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even a drop of water or a crumb of bread-making their way into the air-passages instead of into the esophagus, or by excessive or morbid secretion from the walls of the air-tubes, or even by the entrance of cold air, when the lining membrane of the air-passages is abnormally irritable. Cough is reflex and involuntary generally, and is due to irritation of the terminal fibres of the pneumogastric nerves, which are distributed to the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract. The object of coughing in the animal organism is unquestionably to guard against the danger of the entrance of mechanical and chemical irritants into the air-passages; and accordingly the mucous membrane, especially of their upper part, is endowed with a most exquisite sensibility, which, when aroused by mechanical irritation or by disease, provokes incessant coughing until the cause of the irritation removed. Cough is a common symptom of all diseases of the organs of respiration, as well as of inflammatory affections of the throat, tonsils, and nose. The treatment of cough depends upon the cause. See PNEUMONIA; BRONCHITIS; PLEURISY; TUBERCULOSIS.
COUIY. A tree-porcupine. See PORCUPINE. COULANGES, koo'läNzh', FUSTEL DE. See FUSTEL DE COULANGES.
COULANGES, PHILIPPE EMMANUEL, Marquis de (1631-1716). A French courtier, famous for his correspondence with his cousin, Mme. de Sévigné (q.v.). His writings include Recueil des chansons (1698); Lettres (published with those of Mme. de Sévigné); and Mémoires, edited by Monmerqué (Paris, 1820).
COULIN, kooʻlin. In Spenser's Faerie Queene, a British giant killed by falling into a chasm when pursued by Debon.
COULMIERS, köōl'mya'. A village in the Department of Loiret, France, 13 miles northwest of Orleans (Map: France, H 4). Population, in 1901, 368. On November 9, 1870, the German and French forces, under Von der Tann and Aurelle de Paladines respectively, met here in a seven hours' battle, the former suffering a loss of 1308 and being compelled to retreat to Artenay, the French losing 1500.
COULOMB, koo'lôN' (named after the physicist Coulomb). The practical unit of quantity of electricity, being the amount produced each second by an electric current of the strength of one ampere; therefore, if in the ordinary form of silver voltameter, m grams of silver are deposited, m÷0.001118 is the number of coulombs which have passed, assuming that an ampere deposits 0.001118 gram of silver per second. See AMPERE; ELECTRICAL UNITS.
chanics. He is known as the inventor of the torsion balance (q.v.), by which the attraction of electricity and magnetism can be measured, while his memory has been perpetuated by the use of his name for the unit of electric quantity. Having offended certain influential persons by reporting unfavorably on a project for a navigable canal in Bretagne, Coulomb was for some time imprisoned, but received from the States of Brittany a present of a handsome watch, as a reward of his firm opposition to an expensive and unprofitable scheme. He lived in retirement during the Revolution, but took part in the investigations attending the introduction of the metric system by the new Government.
COULOMB, CHARLES AUGUSTIN (1736-1806). A French physicist, celebrated for his researches particularly in electricity and magnetism. He was born at Angoulême in 1736, and in early life became an officer of engineers. In 1777 he gained a prize by an essay on the construction of magnetic needles (Sur les aiguilles aimantées). In 1779 his Théorie des machines simples gained the prize offered by the Academy; and in 1781 he was a third time successful in an essay on the friction and resistance of cordage, etc., used in machines. In the same year he was elected a member of the Academy, and his services were employed on all the most difficult problems in me
COULOMMIERS, kōo'lō'myâ'. The capital of an arrondissement and a garrison town in the Department of Seine-et-Marne, France, on the Grand-Morin, 38 miles east of Paris. Its parish Church of Saint Denis dates from the thirteenth century, and it has remains of a castle built in 1613. There is a monument to the heroic Beaurépaire, who killed himself in 1792 rather than surrender the town of Verdun. It has woolen mills, manufactures of starch and cheese, and market-gardening is largely carried on. Jean de Boullonge or Valentin, the artist, was a native of Coulommiers. Population, in 1901, 6505.
COULTER, kōl'ter, JOHN MERLE (1851–). An American botanist and educator, born at Ningpo, China. He received his education at Hanover College, Indiana, and subsequently studied at Harvard. After serving for a year as botanist Rocky Mountains, he was made professor of natto the United States Geological Survey in the ural science at Hanover College, where he remained for five years. In 1879 he was appointed professor of biology at Wabash College; from 1891 to 1893 was president of the Indiana State University, and from 1893 to 1896 presided over Lake Forest University. In 1896 he became head of the department of botany in the University of Chicago. Dr. Coulter's published works include the following: Manual of Rocky Mountain Botany (1885); Handbook of Plant Dissection (jointly with J. C. Arthur and C. R. Barnes, 1886); and Manual of Texan Botany (1892-93). He has also published a work on the morphology and plant structures, and has edited the Botaniof gymnosperms, general works on plant relations
COUMARIN, hoomarin. See CUMABIN. COUMOUNDUROS, koo-moon-du'ros, ALEXANDROS. See KUMUNDUROS.
COUNCIL (OF. concile, cuncilie, Lat. concilium, from com-, together + calare, Gk. κaλeiv, kalein, to call, OHG. holon, Ger. holen, AS. geholian, Engl. hale, to summon). An assembly of ecclesiastical dignitaries held for the purpose of regulating the doctrine or discipline of the Church. As early as the second century Church councils were convened in which only one or two provinces took part, the bishops and presbyters binding themselves to carry out the decisions arrived at in their own communities. These assemblies were commonly held in the chief town or metropolis of the province, and the bishops of such capitals-who, after the third century, bore the title of metropolitan-were wont to preside over the meetings, and to consider questions of doctrine and discipline which had arisen within the territory. Over these metropolitan councils
were established, at a later period, the provincial synods, exercising authority over several united provinces, and finally, the national councils. After the fourth century, when the Christian religion was established in the Roman Empire, we read of ecumenical, i.e. universal councils, so called because all the bishops of Christendom were invited or summoned by the Emperor. In some early synods we find bishops, presbyters, and others taking part in the deliberations; but after the opening of the fourth century only the bishops were convened. According to the doctrine of the Roman Catholic Church, the Pope alone, or, by way of exception, in some cases the college of cardinals, had the power of convening ecumenical councils, which, in the Catholic view, represent the universal Church under the guidance of the Holy Ghost. Questions were determined by the majority of votes, and the Pope or his proxy presided and confirmed the resolutions carried in the synod. In matters of faith, the Holy Scriptures and the traditions of the Church were the guide; while in lighter matters, human reason and expediency were consulted. In the former, ecumenical councils are held to be infallible, but in other matters of discipline, etc., the latest synod decides questions. The question of the Pope's subordination to the decrees of the ecumenical councils was long and warmly debated during the Middle Ages, but is not asserted by any Roman Catholic theologian to-day.
Council (1139) condemned the errors of Arnold of Brescia and others. (11) The third Lateran Council (1179) condemned the Albigenses and Waldenses, and passed a number of reforming decrees. (12) The fourth Lateran Council (1215), the most important ecclesiastical gathering of the Middle Ages, formulated a more detailed confession of faith in opposition to the Albigenses and other innovators, and passed seventy reforming decrees. (13) The first Council of Lyons (1245) threatened the Emperor Frederick II. with excommunication and deposition, and called on Christendom to take up arms against the Mohammedans. (14) The second Council of Lyons (1274) strove for the reunion of the Greek and Latin churches, and regulated Papal elections. (15) The Council of Vienne (1311-12) suppressed the Knights Templars and condemned various sects of the time, such as the Fraticelli and Beghards. (16) The Council of Constance (1414-18) was called to restore the unity of the Church by the recognition of a legitimate pope, and condemned the doctrine of Wiclif and Huss. (17) The Council of Basel, convoked in 1431, and later removed to Ferrara and Florence, discussed ecclesiastical reformation, and made a determined attempt, in consultation with Greek deputies who came to Florence, to bring about a union with the East. (18) The fifth Lateran Council (1512-17) annulled the Pragmatic Sanction and confirmed the bull Unam Sanctam, besides occupying itself with ecclesiastical discipline. (19) The Council of Trent (1545-63, with some interruptions), called to meet the problems presented by the Reformation, was very rich in consequences both for the confirmation of doctrine and the establishment of discipline. (20) The Vatican Council (1870) decreed the infallibility of the Pope. For further details of important councils, see NICEA; BASEL; CONSTANCE; TRENT, etc.
Twenty ecumenical councils are recognized by the Roman Catholic Church: (1) The first Council of Nicæa, held A.D. 325, in the height of the Arian controversy to define the doctrine of the Godhead of Christ, and to settle the proper time of keeping Easter against the Quartodecimans. (2) The first Council of Constantinople (381) completed the Nicene symbol by the definition of the Godhead of the Holy Ghost. (3) The Council of Ephesus (431) defined the unity of person in God the Son, against Nestorius, and guarded the definition by applying the term OɛOTÓKOS, theotokos, to His mother. (4) The Council of Chalcedon (451), against the opposite heresy of Eutyches, asserted the twofold nature of Christ. (5) The second Council of Constantinople (553) condemned some survivals of Nestorianism. (6) The third Council of Constantinople (680-81) condemned the Monothelites. (7) The second Council of Nicæa (787) was directed against the iconoclasts and defined the respect to be paid to images. (8) The fourth Council of Constantinople (869-70) was called to secure the peace of the Eastern and Western churches, by the deposition of Photius, who had unjustly intruded into the see of Constantinople. The following councils, all held in the West, were subsequent to the schism between the Eastern and Western churches, and are consequently not recognized as ecumenical by Easterns or by Anglicans. Over the next seven councils, four held in Rome and three in southern France, the popes presided in person, without Imperial cooperation; they were held now, not so much to condemn heresy as to deal with other pressing needs of the Church, such as the encroachments of the Imperial power and reform in ecclesiastical discipline. (9) The first Lateran Council (1123) was called to settle the dispute between the spiritual and temporal powers on the question of investiture. (10) The second Lateran
Among Congregationalists and Baptists the term council is applied to an assembly of ministers and delegates from neighboring churches, called by a local church, as occasion arises, to act or assist in ordaining a minister, or give advice on matters referred to it, beyond which its power does not extend. They have also a national council, composed of delegates from all parts of the denomination, and meeting for conference concerning its work. The Pan-Presbyterian Alliance, as the association of the reformed churches holding the Presbyterian system is called, holds a council every four years for conference on matters of general interest to the allied churches. So the Evangelical Alliance, a loose, undenominational body, holds councils, and the Methodists throughout the world held one in 1901.
The great history of the councils of all kinds from the Apostolic age to the Council of Trent is by C. J. Hefele, assisted in the latter part by A. Knöfler and Cardinal Hergenröther (9 vols., Freiburg, 1855-90); there is an English translation by Clark and Oxenhain of the first two volumes, and up to the eighteenth book of the original (4 vols., Edinburgh, 1871 et seq.). Consult also the great collection of canons and other acts of the councils, by G. D. Mansi (31 vols., Florence and Venice, 1759-98). A study of the first seven ecumenical councils from a doctrinal standpoint is presented by W. P. du Bose (New York, 1897), and their Canons and Dogmatic
Decrees, annotated with much additional matter, all in English, by H. R. Percival (New York, 1900). See SYNOD.
COUNCIL, PRIVY. See PRIVY COUNCIL.
COUNCIL BLUFFS. A city and the countyseat of Pottawattamie County, Iowa, five miles east of Omaha, Neb.; near the Missouri River, and on the Union Pacific, the Chicago and Northwestern, the Chicago, Burlington and Quincy, the Chicago, Rock Island and Pacific, the Illinois Central, the Chicago, Milwaukee and Saint Paul, the Chicago Great Western, and several branch railroads (Map: Iowa, B 3). The city is well laid out, with brick-paved streets, and lies to a great extent on a plain underlying high bluffs. Electric lines connect Council Bluffs with Lake Manawa, a beautiful summer resort 3 miles south of the city, and with Fairmount and other parks. Council Bluffs is the seat of the Iowa School for the Deaf, and has a fine public library building and a handsome club-house (Elks). Railroad and wagon bridges over the Missouri, and electric lines, afford communication with Omaha, with which city there is extensive traffic. The exceptional railroad facilities of Council Bluffs make it an important manufacturing and transportation point. The city is one of the great agricultural implement trade centres of the world and also has a large trade in fruit and produce. There are several grain elevators. The city government is conducted under a general State incorporation law, revised in 1897. The Mayor holds office for two years, and the city council is composed of representatives from the six wards of the city and two members at large. In 1804, on the site of Council Bluffs, Lewis and Clark held a council with the Indians-hence the name. Here, in 1846, the Mormons established a settlement, called Kanesville, which, however, they soon abandoned for Salt Lake City. The city was chartered in 1850. Population, 1900, 25,802; 1905, 25,231.
COUNCIL GROVE. A city and the countyseat of Morris County, Kan., 24 miles northwest of Emporia; on the Missouri, Kansas and Texas, and the Missouri Pacific railroads, and on the Neosho River (Map: Kansas, F 3). It is surrounded by a fertile agricultural and stock-raising country. The city contains a public library, and has municipal water-works, and an electriclight plant. Council Grove was settled in 1847, and is one of the oldest towns in the State. Population, in 1890, 2211; in 1900, 2265; in 1905,
COUNCIL OF ANCIENTS. See DIRECTORY. COUNCIL OF BLOOD. See ALVA. COUNCIL OF FIVE HUNDRED. See DI
rini. After the suppression of the revolt the Council of Ten was constituted as a secret body for the purpose of discovering and punishing all the participants in the conspiracy. Created at first for a few days, its existence was prolonged from time to time until, in 1335, it was made permanent. In spite of its name, the Council consisted of seventeen members, ten Counselors of the Black Robe, elected for a year, six Counselors of the Red Robe, chosen for eight months, and the Doge. In times of great emergency the Council was augmented by a giunto of twenty or more of the noblest citizens, so that until 1595 it was officially known as the Consiglio di dieci e giunta. The powers exercised by the Council were unlimited and touched upon every affair of public and private life. Its decisions, from which there was no appeal, were arrived at in secret, and its sentences were often carried out in the same manner. In spite, however, of its arbitrary acts and the relentlessness with which it visited punishment upon those who offended it, the Council of Ten was popular with the large mass of citizens in that it insured internal tranquillity and the equitable administration of justice and preserved the State against the ambition of powerful nobles. 1539 the discovery of treasonable behavior on the part of certain of the Ten led to the creation of the Inquisitori di stato, to whom the Council delegated its police functions, reserving to itself the trial of offenders brought before it by the inquisitors. Legend has pictured the Council of Ten as a horrid tribunal, whose history is one of stealth and secret murder, but as a matter of fact its influence in Venice, though absolute for five centuries, was far from malignant.
COUNCIL OF TEN (Consiglio di dieci). The supreme body in the Venetian Government from the beginning of the fourteenth century till the overthrow of the Republic in 1797. The creation of the Council of Ten was but the final step in the process by which the oligarchie party succeeded in obtaining sole control of the Government, beginning with the so-called "Closing of the Grand Council" in 1297. Its immediate cause was a popular uprising in 1310 headed by the noble families of Tiepolo and Que
COUNCIL OF THE INDIES, THE. A governing council formed in 1511 by King Ferdinand for the regulation of Spanish colonial affairs. It had unlimited powers, and covered every branch of administration.
COUNCIL OF WAR. A conference of officers
in war time, whom the commander voluntarily calls together to discuss matters of moment. is an unwritten but generally understood rule that the commandant of a garrison will accept, or at least solicit, the opinion of a council of war before surrendering to an enemy.
COUNSEL (OF. conseil, cunseil, consel, from Lat. consilium, consultation, from consulere, to consult). A term applied to attorneys and counselors who become associated together in the conduct of a cause at any stage of the proceedings, or who jointly act as legal advisers in any matter, whether litigated or not. It is less frequently used in speaking of a single lawyer acting in any of the above capacities. The term 'of counsel' is employed to designate a lawyer who assists the attorney of record in the management, trial, and conduct of a case. See ADVOCATE; ATTORNEY; LAWYER.
COUNSELOR. In law, a person admitted to practice law in any capacity, and who is by reason of that fact an officer of the court. The term was formerly used to distinguish those lawyers who were licensed to appear in court, corresponding to the barrister in England and the advocate in Scotland. The distinction has been abolished in most of the United States, and it is
now used synonymously with attorney. See ATTORNEY; LAWYER.
COUNT (OF. conte, comte, Fr. comte, from Lat. comes, companions, from com-, together + ire, Gk. iévaɩ, ienai, Skt. i, to go). In classical writers down to the end of the fourth century, the meanings attached to the word comes were comparatively few and simple. At first the word signified merely an attendant, and differed from socius chiefly in expressing a less intimate and equal relation to the persons accompanied. A little later, in Horace's time, it was applied to those young men of family whom it had become customary to send out as pupils under the eye of a governor of a province, or the commander of an army. Very soon the fashion of having
attendants at home was introduced. The Emperor had many comites in this sense, and to these, as he gradually became the centre of power, he transferred the various offices of his
COUNTERCLAIM. In pleading, an affirmative cause of action asserted by the defendant against the plaintiff and introduced in connection with his answer or defense proper. The enabling a person who is sued on a claim against counterclaim is a modern statutory device for him to procure an adjudication, at the same time, of a legal claim which he has against the party suing him. Its purpose is to consolidate the causes of action which two parties may have against one another, reducing the amount and cost of litigation and compelling the adjudication, so far as possible, of all open controversies between them. No such practice existed at closely related to another and opposing claim, common law, but every claim, no matter how constituted a separate cause of action and had to be separately prosecuted. As early as the year 1729, however, an act of the British Parliament introduced the principle of the set-off (q.v.), whereby, in case of mutual indebtedness growing
out of the same transaction, the defendant was enabled to set his claim off against that of the plaintiff and have it allowed on the judgment. It was not until the Judicature Acts in 1875, however, that the defendant acquired the right of setting up a cross-claim, constituting a distinct cause of action.
household and of the State. The example of the emperors of the West was followed by the emperors of the East. Most of the titles at present applied to court officials are translations of the names applied to similar offices in the Byzantine Empire. The comes sacrarum largitionum was grand almoner and practically chancellor of the exchequer; the comes curia was the grand master of ceremonies; the comes equorum, the grand equerry. The comes marcarum, or count of the marches, was the original of the later marquis.
In France, the count of the palace (comes palatii) was the highest dignitary in the State after the mayor of the palace, and in the eleventh century had already acquired a rank apart from that of the other counts. sided in the court of the sovereign in his absence, and possessed sovereign jurisdiction. The habit of instituting counts palatine was adopted by Spain and England. The counts of Chartres, Champagne, Blois, and Toulouse arrogated to themselves the authority to appoint palatine counts, and the ancient houses of Chartres and of Blois continued to claim in perpetuity the title of count palatine as that of their eldest sons. Counts of this sovereign class owed their origin to the feebleness of the later Carolingian kings, under whom they contrived gradually to convert the provinces and towns which they had governed as royal officers into principalities hereditary in their families. It was then that the counts came to be known by the names of their counties. The title was never used in England, though its Latin equivalent has always been the common translation for 'earl,' and the wife of an earl from a very early period has been styled 'countess.' For the history of the office in Germany, where it was of great importance, see GRAF. Consult: Rambaud, L'empire grec au Xe siècle (Paris, 1870); Luchaire, Histoire des institutions monarchiques de la France sous les premiers Capétiens (Paris, 1883); Maury, "La noblesse et les titres nobiliaires en France," Revue des Deux Mondes (December, 1882); Pfaff, Geschichte des Pfalzgrafenamtes (Halle, 1847).
COUNTER-CHANGED. A term in heraldry (q.v.). When several metals and colors are intermixed, one being set against another, they are said to be counter-changed.
Both the set-off and the counterclaim exist in the United States, the former generally, but the latter only in the so-called 'code States,' which have adopted the reformed procedure. differ among themselves, however, as to the nature of the actions which can be pleaded by way of counterclaim, some following the moderi English practice, under which any cause of action, however divergent from that alleged in the complaint, may be set up, and others, like New York, limiting the right of counterclaim to a that on which the action is based, or, in an action matter arising out of the same transaction as on contract, any other cause of action on contract (New York Code of Civil Procedure, § 501.) See PLEA; PLEADING; RECOUPMENT; and consult the authorities referred to under PLEADING.
COUNTERFEITING (from counterfeit, from: OF., Fr. contrefait, counterfeit, from ML. contrafacere, to imitate, from Lat. contra, against The criminal offense of
facere, to make). falsely and fraudulently making an article in the semblance of another with the intent to induce the acceptance and use of such spurious It is used most article for the genuine one. frequently of imitations of coined money, but is applied also to spurious trade-marks, or dies. The most important British statute on this topic is the Coinage Offense Act, 1861 (24 and 25 Viet. c. 99). In this country the subject is dealt with in the Revised Statutes of the United States (§ 5413 et seq.), especially so far as it relates to Federal coinage and securities and the money or securities of foreign nations; and other forms of counterfeiting are made punishable.
by State legislation. See COINAGE; FORGERY.
COUNTER - IRRITANTS. Medical agents: applied to the skin so as to redden (rubefacients), to vesicate (blisters or vesicants), or to produce pustules, purulent issues, or even sloughs of skin and of the subcutaneous textures (pustulants). Counter-irritants act by reflex influence upon central nerve-centres which con
trol the blood-supply to diseased internal organs
COUNTERMINE. See MINES AND MINING,
or injury to the harmony, it is then called double counterpoint, for example:
COUNTER-PASSANT (Fr. contre-passant, passing opposite, from contre, Lat. contra, against +passer, ML. passare, to pace, from Lat. passus, step, from pandere, to stretch). In heraldry, a term denoting two beasts passing each other.
COUNTERPOINT. In music, the setting of one or more parts against a given melody, so that all the voices are of equal importance and independence. The name was first used in the fourteenth century. It suggested itself from the fact that one note (punctus) was set against another, punctus contra punctum. A counterpoint may be written in various ways against a given melody, as one, two, four, or even more notes against one of the cantus. The counterpoint most useful in practical composition is one where the different parts are variously constructed, as in the following (Handel):
The intervals most frequently used for transposition in double counterpoint are the octave, decima, and duodecima. The following admits of different transpositions:
When two voices are used the counterpoint is called two-part; when three, three-part, etc. When the counterpoint lies uniformly above or below the cantus it is single. If the parts be constructed in regard to one another so that they can be changed or transposed over or under each other, without alteration in the movement,
When three voices are constructed so that they can be exchanged one against the other, the counterpoint is triple; when four, quadruple. The first indications of counterpoint we find in the thirteenth century in the works of Adam de la Hale. The development of the art of contrapuntal writing was then very rapid, and in the school of the Netherlands (in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries) the acme of technical skill was reached. But counterpoint was then less a genuine musical art than an exhibition of astounding technical tricks. The great Italian schools (see PALESTRINA) returned to a simpler and artistic style. As a genuine art counterJ. point culminated in the form of the fugue (q.v.). The latest and best treatises on counterpoint are those of Dehn, Richter, and Jadassohn.
COUNTERPOISE CARRIAGE. See ORD
A fur used in her
COUNTER-PROOF. An impression which is obtained from a freshly printed proof of an engraving, by laying it, before the ink is dry, upon plain paper, and passing it through the press. By this means the ink is transferred from the wet proof to the plain paper, and a reversed impression is obtained, which is often