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color of the sides of the body hidden under the wings.' Of all these the females are plainly colored, mostly gray, and are therefore inconspicuous when making their nests or brooding an important precaution against the extinction of the race; and the gaudy hues of the males are molted to a great extent during the off-season, when their dress is much plainer than in the season of courtship. None of these birds are notable as singers, though several utter loud and singular cries. See Plate of COTINGAS.
the summit; sounds as of explosions are occasionally heard; and, also, a fiery glow is often visible by night. Lava rarely flows even during eruptions, but flame, smoke, and immense volumes of ashes are then ejected; and when the heat melts large masses of the snow lying on the sides, destructive floods are occasioned in the valleys beneath. The first eruption recorded was in 1533. Others followed in 1698 and 1743, since which date numerous eruptions have occurred. One of the most violent was that of 1768, during which ashes, thrown high into the air, were transported by the winds and thickly strewn over an area of about 250 miles in diameter. One of the more recent violent eruptions was in 1877.
COTISE, kōt'is, or COST (Fr. côte, side). In heraldry (q.v.), one of the diminutives of the bend.
COT'MAN, JOHN SELL (1782-1842). An English engraver and painter, born at Norwich. He painted in oil and water-color, but is probably better known by his architectural etchings, collected and published under the title, Etchings of Architectural and Picturesque Remains (1838). There are two water-color drawings by him in the South Kensington Museum, London, and one picture in the National Gallery. Cotman is now more appreciated than when he was alive, and is called the most gifted of the Norwich school.
COTO'NEAS'TER (Neo-Lat., from Neo-Lat. cotonea, quince, Lat. cotonea, wallwort). A genus of plants of the natural order Rosaceæ. The species are pretty numerous, shrubs or small trees; some of them evergreen, with simple, undivided leaves, more or less woolly beneath, small flowers in lateral cymes, and small fruit not agreeable to the palate, but the bright color of which, and its remaining on the tree in winter, make them very ornamental. These plants, while common in Europe, seem little known in the United States. Cotoneaster integerrima is a deciduous species, a native of hills in Europe
and Siberia. Cotoneaster tomentosa is found in
the Alps. Most of the species are natives of mountainous parts of Asia; they are sufficiently hardy for the climate of Great Britain, where they are among the most common ornamental shrubs. Some of them, as Cotoneaster rotundifolia and Cotoneaster microphylla-both from the north of India-are much used for covering
COTOPAXI, kītô-păh sẽ; $p. pron. kitô-pi
The loftiest active volcano in the world. It is in Ecuador, in the eastern chain of the Andes, about 40 miles nearly south of Quito, and about 50 miles south of the equator, in longitude 78° 42′ W. (Map: Ecuador, B 4). La Condamine estimated the height at 18.860 feet; Reiss, the first to ascend it (in 1872), found it to be 19,500 feet; and Whymper (in 1880), 19,613 feet. The valley at its foot, however, is itself over 9000 feet above the sea. The upper part of Cotopaxi, a perfect cone for a distance of 4400 feet, is entirely covered with snow, with the exception of the immediate margin of the crater, which is a bare parapet of rock. The snow-line on the northern exposure is 15,600 feet, and on the southern exposure 15.200 feet, above sea-level. Reiss, whose measurements are largely accordant with the more recent ones of Whymper, estimated that the crater, which is elliptical, has a depth of 1500 feet and a maximum diameter of about 2600 feet. Below the snow-line is a well-marked barren belt covered with lichens and shrubs, below which again is forest. Smoke issues from VOL. V.-31
COTRONE, kô-trō'nâ. An episcopal city (since the sixth century) on the Gulf of Taranto, 146 miles, by the winding railway, south of Taranto (Map: Italy, M 8). It has a castle of the time of Charles V., a cathedral, and an excellent, though small, harbor. Of the Temple of Hera on the Cacinian promontory (now Cape Colonne), seven miles to the southeast, which was the most magnificent structure of the kind in Magna Græcia, only one solitary, but conspicuous, column remains. The worship of Hera has been replaced by that of the Madonna del Capo, to whose church, near the temple, the young girls of Cotrone go in barefoot procession every Saturday. The town markets oranges and other fruit, oil, licorice, wine, grain, and turpentine. Cotrone is the modern name for the ancient Crotona,
founded by the Achæans about B.C. 710. About
crates of Samos, established his brotherhood here
in 1901, 9610.
COTS WOLD. See SHEEP.
COTSWOLD, or COTESWOLD HILLS (village meadow, from cot, hut + wold, meadow). A range of hills, running through the middle of Gloucestershire, England, from Chipping Camden in the northeast to near Bath in the southwest (Map: England, D 5). They are 54 miles long, in some parts eight miles broad, and cover 312 square miles, with an average height of 500 to 600 feet. The highest points are Cleave Hill (1134 feet) and Broadway Hill (1086 feet). The surface is generally bare, but corn, turnips, and sainfoin are grown, and coarse-wooled sheep are raised. Consult Evans, Highways and Byways in Oxford and the Cotswolds (New York, 1905).
COT'TA. The name of a family of German publishers, whose establishment was founded in Tübingen in 1659. It included the eminent theologian, JOHANN FRIEDRICH FREIHERR VON COTTA (1701-79), and his grandson, JOHANN FRIEDRICH vox COTTA (1764-1832), the most eminent publisher in German history. Educated for the law, he entered the book business at Tübingen in 1787, and in 1795 began to publish Schiller's Horen,
the Politische Annalen, and an architectural annual. In 1798 he issued Die Allgemeine Zeitung (q.v.), the Damena/manach, and some like undertakings. The Litteraturblatt and the Kunstblatt followed. Cotta was publisher for nearly all the distinguished literary men of the classical epoch. In 1810 he moved his printing-house to Stuttgart; in 1824 he introduced the first steam printing-press into Bavaria, and later he helped to found the Literary and Artistic Institute at Munich. In politics Cotta was a moderate but steadfast Liberal. He was a practical social reformer, abolishing serfdom on his estates, building model farms, and making them in effect reighborhood experiment stations. The house of Cotta is still among the greatest publishing firms in Germany.
is noted for its invigorating air and fine bathing. Population, 1900, 1100; 1905, 1138.
COTTA, BERNHARD VON (1808-79). A German geologist, born at Zielbach. After studying at the School of Mines at Freiberg, and at the University of Heidelberg, he was associated with Naumann in the publication of a geological map of Saxony (12 sections, 1833-42), and from 1841 to 1874 was professor of geology at Freiberg. His publications, many of which have been translated into English, include: Geognostische Wanderungen (1836-38); Anleitung zum Studium der Geognosie und Geologie (3d ed., 1849); Deutschlands Boden (1854); and Die Geologie der Gegenwart (5th ed., 1878). In the latter work he proved himself an evolutionist, and an adherent of Darwin's theory of the origin of species. He was one of the first geologists to accept this theory and apply it to organic remains in sedimentary rocks.
COTTA, HEINRICH (1763-1844). A German forester of distinction, born near Wasungen. He studied at Jena, in 1801 became a master forester and a member of the Eisenach College of Forestry, and from 1795 to 1811 conducted at Zillbach a school of sylviculture, founded by himself. In 1811 he was summoned to Saxony as counselor of forestry, and thither removed his school, which in 1816 received the title of Royal Academy of Forestry.' He wrote a number of volumes, including: Anweisung zum Waldbau (1817; 9th ed., 1865); Die Verbindung des Feldbaues mit dem Waldbau (1819-22); and Grundriss der Forstwirthschaft (1832; 6th ed. 1872).
COTTAGE (OF. cotage, ML. cotagium, from AS. cot, Icel. kot, hut). Formerly a term used in Great Britain for a small dwelling-house of a poor family, especially in the country, detached from other buildings. It had no second story (though sometimes garret-rooms), and was built usually of stone and thus distinguished from wooden cabins or huts, though wood was not excluded. Recently the term has been extended to mean country houses of moderate extent, but built especially as summer residences for wellto-do families; and finally it is applied, in the United States, to the most sumptuous summer
residences at places like Newport and Bar
COTTAGE CITY. A town, including several villages, on the northeast side of Marthas Vineyard Island, Dukes County, Mass., 22 miles southeast of New Bedford (Map: Massachusetts, F 5). One of the most popular resorts on the New England coast, it contains several hotels, camp-meeting grounds, and a public library, and
COTTAR'S SATURDAY NIGHT, THE. A poem by Robert Burns, published with a volume of other verse in 1786. It describes the homely pleasures of the Scottish laborer when the week's work is completed.
COTTBUS, kõt'bus. A town of the Prussian Province of Brandenburg, situated on the Spree, about 70 miles southeast of Berlin. It is a mercantile centre, with manufactures of linen, wool, yarn, jute, and carpets (Map: Germany, F 3). Population, in 1890, 34,910; in 1900, 39,327; in 1905, 46.269. Cottbus was founded in the tenth In 1445 it was sold to the century by Henry I. Elector of Brandenburg. It belonged to Saxony from 1807 till 1813, when it passed to Prussia. COTTE, kōt, ROBERT DE Ꭺ (1656-1735). French architect. He was born in Paris, and was a pupil and brother-in-law of J. H. Manof the work done by his master; but he aftersard. He at first attended only to the details nade of the Trianon, the dome of the Invalides, wards built the chapel of Versailles, the colonthe Hôtel de la Vrillière (now the Bank of France), and left designs for the portal of Saint Roch and for many buildings outside of his own king (1708), after the death of Mansard. country. Cotte was made first architect to the
COTTENHAM, Earl of. See PEPYS, CHARLES CHRISTOPHER.
COT'TER, JOSEPH B. (1844-). An American Roman Catholic bishop, born in Liverpool. He came to America in his youth, and was educated at Saint John's University. After holding a pastorate at Winona, Minn., for eighteen years, he was in 1889 consecrated first bishop of that diocese. He has been active in the temperance movement, and has several times acted as president of the Total Abstinence Union of America.
COTTEREAU, kōt'rð', JEAN. See CHOUANS. COT TIDE (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from NeoLat. cottus, Gk. KÓTTOÇ, kottos, a sort of riverfish, probably the bullhead). A family of small, ugly-looking, spiny-rayed fishes having a large depressed head, usually armed with spines or tubercles, and a tapering body, which may be naked or irregularly armed with scales or bony plates. There are about 60 genera and 250 species. The typical genus is Cottus. Nearly all are small. They inhabit the rocky shores and pools of the northern regions, some of the species descending to great depths. Many inhabit fresh waters, occupying the clear, cool streams of northern regions. The family includes the sculpins, miller's-thumb, grubby, father-lasher, etc. Very few are used as food. See SCULPIN.
COTTIERS, kōt'ti-erz. A term originally indicating tenants who rented cots or cottages, or at the most a plot of land too small to be desig nated a farm; but later the term had a more general application to peasant farmers whose
rent was determined not by custom, but by competition. The most notable case of this system of land tenure was in Ireland, where the capitalist farmer was scarcely represented in the popu lation. The same class in the western parts of Scotland are called 'crofters.' Among both the lack of capital and the competition for land, inducing rack-rent, has provoked much misery. It has been partially alleviated in Ireland by the
COTTLE, JOSEPH (1770-1853). An English publisher, born probably in Gloucestershire. He opened a bookshop in Bristol and was instrumental in publishing some of the first poems of Southey, Coleridge, and Wordsworth. He remained in business from 1791 to 1799. After his retirement he produced several volumes of poetry, such as Malvern Hills (1798); John the Baptist (1801); Messiah (1815), which awoke the satire of Byron. His Early Recollections, Chiefly Relating to Samuel Taylor Coleridge (1837), with a second edition under the title Reminiscences of Coleridge and Southey (1847), contains interesting information on the early lives of Coleridge and Southey, but is disfigured by many details that show Cottle himself in an unpleasant light. COTTON (Fr., Sp. coton, from Ar. quṭun, qutn, cotton, from qatana, to inhabit). An important vegetable fibre distinguished from all other fibres by the peculiar twist it possesses, which makes it exceedingly valuable for spinning. It is cultivated in those parts of the globe between the two thirty-fifth parallels of latitude (a region which contains the largest portion of the land surface of the globe), although its most profitable cultivation is between the twentieth and thirty-fifth parallels north of the equator. Within this belt lie the cotton districts of the United States, northern Mexico, Egypt, northern Africa, and Asia, except the extreme southern parts of India and the Malay Peninsula. South of the equator cotton is grown in Brazil, nearly all of which country is said to be favorably adapted to its cultivation; in Australia, though not to any great extent; in Africa, where the extent of production is not known, and in the islands of the Pacific. Cotton is grown under wider range of climatic conditions, over a greater area, and by a greater variety and number of people, and is useful for a larger number of purposes than any other fibre. Its cheapness and the extent of its production preclude the demand ever exceeding the supply except locally and temporarily. Although cotton is grown mainly for the fibre surrounding its seeds, its by-products, the seeds as a source of oil and cake, and also the fibre of the stalks, are of great importance. See COTTONSEED AND ITS PRODUCTS.
their duration are perennials, biennials, or annuals. The leaves of the cultivated species are three to seven, or even nine-lobed, and are more or less sprinkled with small black or pellucid dots. The flowers vary in color; the common low, with purple spots at base, the whole flower colors in the United States are white or light yelturning red the second day after opening. The flowers usually are borne singly in the axils of number occur together. At their bases the flowthe leaves except in the 'cluster' type, where a ers are surrounded by three or more green heartshaped bracts, which are deeply cut or fringed and are united at their bases to form a cup. These constitute the 'squares.' The fruit, known as the boll, is a three to five-celled capsule, containing the numerous seeds, more or less covered with lint, which is white or tawny. All of the species are of tropical origin, yet their most successful cultivation is in temperate climates where there is a period of six months free from frosts and where there is an abundant and well-distributed rainfall throughout the growing season. An increasing temperature during the period of greatest growth is believed to be conducive to the production of the best fibre, and in India, where a lower grade of staple is produced, the decreasing temperature at this period is held responsible for the inferior quality. The botanical origin of plants that have long been in cultivation is always a source of perplexity, and the exact species to which the different varietie of cotton belong has been the subject of much controversy. By almost common consent it is now agreed that most of the cotton of commerce is the product of three or four species and their hybrids. These species are Gossypium arboreum and Gossypium peruvianum, arborescent species grown only in the tropics; Gossypium barbadense, the source of the celebrated Sea Island cotton, and Gossypium herbaceum, the species from which most of the crop of India and the United States is grown. By some the American upland cotton is believed to have originated from Gossypium maritimum and Gossypium hirsutum, but these are now believed to be the same as Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium herbaceum. There is perhaps no other plant that responds so quickly. to changes in environment and improved cultivation, and to this are doubtless due the many varieties and species.
BOTANICAL AND COMMERCIAL CLASSIFICATIONS. The cotton of commerce is the product of a few species of Gossypium, a genus of the natural order Malvaceæ, to which also belong the hollyhock, mallow, hibiscus, etc., as may be readily seen by a comparison of their flowers. (For illustration, see Plate with article HEMP.) There are in all about 50 species of Gossypium, only a few of which are economically important. They are small trees, shrubs, or herbaceous plants, and in
The Sea Island cotton, Gossypium barbadense, with its beautiful, long and silky staple, is one of the most valuable of the races or species of cotton. The flower is of a rich cream-color and its seeds are black, small, and easily separable from the lint. This species attains the highest perfection along the coast region of South Carolina, Georgia, and Florida, with well-known varieties grown under irrigation in Egypt from American seed. The fibre of Sea Island cotton averages about one and three-quarter inches in length, with one and one-half to two and one-half as the extremes. It is adapted to the finest thread and lace work, and other products for which the short staple is not suited. The Egyptian varieties are usually a little shorter in staple and are of a tawny color. These are often used for the natural colored balbriggan underwear, hosiery, etc., where a smooth finish and silky lustre are desired. The cultivation of Sea Island cotton is highly developed, and the United States crop of 1898-99 was 67,611 bales of 500
pounds each. About the same amount is annually imported into the United States from Egypt.
The upland cotton of the United States is mostly derived from Gossypium herbaceum. In this country the varieties of this species have white flowers, which turn red the second day after opening. The fibre of this series is shorter, but the plant can be cultivated over a greater extent of territory than the others. The seed of the upland varieties is usually of a greenish color and has a closely adherent gray fuzz in addition to the longer lint, making the process of ginning more diflicult. There are doubtless many hybrids between these series, as may be seen in the character of some upland cottons. In 1896 descriptions were published in the United States Department of Agriculture, Office of Experiment Stations, Bulletin 33, of more than 130 varieties of cotton in cultivation in the United States at that time, together with about an equal number of so-called varieties which were only old ones renamed. Most of these varieties were upland cottons, and they varied widely in their production and character of lint. Gossypium arboreum is a small tree rather common about the temples of India and China, but it is said never to be cultivated as a regular crop. The trees are rather short-lived, and they yield a fine, silky fibre an inch or more in length. This is called Nurma or Deo cotton and is little used except by the priestly class. It is probable that its value has been overrated. It will not mature in the United States. The origin of the cottons supposed to be derived from Gossypium Peruvianum is somewhat in doubt. They are South American, as their name would indicate, and their smooth black seeds adhere in a reniform mass, hence the name 'kidney cotton,' which is usually applied to them. Their fibre is strong, rather coarse and woolly, one and one-half inches or less in length, and from its great resemblance to wool is frequently used in combination with that staple. About 15,000 bales are annually imported into the United States, and it is claimed that most of it is used by woolen manufacturers to mix in making underwear, hosiery, etc., much of the material being sold as all-woolen goods.
the United States is the most perfect. Although the plant is not really an annual, it is treated as such in its cultivation. The land is prepared in winter, the time of beginning varying with the. locality. After thorough plowing, and after all frost has gone, the ground is bedded into rows from three to four feet wide, according to situation and the quality of the soil; the seed is sown along the centre of these beds, either in a straight furrow made with a small plow or opener, or in holes twelve to eighteen inches apart. Where artificial fertilizers or cottonseed-meal are drilled in this method of preparation is indispensable. The usual date to begin preparing land is from January 15 in southern Texas to March 5 in South Carolina. Sowing usually commences March 10 to April 15 and continues to May 15; but late spring frosts may delay it longer. The young shoots, which appear in from ten to fifteen days, are weeded and thinned when they have attained a height of two to six inches, say, when the third or first true leaf appears. The average date of bloom is June 5. As a general rule, cotton is a dry-weather plant, heavy rainfall interfering with both the culture and the stand, although an extremely dry spring interferes with the growth. For plowing it is best to have just enough rain to make the soil moist and spongy. When young, the crop flourishes best with warm steamy weather, with an occasional shower until blooming. An excess of rain produces weeds and wood; severe drought stunts the plant, matures it too early, and causes a small, light-stapled crop. Early frost causes the plant to turn brown; cold nights cause many of the plants to die. Lands in hilly or upland districts require more moisture than those lying in the plains and river bottoms. Overflowing often causes injury on bottom and flat prairie lands, but replanting or recuperation often redeems the most hopeless cases. Where, however, overflowing causes 'sanding,' the land is rendered utterly useless for cotton culture that year. The experi ment stations in the Southern States have aided in introducing improved methods of cultivating, fertilizing, and handling the crop. Rotation of crops and green manuring have been shown to be of great advantage. From the date of bloom, warm, dry weather is needful, until picking time, which usually commences from July 10 in southern Texas up to September 10 in Tennessee, and continues until frost puts a stop to further growth. During the harvest all available hands are called into full employment. The cotton is gathered into baskets or bags hung from the shoulders of the pickers, and when the crop has been secured it is spread out, dried, and then the fibre separated from the seeds. For long-staple or Sea Island cotton in South Carolina the usual date to begin preparing land is February 1; planting begins April 1 and ends May 1; picking is from August 25 to December 10.
INSECT ENEMIES OF THE COTTON-PLANT. See COTTON-INSECTS.
COTTON DISEASES. There are a number of wellcharacterized diseases of the cotton-plant, some of which are due to disturbances in the nutrition of the plant, others are caused by fungous attacks, while still others are attributed to the presence of minute worms, called nematodes, in the roots. Attention to the requirements of the plants will correct the first class of diseases. For the fungous troubles but little in the way of prevention
In commercial usage, to fibres under 0.98 inch or 25 millimeters in length there has been given the name 'short staple'; 'medium' means from 0.98 to 1.17 inches (25 to 30 millimeters), and 'long' 1.18 to 1.57 inches (30 to 40 millimeters); 'extra,' including those which are 1.58 inches (40 millimeters) or more. The extra and the long in the United States seem to come from Sea Island cotton or some of its hybrids; the short and medium from Gossypium hirsutum or Gossypium herbaceum.
The commercial classification of cotton in New York is as follows: The 'full grades' are fair, middling fair, good middling, middling, low middling, good ordinary, and ordinary. Half grades are designated by the prefix 'strict,' quarter goods by prefixes barely,' meaning the point above half grade and the next full grade above, and 'fully, meaning the mean point between the half grade and the next full grade below. Liverpool high grades are lower, and low grades higher than New York,
CULTIVATION. The plant requires for its best development a peculiar soil and climate. While the method of cultivation is about the same in the various countries where it is grown, that in