Plata Valley, and inhabiting burrows in the banks, where there are banks, or making a platform nest among the rushes. "Of an evening they are all out swimming and playing in the water, conversing together in their strange tones, which sound like the moans and cries of wounded and suffering men; and among them the mother coypu is seen with her progeny, numbering eight or nine, with as many on her back as she can accommodate, while the others swim after her, crying for a

COYSEVOX, kwä'z'-võks', ANTOINE (16401720). A French sculptor, born in Lyons. His master was the versatile Lerambert. The most

notable works of this sculptor are fine busts of his contemporaries, such as Lebrun, Richelieu, and Bossuet; one of the mother of the painter, and one of himself. He also modeled the statue of Louis XIV. at the Hôtel de Ville in Paris, and various decorations for the interior of Versailles.

COYUVO, kō-yoo'vo. The natives of Calamianes Province, P. I. They speak Tagbanua. See PHILIPPINES.

COZENERS, kúz′′n-ērz, THE. A comedy by Samuel Foote (1774), in which he himself played the part of Aircastle.

COZENS, küz'nz, JOHN ROBERT (1752-99). An English painter. His father was one of the two natural sons of Peter the Great of Russia by a woman of Deptford. He traveled in Italy and Switzerland and left valuable drawings made on that tour. Toward the end of his life he became insane. In his day water-color landscapes were very conventional in drawing and dry in color. Cozens was one of the first to show the value of this medium in the poetical quality of his work. Turner and Constable have spoken in terms of admiration of Cozens's pictures. There are a number of them in the British Museum, but the most famous is a landscape, "Hannibal Crossing the Alps" (1776).

COZUMEL, kō'sōō-māl'. An island off the eastern coast of the Mexican Province of Yucatan, in latitude 20° N. and extending east of longitude 87° W. (Map: Mexico, P 7). It is about 24 miles long and about 7 miles wide. Its surface is low and the coasts are bordered by reefs. There is a small Indian settlement by the name of San Miguel. The chief industry is cattle-raising. The island was discovered in 1518.

COZZENS, kuz'nz, FREDERICK SWARTWOUT (1818-69). An American humorist, born in New York City. He became in early life a winemerchant, and later editor of the Wine Press, for which he wrote papers on the culture of the grape and the manufacture of wine, as well as miscellaneous essays. He had previously con tributed humorous poems and articles to magazines, and in 1853 he issued his first volume, Prismatics, under the pen-name Richard Haywarde. Then came the Sparrowgrass Papers, his best performance, first published in the Knickerbocker Magazine, and, in 1856, as a widely read volume. They dealt with the trials of a city man who undertakes to run a country home (near Yonkers), and although their humor is mild, they are still fairly readable. Three years later (1859) he published a volume of travelsketches, Acadia; or, A Sojourn Among the Blue Noses. Soon after the war he failed in a business for which he had labored earnestly, especially by promoting the sale of native wines, and retired from Yonkers to Rahway, N. J. Of his other works only Poems (1867) and a Memorial of Fitz-Greene Halleck (1868) need be named.

CRAB (AS. krabba, Icel. krabbi, Ger. Krabbe). A crustacean of the order Decapoda and suborder Brachyura, characterized by the small size of the abdomen, which resembles a short tail curved under the thorax, all important viscera being included in the thorax. The term extends also to some of the suborder Anomura (purse-crabs, hermit-crabs, etc.), characterized by a condition of abdomen intermediate between that of the Brachyura and that of the Macrura, or long-tailed decapod crustaceans, such as the lobster, crayfish, etc. All the crabs, besides many other crustaceans, were comprehended in the Linnæan genus Cancer; but the number of species is very great, considerably more than 1000, and the Brachyura alone are now arranged in many genera and families.

These various crabs differ very much in the form of the carapace (the back), which in some is orbicular or nearly so; in some, much broader than it is long; in others, longer than broad; in some, prolonged in front into a kind of beak, etc.; also in its smoothness, or roughness with hairs, tubercles, or spines; in the length of the legs, etc. The eyes are compound, with hexagonal facets, and are elevated on stalks, which are generally short, but sometimes considerably lengthened, and which have the power of motion, so as to turn the eye in different directions. The first pair of limbs are not used for locomotion, but exhibit in great perfection the characteristic claws or pincers (chela) of the decapod crustaceans. Crabs are inhabitants of almost all seas; most of them, however, are found chiefly near the coast. Some crabs inhabit fresh water, particularly in the warmer parts of the world; and others, known as land-crabs, live among moist herbage, or burrow in sand or earth. Crabs are generally flesh or carrion eaters, though some forms seem to prefer a vegetarian's diet. They are always active and are noted for running sideways, rather than straight ahead. Some have the last pair of limbs expanded at the extremity into a broad blade for swimming, and some have even all the four pairs of limbs intended for locomotion thus expanded, and sometimes occur far out at sea.



a, zoea stage; b, megalops stage.

Crabs, like all arthropods (see ARTHROPODA), molt or change their shell, not at fixed intervals or seasons, but according to the exigencies of their growth, the change being made with great frequency when they are very young, but rarely in advanced age; indeed, from the mollusks and other animals sometimes found adhering to the carapace, it is inferred that the same covering is sometimes worn for a number of years.

Their development is accomplished by metamorphosis through succeeding stages. "In the crabs the nauplius stage (see CRUSTACEA) is passed through in the egg, and the young is hatched in the form of a peculiarly modified zoea, with an immense cephalothorax produced into spines, large stalked eyes, and a slender abdomen. This passes by successive molts into the megalops stage, which resembles an adult macruran [and] passes by successive molts into the adult


Crabs become interesting in the aquarium, from their readiness in seizing food, their activity in tearing and eating it, and their pugnacity. The number of specimens is apt, however, to be soon diminished by the stronger killing and eating the weaker. Crabs vary greatly in size and color, as might be expected from the great number of species and their wide distribution. The giant crab of Japan (Macrochira Kæmpjeri), although only a foot across the disk, which is 18 inches long, has such long legs as occasionally to be 15 to 18 feet from tip to tip of the first pair. The great stone-crab of Tasmania, which has short and very thick legs, has been known to reach a weight of over 30 pounds. On the other hand, many species of crab are only a fraction of an inch across. In color, crabs vary from black to white, through all the colors of the rainbow. Shades of green, blue, and gray are perhaps the most common, but the brightest shades of red and yellow are by no means rare. The sexes of crabs are easily distinguished, as the females are usually larger, and their abdomens broader and more oval, while males have the chelæ more powerfully developed-notably so in the fiddlers.

Economic Importance of Crabs.-These animals supply food for food-fishes, are of great service as scavengers, and are used as human food in various parts of the world. In the United States the principal crab so used is the blue crab (Callinectes hastatus), hundreds of thousands of which are sent to market every year from the waters of Chesapeake Bay alone. The little pea-crabs (Pinnotheres) often found in oysters (see COMMENSALISM) are regarded as a great luxury. In Europe the species most frequently used are those of the genus Cancer, especially the great Cancer pagurus, and there is no reason why the two eastern American species of this genus, the 'rock' and 'Jonah' crabs (qq.v.), should not be far more utilized as food than they are. To this group belong the principal edible crab of the American Pacific coast (Cancer magister), and others smaller which are eaten by the Chinese, etc. This species usually measures 7 to 9 inches in breadth of body, and abounds from Alaska to Mexico, usually below low-tide level on sandy bottom. Crabs which have just shed their shell, and are covered only by a soft skin, are regarded as best, and are called 'shedders' or 'soft-shelled.'

The ways of fishing are various. Many are taken in wicker traps or 'pots,' baited with meat or offal; another common method is to sink shallow hoop-nets of coarse material and mesh, which are baited and hauled up rapidly at intervals, bringing the crabs with them. Hand-line fishing, with bundles of meat to which the crabs cling until lifted out of water, is more a sport than a method of market-fishing; but in the Gulf of Mexico trawls or 'trot-lines' are set in several ways, and vast quantities of crabs are thus taken. They are kept for market in floating pens or

'cars,' and shipped alive packed in wet seaweed. They are also preserved by canning, etc. FOSSIL FORMS. With the exception of some doubtful genera (Gitocragnon, etc.) from later Paleozoic rocks, no unmistakable fossil crabs are known from deposits antedating those of Mesozoic age. Fossil crabs first appear in the Jurassic, where occur members of the family Dromiacea, much smaller than the modern species, such as the genus Prosopon, which continues into the Cretaceous. In the Upper Cretaceous, Dromiopsis is the ancestor of Dromia, which latter appears in the Eocene and continues Several other small genera to modern time. of this same family are found in Cretaceous rocks, in which the family enjoyed its greatest expansion. The Raninoidea, with elongated carapaces, broadly truncated in front, began in the Upper Cretaceous, had its maximum in the Eocene, and has since then declined to the present. Large numbers of the Oxystomata, or

round crabs, are found fossil in the Upper Cretaceous and Eocene rocks. The Oxyrhyncha, which at present are very abundant, have few fossil ancestors, and these are of small size. The arcuate crabs, of the family Cyclometopa, contain the largest number of fossil genera. They appeared in the Cretaceous, attained a great expansion in the Eocene, declined during the later Tertiary, and in modern times seem to be again on the increase. This family contains most of the modern genera, such as Cancer, Carcinus, Portunus, Xantho, Neptunus, Panopæus. Certain of these are of old age. Xantho began in the Cretaceous, had a representative (Xanthopsis) that is very common in the Eocene of England, France, and Germany, and continued with little change to the present day. Lobocarcinus, with its broad, nodose carapace, deeply denticulate on the front margin, is a common and often beautifully preserved fossil crab from the Eocene rocks of Württemberg, Germany, and Cairo, Egypt. The Catometopa, or quadrangular crabs, have many ancestors of Eocene age. The fir land-crab of the modern genus Gecarcinus, and the first fresh-water crab, also of a modern genus, Telphusa, both members of this family, are found in the Miocene deposits of Oeningen, Germany.

gie, vol. ii. (Paris, Leipzig, and Munich, 1887); Bell, "Monograph of the Fossil Malacostracous Crustacea of Great Britain," Paleontographical Society Monographs (London, 1857-62); Ortmann, "Das System der Decapodenkrebsen," Zoologische Jahrbücher, ix. (Jena, 1896); Lorenthey, "Ueber die Brachyuren der paläologischen Sammlung des Bayerischen Staates," Természe trajzi Füzetek, vol. xxi. (Budapest, 1898). See CRUSTACEA, and special articles under names of various crabs, as KING-CRAB; SPIDER-CRAB, etc. CRAB-APPLE. See APPLE.

From the above remarks it will be seen that all the families of modern crabs, with the single exception of the Oxyrhyncha, were initiated during Cretaceous time; that they expanded rapidly so that their periods of maximum evolution were during the Eocene, when indeed crabs formed the dominant feature of the fauna in certain seas; that during the Miocene the general expansion was less than before, although certain genera were extremely abundant in particular localities; and that those of the Pliocene are mostly of recent species. During the present time the crabs seem to be enjoying another period of expansion, but along different lines from those of the Eocene evolution. The best collecting grounds are found in the Eocene deposits of the south of England; the nummulitic limestones of southern France, Switzerland, southern Germany, and of northern Italy, and those of central India; and the Miocene beds of Italy, Austria, Hungary, and Germany.

Consult: Zittel and Eastman, Textbook of Paleontology, vol. i. (London and New York, 1900); Zittel and Barrois, Traité de paléontolo

CRABB, GEORGE (1778-1851). An English lawyer and author, born at Palgrave (Suffolk). He was educated at Oxford, admitted to the bar at the Inner Temple (1829), and practiced his profession in London. For a time, also, he was

instructor in the classics in a Yorkshire school. His best-known work is the Dictionary of English Synonymes (3d ed., 1824), a careful, if not

Others of his

always scholarly, reference-book, which has appeared in numerous editions. publications are a History of English Law (1829), and a laborious Digest and Index of All the Statutes at Large (4 vols., 1841-47).

CRABBE, GEORGE (1754-1832). An English poet. He was born December 24, 1754, at Aldeburgh, Suffolk, where his father was collector of salt duties. Crabbe showed early a love for books, with a bias toward poetry. After some schooling, he was apprenticed first to a village doctor and then to a surgeon. By 1772 he was contributing verses to Wheble's Magazine, and two years later he published at Ipswich a moral poem entitled Inebriety. At this time he was in love with Sarah Elmy, whom he addressed in his poems as Mira, and whom he afterwards married. Continuing his studies in London, he began the practice of medicine in the place of his birth. Disliking a profession in which he was not succeeding, he went to London in 1780 to begin a literary career. In that year appeared a poem called The Candidate, which was received coldly. Much distressed, he called upon Burke, who after reading some of Crabbe's verses took him under his protection, getting Dodsley to publish The Library (1781). While staying with Burke at Beaconsfield, he began his best-known poem, The Village (published 1783). At Burke's suggestion, Crabbe took orders. After a short period as rector of Aldeburgh, he was appointed chaplain to the Duke of Rutland (1782), and thus made Belvoir, Leicestershire, his home. After occupying several other church livings, he was given that of Trowbridge, Wiltshire (1814), where he remained till his death (February 3, 1832). Besides the poems already cited, Crabbe wrote The Newspaper (1785); The Parish Register (1807); The Borough (1810); Tales in Verse (1812); and Tales of the Hall (1819). Crabbe was a popular poet in his own time, numbering friends among the greatest. He was lavishly praised by Dr. Johnson, Scott, Wordsworth, and Byron. Jane Austen, charmed with humor akin to her own, declared that, were she ever to marry, she could fancy herself Mrs. Crabbe. Though his reputation has declined, he nevertheless occupies an important place in the progress of English poetry. Crabbe's stern descriptions of English life in old East Anglia were in marked contrast to Goldsmith's idyllic scenes, and led

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