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bale weighing 500 pounds is about 23 pounds. Besides the increased freight rates due to this bulky method of baling, the necessity of a second pressing, and the bad condition in which the cotton reaches the factory, a more grave defect is its excessive inflammability, resulting in high insurance charges. So great is this risk that on some passenger steamers cotton is not carried, en account of the danger of fire. An illustration of this danger was afforded by the terrible fire which occurred on the docks of the North German Lloyd Steamship Company at Hoboken, N. J., on June 30, 1900. The fire started in some unknown manner in a lot of cotton-bales and spread with such rapidity that efforts to check it were unavailing. The loss of property caused by this cotton fire has been estimated variously at from $4,000,000 to $6,000,000, and the loss of life was about 200 persons.
cotton-ginneries into three general classes: Those conducted exclusively for the public, those conducted exclusively for the plantation, and those conducted for both the public and plantation. Table II., preceding, shows the number of all classes by States in the United States. The Bulletin states that "the rapidity with which the private or plantation ginneries have been supplanted by public, and more modern equipments, is noteworthy. Through inquiries of the census of 1880, covering the power and machinery of cotton-ginning establishments, it was ascertained that a large percentage of the crop of 1879 was handled by ginneries of a private character. The motive power of these ginning and baling plants consisted of horses or mules, and each had a daily capacity of from three to five bales. The general introduction of steam-power brought economic methods that have crowded out primitive horse-ginneries to such an extent that they are now curiosities." As shown in the table, there are in the United States 29,620 cotton-ginneries, of which 2863, or less than 10 per cent., are reported as ginning exclusively for the plantation. Bulletin No. 98 of the Twelfth United States Census also deals with cotton-ginning, with particular reference to the crop of 1900, and contains an historical and descriptive sketch of the methods of preparing raw cotton for the market. Baling. The cotton having been separated from the seed, the next step is to pack it in bales, for shipment. Different methods of baling prevail among the cotton-producing countries. The American product, as put up in the old-fashioned tortoise-back bales, has the reputation of being the worst-baled cotton in the world. East Indian cotton is shipped in cubical bales, weighing about 400 pounds, covered with thick Indian hemp and held together with strong iron bands. The Egyptian bale weighs about 700 pounds, is a little thicker and not so long as the American, and has eleven, instead of seven or eight, bands around it. Brazilian cotton comes in very light bales, weighing only 200 pounds, which are tied with trailing vines. In the cotton States of America, the cotton which is not consumed by the Southern mills is shipped to the exporting city, by rail, steamboat, or wagon. It is there graded by the exporter, who fastens a tag to each bale, and also to a sample taken from it. It is from these labeled samples that the foreign manufacturer makes his purchases. The bales are then subjected to enormous pressure, usually by the transportation company, a standard bale weighing 500 pounds. During its progress from the farm to the factory, a bale of cotton is given a series of brands, by the farmer and the ginnery, as well as the exporter, so that fraud can easily be traced. One of the objections to the American baling methods, however, is that the covering becomes so torn that the marks on it cannot be deciphered.
The manner in which American cotton is generally baled and pressed for transportation to the markets and mills is not only needlessly expensive and wasteful, but fails to protect the cotton from damage and theft. The bales are covered with jute cloth, made of thread so coarse and loosely woven that, while it adds unnecessarily to the weight of the bale, it does not protect the cotton. The bales are held together by steel bands, which still further increase the weight. The weight of the bagging and ties on a
Within the past few years the cylindrical bale has been growing in favor among all classes of cotton-dealers. The American Cotton Company makes a bale four feet long and two feet in diameter, weighing over 35 pounds per cubic foot. The cotton is pressed gradually, so as not to injure the fibre, and is in the form of a continuous lap or roll. Since the air is pressed out of the cotton, it has no tendency to expand, and the covering is only sufficient to keep the cotton clean. The heavy bagging and ties are entirely dispensed with. The cotton is compressed as fast as ginned and is shipped direct from the ginhouse to the warehouse or mill. The cylindrical bale of the Planters' Compress Company is 36 inches long, 18 inches in diameter, and weighs 250 pounds. This bale is held together by wires passing from end to end through a small opening in the centre. It is covered with cotton duck, and the weight of the cloth and wire is about three pounds per bale. Most satisfactory tests have been made with each of these types of bales, showing that they are both fire and water proof. The other objections to the old-fashioned methods of baling are also met by the cylindrical bales described.
Spinning. When the cotton-bales are received at the factory, the cotton from the different bales is first mixed in order that the yarn produced may be of uniform quality. It is next submitted to a process of opening and picking that loosens the fibres which became closely packed together when the bale was pressed. Then follow the processes of carding, drawing, slubbing, roving, spinning, and doubling, by which the cotton-fibre is reduced by successive stages from a web or sheet into cotton yarn. The process of carding is described under that title. Its object, besides cleaning the cotton of any foreign substances still adhering, is to reduce the lap into a thin fleece and then contract it into a ribbon or sliver. The sliver, after being doubled so that inequalities in the single slivers are counterbalanced, is put through a drawing machine, consisting of successive pairs of rollers, each of which revolves more rapidly than the preceding one, and which reduces the sliver to a finer and finer thread. By slubbing and roving, the process of attenuation is continued, the thread in each case taking the name of the machine through which it has just passed. The thread is also twisted, and when it leaves the roving machine it is strong enough to be wound on a bobbin. Spinning is the concluding process, and in this the thread is given
the requisite firmness and twist. Doubling is the combining of two or more threads into a single cord. Every step in the manufacture of cotton yarn has for its object (1) the removal of finer and finer impurities, (2) the attenuation and strengthening of the thread, (3) correcting the mistakes of the preceding process. The whole process is described in more detail in the general article on SPINNING.
The thread may be subjected to the additional processes of gassing and polishing. The object of gassing is to singe off all the loose fibres and so produce a very smooth yarn. This is accomplished by passing the thread through a very fine jet of gas, as it is wound from one bobbin to another. The yarn is polished by applying a sizing made of starch, beeswax, or other materials. This not only gives the yarn a gloss, but increases its strength and weight. The process of weaving cotton into cloth does not differ materially from that of silk and wool, and is treated in the general article on WEAVING.
The bulk of the world's cotton is shipped into foreign countries and often across the ocean twice, once to the factories to be transformed into yarn and cloth, and again, perhaps, back to the very region where it was first raised, in the form of cotton goods. The best example of this fact is offered by the United States, which raises ninetenths of the world's cotton, yet exports less cotton goods than the republic of Switzerland, Austria-Hungary which raises not a pound of cotton and has not even a seaport. Of course the United States is an enormous consumer of cotton, and this fact must be remembered in considering the extent of her export trade. Obviously the amount of cotton goods imported, and the amount produced and consumed at home, are also important factors.
Increase in 10 years......
exported and in the actual amount produced. It is interesting to note that this enormous industry is concentrated about Lancashire, in a district whose area is about 50 per cent. greater than that of the State of Rhode Island. In the United States, the most marked development of the last decade of the nineteenth century is the relative importance of Southern factories, situated in the very locality where cotton is produced. In this period the number of spindles increased 245 per cent. and became nearly one-third of the whole number in the country. Other industrial conditions besides the nearness to the cotton crop produced this growth, chief of which has been the general industrial awakening experienced by the South. Capital, however, in this section, has shown greater progress than labor, so that the latter is still cheap; a working day is long, and there are comparatively few labor laws restricting the age, sex, and other conditions of labor.
TABLE III.-VALUE OF THE WORLD'S EXPORTS OF COTTON
Table III. gives the value of the world's export trade in cotton, by countries, for 1897, 1898, and 1899. The table is taken from a pamphlet, entitled The World's Export Trade, published by the Philadelphia Commercial Museum, April, 1900. Of more value, however, as showing the actual extent of the cotton industry, including both home and foreign consumption, and its geographical tendencies as well, are the Tables IV. and V., showing the number of cotton-mills and spindles, the amount consumed, and the value of the output. By studying these tables, certain facts and tendencies in the cotton trade are apparent. Great Britain is and always has been at the head of the cotton trade, both in the amount
TABLE IV.-NUMBER OF SPINDLES IN COTTON-MILLS
$21,037,678 $17,024,092 $23,566,914
$451,832,014 $461,836,028 $500,658,412
During the closing years of the nineteenth century the manufacture of cotton was much advanced in China and Japan. In China cotton has been made into cloth since 1260, and for four centuries it usurped the place of silk. Steampower was introduced into Chinese cotton-factories in 1865-67, and into Japan in 1889. Great difficulty has been experienced in both China and Japan in getting laborers. There is no factory legislation in either country limiting the hours of labor, and in China children begin to work at a very early age. The working day is eleven or more hours long, and the factories run seven days in the week. Labor is also very cheap, as estimated by the amount of money paid for a
day's work, which averages from 10 to 15 cents; but the standard of intelligence and faithfulness among operatives is so low that, measured by the amount and quality of the product, the real cost of labor is high. In Japan, it is particularly hard to keep steady employees. The girls are used to the freedom and out-of-door life of the country and will not stay long at their situations, so that mill operators are constantly hampered with green hands. In Japan the weaving of cotton and other fabrics is still largely household industry. In 1896, according to the French consul at Yokohama, 660,408 dwellings or establishments contained 949,123 looms, at which 1,043,866 persons were engaged in weaving. The yarn used in this household art is largely factoryspun, thus increasing rather than diminishing the demand for cotton-factories.
COTTON, ARTIFICIAL. A material made in Germany from the wood of the fir-tree, which is reduced to thin shavings. These are washed, then steamed for ten hours, after which they are treated with a strong solution of sodium lye and then heated under great pressure for thirty-six hours. The wood is then said to be changed to pure cellulose. To give the material greater resisting power, castor-oil and gelatin are added, TABLE V.-COTTON CONSUMPTION OF THE WORLD, IN 500-POUND BALES
All Others Total World
Japan had 200,000 spindles in operation in 1889, and 1,358,125 spindles in 1899. Japan consumed 99,375 bales of cotton in 1890, and 644,818 bales in 1898. China had 570,000 spindles in operation in 1899. It is estimated that on July 1, 1900, the world's working spindles numbered 105,000,000.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Description and cultivation. True, "The Cotton Plant," in United States Department of Agriculture Office, Experiment Stations, Bulletin 33 (Washington, 1896); Wilkinson, Story of the Cotton Plant (New York, 1899); Lecompte, Le coton: monographie culture, histoire économique (Paris, 1900); Hohnel, Ueber die Baumwolle (Vienna, 1893); Todaro, Relazione sulla cultura dei cotoni in Italia... (Rome, 1878); Mallet, Cotton: the Chemical, Geological and Meteorological Conditions for Its Successful Cultivation (London, 1862); Monie, The Cotton Fibre: Its Structure (Manchester, 1890); Tompkins, Cotton, Cotton Oil, Cotton Planting, Harvesting (Charlotte, N. C., 1901); Dana, Cotton from Seed to Loom (London, 1878; Burkett, Cotton (New York, 1906).
Statistics.-Shepperson, Cotton Facts (New York, annually); Statistical Abstract of the United States (published annually); United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations, Bulletin 33, and Publications of the Statistical Division and Section of Foreign Markets, Twelfth United States Census (Washington, 1902). See COTTONSEED AND ITS PRODUCTS; SPINNING; WEAVING; MUSLIN.
Manufacture and Uses.-Ashworth, Cotton: Its Cultivation, Manufacture and Uses (Manchester, 1858); Ellison, Cotton Trade of Great Britain (London, 1898); Brooks, Cotton and Its Uses, Varieties, Structure of Fibre... (New York, 1898); Hammond, The Cotton Industry (New York, 1897); Latham, Alexander & Co., Cotton Movement and Fluctuations (New York, 1899); Royle, Culture and Commerce of Cotton in India (London, 1851); Marsden, History of Cotton Manufacture (London, 1895); Taylor, Cotton Weaving and Designing (New York, 1906); Chapman, Cotton Industry and Trade (London, 1906).
after which it is ready to be spun into thread and reeled.
COTTON, CHARLES (1630-87). An English translator and poet, said to have been educated at Cambridge. He was a friend of Izaak Walton, to whom he addressed several poems, and to the fifth edition (1676) of whose Compleat Angler he contributed as the 'second part' an essay on fly-fishing. His works, nearly all in verse, include a translation of Corneille's Horace (1671); the Life of the Duke d'Espernon (1670); The Fair One of Tunis, published anonymously (1674); The Scarronides, or Virgil Travestie (1664); The Voyage to Ireland, and The Wonders of the Peak (1681). Cotton was a famous angler and was horticulturist enough to write an excellent Planters' Manual (1675). Some of his poems have been much admired for their sweetness and directness of style. Wordsworth and Lamb particularly praised his Ode to Winter. His best work, the English version of Montaigne's Essays (1685, and frequently since), places him among the greatest of translators.
COTTON, CHARLES STANHOPE (1843-). An American naval officer, born in Milwaukee, Wis., and educated at the Naval Academy. In 1861 he entered active service, and participated in several of the principal naval engagements of the Civil War. He was on the frigate Saint Lawrence when that vessel captured the Petrel (July 28, 1861), and took part in the fight between the Merrimac and the Monitor (March, 1862). Soon after the close of the war he was appointed lieutenantcommander. During the Spanish-American War he was in command of the auxiliary cruiser Harvard, and after the war he became commandant
of the Navy-yard at Norfolk, Va. He was made a rear-admiral in 1900.
COTTON, GEORGE EDWARD LYNCH (181366). An English divine and educator. He was born at Chester and educated at Cambridge. From 1837 to 1852 he taught at Rugby, being the young master' mentioned in Tom Brown's School Days. He was for six years principal of Marlborough College, and in 1858 was made Bishop of Calcutta. In that office he founded many schools and effected great improvement in the education of the poorer classes of the AngloIndian population.
liams may be found in the Publications of the Narragansett Club, vols. i. and ii. (Providence, 1866-67). Consult: McClure, The Life of John Cotton (Boston, 1846); Norton, Abel Being Dead, Yet Speaketh: or, the Life and Death of That Deservedly Famous Man of God, Mr. John Cotton (London, 1658; republished, Boston, 1834); an interesting sketch in Mather, Magnalia (London, 1702); and a critique of Cotton's writings in Tyler, A History of American Literature (New York, 1878).
COTTON, JOHN (1585-1652). An eminent Puritan divine, known as 'The Patriarch of New England.' He was born in Derby, England, and was educated at Trinity College and Emmanuel College, Cambridge, at the latter of which he was successively a fellow, head lecturer, dean, and catechist. Inclining toward Puritanism, he left Cambridge about 1612, and for the next twenty years, with one short intermission, he had charge of the Church of St. Botolph's, at Boston, in Lincolnshire, where he had an extraordinary influence over his congregation, gained a wide reputation for learning and godliness, and trained many young men for the ministry. When Archbishop Laud became primate of England (in 1633), Cotton was summoned to appear before the Court of High Commission, but escaped the pursuivants sent to apprehend him, and, after lying in concealment for some time in London, embarked for Boston, New England (which had been named in compliment to him), where he landed in September, 1633. Almost immediately thereafter he was chosen as teacher of the First Church in Boston, of which the Rev. John Wilson was then pastor, and he continued to act in this capacity until his death. Here, as in England, he had a wide reputation for learning and piety, and soon came to wield a powerful influence over affairs both ecclesiastical and secular in New England, and especially in Massachusetts. According to William Hubbard (q.v.), a contemporary historian, whatever he "delivered in the pulpit was soon put into an order of court
or set up as a practice in the Church," and the enthusiastic Cotton Mather, speaking of his learning, says that he was "a most universal scholar, and a living system of the liberal arts, and a walking library." "He was," says Tyler, "the unmitred pope of a pope-hating commonwealth." He took an active part in the Antinomian controversy, first supporting and afterwards opposing Anne Hutchinson (q.v.), and conducted an extended controversy with Roger Williams, whose expulsion from Massachusetts he approved. He was a voluminous writer and published as many as fifty volumes, the most important of which are: Set Forms of Prayer (1642); The Keys to the Kingdom of Heaven and the Power Thereof (1664); The Bloody Tenent Washed and Made White in the Blood of the Lamb (1647), written in answer to a letter from Roger Williams; A Brief Exposition upon Ecclesiastes; A Brief Exposition upon Canticles; A Treatise of the Covenant of Grace as It Is Dispensed to the Elect Seed; A Treatise Concerning Predestination; and the famous catechism, entitled Spiritual Milk for Babes, Drawn Out of the Breasts of Both Testaments, Chiefly for the Spiritual Nourishment of Boston Babes in Either England (1646). A part of the controversy between him and Roger Wil
COTTON, NATHANIEL (1705-88). An English physician and poet, the friend of Young, author of Night Thoughts, and of the poet Cowper, whom he cared for in 1763-65 in his sanatorium, or, as he rather grandiloquently styled it, Collegium Insanorum,' at Saint Albans, Hertfordshire, where he treated mental diseases with His Visions in Verse (1751) is his best known volume, and among his shorter poems, "The Fireside," and "To a Child Five Years Old," are still found in anthologies.
COTTON, Sir ROBERT BRUCE (1571-1631). A distinguished English antiquarian, founder of the Cottonian Library, now in the British Museum. After his education at Westminster School under the famous Camden, and at Cambridge, where he took a B.A. degree in his sixteenth year, he began those archæological pursuits which made his name famous, and which proved of immense value to historians. As the dissolution of the monasteries, about half a century before, had dispersed many valuable collections of manuscripts among private persons, Cotton sought out and purchased these documents wherever practicable. On account of his ability and knowledge, he was frequently consulted by ministers of State on difficult constitutional points and international questions. In 1600, at the request of Queen Elizabeth, who desired antiquarian authority on the matter, he wrote A Brief Abstract of the Question of Precedency Between England and Spain. King James, who knighted him in 1603 and gave him a baronetcy in 1611, employed him to vindicate the conduct of his mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, and also to examine whether the Roman Catholics, on account of whom some alarm was then felt, should be imprisoned or put to death. Cotton advocated tolerance. His intimacy with the Earl of Somerset led him to be suspected of complicity in the death of Sir Thomas Overbury, and in consequence he was imprisoned for about eight months. In 1629 a tract entitled A Project How a Prince May Make Himself an Absolute Tyrant was obtained from his library, the tendency of which Charles I. and the Star Chamber considered dangerous to the liberty of the State. His library was accordingly declared unfit for public inspection, and he himself was denied all use of it. Depression at this edict caused his death, less than two years afterwards. His son, Sir Thomas (1594-1662), regained possession of the library, and his grandson Sir John (16211701), and great-grandson Sir John (1679-1731), added to it considerably. The latter bequeathed it in public trust to the nation. In 1730 the library was lodged with the royal collection in Ashburnham House, Westminster. The following year a fire occurred in which 114 out of 958 MS. volumes were reported as "lost, burned, or entirely destroyed; and 98 damaged so as to be defective." Fortunately, a great number of these injured volumes were skillfully restored, so that the library
now consists of nearly 900 volumes, of which, says Mr. Edwards in his Memoirs of Libraries, "nearly 200 are State papers of the highest value. They include a vast series relating to the diplomatic intercourse between England and almost every State of Europe, extending from the reign of Edward III. to that of James I. A large proportion of these documents consist of the original letters of sovereigns and of statesmen. Even those papers which are not original have a high degree of authority as coeval transcripts." The Cottonian Library was transferred to the British Museum (q.v.) in 1757. In addition to the MSS., the collection includes many valuable coins and antiquities. Among Cotton's works may be mentioned, in addition to those referred to above: Povver of the Peeres and Comons of Parliament in point of Judicature (1640); Cottoni Postuma-Choice Pieces of that Renowned Antiquary (1672); Divers Short Pieces Exposed to Publick Light by J. Howell (1679); "Speech before the Privy Council touching the Alteration of Coyn," in Shaw, Select Tracts and Documents (1896). Consult, also: Calendars of State Papers (London, 1591-1631); Parliamentary Journals (London); Planta, Catalogue of the Manuscripts in the Cottonian Library (London, 1802); Smith, Catalogue (Oxford, 1696), containing a memoir; Kippis, "Robert Bruce Cotton," in Biog. Brit. (London, 1797); D'Ewes, Autobiography (2 vols., London, 1845); Nichols, Progresses of James I. (4 vols., London, 1828); id., Leicestershire (London, 1795-1811); Gardiner, History of England (London, 1883-84).
COTTON-BIRD. A small South African titmouse (Egithalus Capensis), called kapok vogel (i.e. 'cotton-bird') by the Cape Colony Dutch on account of its wonderful nest, made of cottony materials, which closely resembles the nest of its congener, the penduline titmouse of Europe, illustrated on the Plate of PENSILE NESTS OF BIRDS. (See NIDIFICATION; TITMOUSE.) This nest, first figured by Le Vaillant (Oiseaux d'Afrique, Paris, 1806), whose picture has been widely copied, is usually wrongly assigned to an entirely different bird.
COTTON-GIN. A machine for separating the cotton fibre from the seed, invented by Eli Whitney of Massachusetts and patented March 14, 1794. Previously the work had been done by hand, a slow and tedious process, four pounds per day being the average of one man. See COTTON.
COTTON FAMINE. The name given to an industrial crisis in the manufacturing towns of northern England, occasioned by the almost complete disappearance of cotton imports from the United States during the last three years of the Civil War. As a result of the blockade of the Southern ports by the Federal Government, the importation of cotton from the United States into Great Britain sank
from more than 1.000.000.000 pounds in 1860 to 816,000,000 pounds in 1861, 13,000,000 pounds in 1862, and 6,000,000 pounds in 1863; and as the imports from the United States constituted more than three-fourths of the total supply, the blow to the cotton industry in Lancashire was a stunning one. The suffering fell most heavily on the mill operatives, who, as a body, were brought to the verge of starvation by the partial or complete suspension of production. In November, 1862, it was estimated that more than 350,000 persons in Lancashire were subsisting on parochial relief or private charity. It is a notable fact that, in spite of their great privations, the factory population of Lancashire was in thorough sympathy with the Northern cause, which they regarded as a crusade against slavery. Consult Arnold, History of the Cotton Famine (London, 1865).
COTTON-GRASS (from its cottony spike), Eriophorum. A genus of plants of the natural order Cyperaces, having the fruit accompanied with long, silky hairs which spring from the base of the ovary. The species are not very numerous; they are natives chiefly of the colder regions of the Northern Hemisphere. Several are found in America, and their white, cottony fruit-bearing spikes are well known in our swamps and bogs. The cottony substance is used for stuffing pillows, etc., and it is claimed that cloth may be made from it. The fibre lacks the twist of the cotton fibre and cannot be spun as readily. The stems of a Himalayan species, Eriophorum cannabinum, called bhabhur, yield a very strong fibre, and are much employed for making cordage, being simply twisted into cables, of which rope bridges are usually made; but they are not durable, and require much repairing every year. Cotton-grass is said to be valuable for sheep-pasture.
COTTON-INSECTS. One of the most important insects injurious to the American cottonculture is the cotton-worm, the larva of a noctuid moth (Aletia xylina), which sometimes defoliates whole districts. It is believed to be South American, and first became strikingly harmful in the Southern States in 1804. It is now known all over the Union, but its Northern food-plant is unknown. A Government commission reported in 1879 that the average loss to the cotton-growing States due to its ravages was then from $15,000,000 to $20,000,000 annually. The moth is 11⁄2 inches in spread of wings, the fore wings and body reddish brown, with delicate zigzag markings, and the hinder wings pale graybrown. It flies at night, and deposits eggs singly or sparsely on the under side of the leaves of the cotton-plant, where they hatch in midsummer in about 50 to 60 hours. The caterpillars begin at once to devour the leaves, and so many are they, sometimes, that whole fields have been defoliated in three days, when the caterpillars swarm elsewhere in search of more food. In midsummer the caterpillars remain about thirteen days, then fold leaf about themselves and spin cocoon in which they pupate. In two to four days after issuing from the chrysalis the female moth begins to lay-her average product being 400 eggs in the season. The natural food is the juice exuding from the glands on the leaf's midrib and at the base of blooms and bolls; but it will feed on any kind of fruit as it ripens. Until the worms are numerous enough to riddle the leaves badly, the moths continue to lay near their birthplace; then they migrate to considerable distances-seldom, however, until after the third generation of worms, say July 1, in southern Texas. Migrations are most common in the fall months, the moths flying at night and on cloudy days. In the Southern States only the moths hibernate (the worms never, nor any where), hibernation being more frequent in the Southwestern than in the Atlantic States. The moths hibernate under bark, in logs and timbers, etc., and mild winters are more severe on them than cold ones, which keep them torpid.