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of him a staff surmounted by a cross or crucifix -that of a patriarch having two cross-bars. Another vestment peculiar to archbishops is the pallium, a circular band of white woolen stuff surrounding the neck, with a pendent strip before and behind; the whole being marked with several crosses. It is a symbol of jurisdiction, worn by the Pope and by him bestowed on archbishops, who wear it at high mass on solemn days, but only within their own jurisdictions. The sandals were not originally confined to bishops; the earliest authors who mention them allude to a special shape worn by deacons and subdeacons. Their early distinct liturgical use is an incidental proof that the vestments are derived from the costume of every-day life, not from that of the Jewish priests, who officiated barefoot. The pectoral cross is a small gold cross adorned with jewels, which is worn on the breast by bishops and abbots as a mark of their office. Innocent III. is the first author to mention its use. The episcopal ring, worn on the right hand and generally set with a large amethyst, is supposed to symbolize that the bishop is wedded to his diocese. Among less formal vestments, the rochet alluded to above is a close fitting vestment of linen, somewhat like a shorter alb or a surplice with tight sleeves; it is worn by bishops and abbots, also sometimes as a special privilege by canons. The mozzetta is a short cape covering the shoulders, a part of the state dress of bishops when not pontificating, and is worn with the rochet. The mantelletta is a sleeveless garment of silk or woolen stuff reach ing to the knees, worn by cardinals, bishops, and other prelates. It is used to cover the rochet, so that bishops wear it when out of their own dioceses, the uncovered rochet being a symbol of jurisdiction. The other vestments worn by a bishop have already been described, with the manner of their use, except that, wearing the pectoral cross upon his breast, he does not cross the stole as a priest does when preparing to celebrate. The combination of dalmatic and tunicle with the chasuble is supposed to express the union of all the orders in the episcopal office.
GENERAL. The most important vestment to be mentioned under this head is the cope, a wide cloak of silk or other costly material reaching nearly to the feet and fastened in front by a clasp called the morse, and having a semicircular hood at the back. While it is worn by the officiating priest in benediction and other solemn rites, it is not distinctly a sacerdotal vestment, and is worn by cantors at solemn vespers and by other laymen. The humeral veil is an oblong scarf of the same material as the chasuble, worn by the subdeacon at high mass when he holds the paten from the offertory to the Pater noster, and by the priest when giving benediction or carrying the blessed sacrament in procession. It is worn over the shoulders, the paten, pyx, or monstrance being wrapped in it. The Levites (Num. iv.) were allowed to bear the sacred vessels only when wrapped in coverings; and although those in holy orders (and they alone) are allowed to touch the eucharistic vessels with the bare hands, the use of the veil is probably an expression of the feeling of reverence inculcated by the Jewish rule. The surplice (called also cotta at first in Italy, now generally) is a garment of linen worn by all clerics and assistants in choir and by priests in the adminis
tration of the sacraments. As late as the twelfth century it was supposed to reach to the ankles, but in modern times it has been very much curtailed, and since the seventeenth century commonly ornamented with lace. Under all the other vestments is worn the cassock, a closefitting garment reaching to the feet, which is the distinctive dress of clerics, in church and out. The color varies, being black for a simple priest, purple for a bishop, and red for a cardinal; the Pope alone wears a white cassock. The berretta (or biretta), which is also a part of the priest's street or house dress, must be mentioned under official costume, as the rubrics prescribe it for the sacred ministers going to the altar and for ecclesiastics in choir. It is a square cap with three ridges extending outward from the centre of the top-four in the case of doctors of divinity. "At Rome," says Benedict XIV., “and in most churches the berretta was unknown as late as the ninth century. Its ecclesiastical use began when priests gave up the ancient custom of covering their heads with the amice till the actual beginning of the mass." The zucchetto is a small, round skull-cap, of color suited to the wearer's rank, which, if worn in church, is removed only at the most solemn parts of the services.
EASTERN VESTMENTS. The influence which between the eighth and twelfth centuries in the West bore so strongly upon the development of ecclesiastical costume, that of the numerous liturgical writers, was almost wholly lacking in the East, where between the Patriarch Germanus of Constantinople in the eighth century, and Simeon, Archbishop of Thessalonica in the fifteenth, scarcely one of importance is to be named. The natural conservatism of the Oriental mind has also militated against change in the ecclesiastical usages. The Western maniple, amice, and cope are unknown in the Greek and Russian churches; in place of the first-named, somewhat similar bands (epimanikia) are worn around both arms by bishops, priests, and deacons, those of the bishop being richly ornamented. The lector and readers wear an ample white or reddish vestment called phelonion, but differing from the priestly chasuble in only reaching to the waist. The subdeacon wears the sticharion, a sort of dalmatic, narrower and shorter than that of the deacon, who wears in addition the orarion or stole hanging before and behind over the left shoulder. The sticharion has undoubtedly developed from the alb, but more closely resembles the dalmatic both in shape and material. The priest wears the sticharion, the epitrachelion (a long narrow stole something like an archiepiscopal pallium in the West), the zone or girdle, and the phelonion or chasuble, which in Russia is much abbreviated in front, but hangs down to the ankles behind. The episcopal vestments are in the main similar to those of the priests, but more richly decorated; the bishop's phelonion is adorned with many small crosses. Instead of this vestment the Greek metropolitans, and in Russia all bishops since the time of Peter the Great, wear the sakkos, a tight-fitting garment supposed to symbolize the seamless robe of Christ. The episcopal gloves, sandals, and ring are not in use. The head-covering resembles a crown more than the Western mitre. The specific episcopal insignia are a pastoral staff, generally
in the shape of a T; the epigonation, a lozengeshaped ornament of stiffened silk bearing a cross or picture, which hangs from the girdle on the right side, and the omophorion, a broader pallium with four crosses. The only colors normally used for all these vestments are white and dark red, the latter in penitential seasons.
ANGLICAN AND PROTESTANT USAGE. The universal tendency of the Reformers was naturally to dissociate themselves from the older Church by abandoning to a greater or less extent the ceremonies and vestments used by it. The Lutherans and the Anglicans, however, showed a more conservative spirit than the others. Luther himself considered the matter one of indifference; and his followers for a long time retained most of the old vestments, even the chasuble being worn in Sweden and Denmark, where the Lutheran bishops also wear copes and pectoral crosses. But the Calvinists and other more extreme Reformers of the Continent abolished the older vestments completely, and adopted the black Genevan gown or robe de Calvin. This, which is nothing more than the ordinary dress of a scholar in the sixteenth century, with the white bands at the neck, has become a distinctive costume of Protestant ministers for officiating. In recent years there has been a notable tendency, especially among the Scotch Presbyterians, toward the restoration or adaptation of ancient customs, and surpliced choirs have been introduced among other 'ritualistic' usages. The semi-military costume of the Salvation Army officers may be referred to as in some degree illustrating the same tendency.
The question of vestments was a very thorny one throughout the whole reign of Elizabeth, whose impulse in favor of decent and orderly ceremonial, at least, ran counter to the views of the advanced Puritan party, vigorously abetted by the Continental, and especially the Swiss, Reformers. (See ADVERTISEMENTS OF ELIZABETH.) The first Prayer-Book of Edward VI. had prescribed "a white albe plain with a vestment [chasuble] or cope" for the celebrant, and albs with tunicles for the assistants. The second Prayer Book, which represented the extreme attainment of innovation, ordered that "the minister shall use neither albe, vestment, nor cope, but being archbishop or bishop, he shall have and wear a rochet; and being a priest or deacon, he shall have and wear a surplice only." But this minimizing injunction was only temporary, and was followed by a cautious return to something like the previous standard. The present law, as contained in the Prayer Book, unchanged since 1661, is somewhat vague, being merely an authorization of the "ornaments of the Church and of the ministers thereof" as used by the authority of Parliament in the second year of King Edward VI. The Ritualistic School contends that this permits, if it does not enjoin, all the ancient vestments; and in recent times the clergy of that school have restored almost all of them, copying in many cases the modern Roman usage with great exactness, so that nothing distinctive remains to be said about them. Throughout the greater part, however, of the post-Reformation period, the Anglican use was uniform; for all ministrations except preaching, a linen surplice reaching to the feet and open in front, without a cassock, and a wide black stole (or more properly scarf, since it is contended with some
show of probability that it was not a stole, but the scarf worn as a distinctive mark by noblemen's chaplains), and for preaching the black gown with bands, until toward the middle of the nineteenth century it was displaced amid a storm of controversy by the surplice for that function also. The use of the surplice by men and boys in the choirs of English cathedral and collegiate churches was continuous throughout the post-Reformation period, and with the ritual revival became general in other churches as well, the cassock being added. In the closing years of the nineteenth century the custom of arraying women singers in these vestments was adopted by a number of churches, but strongly reprobated by many bishops as a gross violation of propriety.
The history of Anglican episcopal costume has some curious features. The first Prayer Book of Edward VI. directed a bishop "to have upon him, besides his rochet, a surplice or albe, and also a cope or vestment [chasuble] and also his pastoral staff in his hand or else borne or holden by his chaplain." Amid the gradual disuse of the older vestments, the cope continued to be frequently worn, instead of the chasuble, in cathedrals, as expressly enjoined by the twentyfourth canon of 1603. Blunt says "it was so used in Durham Cathedral until the end of the eighteenth century, being first discontinued by Bishop Warburton, through irritable impatience on some collision between his wig and the collar of the cope." The characteristic dress of the modern Anglican bishop consists of rochet and chimere; the latter may be merely a survival of a sleeveless garment so called, worn by persons of position in the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries, but more probably originated as an episcopal dress from the habit of bishops under Henry VIII. and Edward, of wearing their scarlet doctor's gowns with their rochets; in Elizabeth's reign the more sober black was substituted, and the tailors of the Stuart period sewed the sleeves of the rochet, greatly enlarged, to the chimere. The latter may be pressed into an analogy to the mantelletta of Roman Catholic bishops.
The principle of uniformity of dress to mark those who lived a common life was adopted even among the early monks of the Egyptian deserts. The character of the Eastern religious costumes was usually, as far as can be determined from the vague descriptions of early writers, such as to express a spirit of penitence and differentiate their wearers from the gaily dressed worldlings. The early Western founders, Saint Benedict and even Saint Francis, prescribed the general character but not the exact shape and color of the garments to be worn by their followers. Custom gradually, in a community life, crystallized into rule. But since the thirteenth century the founders of orders have usually laid down the exact details of the habit to be worn, as a sort of regimental uniform. The notable exceptions are Saint Ignatius, Saint Philip Neri, and Saint Vincent de Paul, whose followers have never worn anything but the ordinary dress of secular priests. The wearing of the habit at all times is most strictly enjoined upon members of religious orders, except when it is sometimes dispensed with in non-Catholic countries; the early Jesuits in China, in pursuance of their policy of adapting themselves to the customs of the country, wore
the native costume. (See illustration of Father Adam Schall in the dress of a mandarin.) Normally, however, the habit is always worn, taking
FATHER ADAM SCHALL, S. J., IN MANDARIN COSTUME.
the place for preaching (and in some places for administering the sacrament of penance) of the surplice and stole. For specific details of the costume of the various orders, see the articles under their titles. Rock, Hierurgia (London, 1833); Pugin, Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament and Costume (70 plates, London, 1844); Marriott, Vestiarium Christianum (London, 1868); Bock, Geschichte der liturgischen Gewänder des Mittelalters (3 vols., Bonn, 1859-71); Maskell, Monumenta Ritualia Ecclesiæ Anglicana (London, 1846-47); Hefele, Beiträge zur Kirchengeschichte, Archäologie und Liturgik (Tübingen, 1864-65); Macalister, Ecclesiastical Vestments, Their Development and History (London, 1896); Baldeschi, Esposizione delle sacre ceremonie (Rome, 1865); Scudamore, Notitia Eucharistica (London, 1872); Dolby, Church Vestments (London, 1868); Rajewski, Euchologion der orthodox-katholischen Kirche (Vienna,
COS'WAY, RICHARD (1740-1821). An English miniature-painter, born at Tiverton. He studied in a London drawing-school, while serving as waiting-man there, and in 1771 became a member of the Royal Academy. He painted in oil and water-color, but his fame rests principally on his miniatures, most of which were of the aristocracy.
COT, kôt, PIERRE AUGUSTE (1837-83). A French painter, pupil of Cogniet, Cabanel, and Bouguereau. He painted at first historical subjects, later also portraits, and acquired great reputation, especially by his female heads. Among his most noteworthy works are: "Spring Time;" "Day of the Dead at the Campo Santo of Pisa" "Dionisia:" "Prometheus;" "Meditation;" and Mireille," in the Luxembourg Gallery. He was decorated with the cross of the Legion of Honor.
entre el Amor y un caballero viejo, which appeared first at Modena in 1569. The authorship of this poem has been much disputed, but it seems quite safe to attribute it to Cota. wrote Las Coplas de Mingo Revulgo (c.1472), and may have written the first act of the comedy Celestina (1480), which was finished by Rojas. He also produced some satiric poems.
COTA, RODRIGO C. DE MAGUAQUE. A Spanish poet of the fifteenth century, born at Toledo. His reputation rests upon the dainty, witty Diálogo
COTAN'GENT. See TRIGONOMETRY.
CÔTE-D'OR, kôt'dor (Fr., golden hill). A department in the east of France (q.v.), formerly part of the Province of Burgundy (Map: France, L 4). Area, 3393 square miles; population, in 1896, 368,168; in 1901, 361,626. The surface is in general elevated, and is traversed by a chain of hills forming the connecting link between the Cévennes and the Vosges. A portion of that range, the Côte-d'Or ('golden hill'), which gives its name to the department, is so called on account of the excellence of the wines produced on its declivities. A great part of the department is covered with forests. The valleys and plains are fertile, and there is good pastureland, but agriculture is in a backward state. Côte-d'Or is watered by the Seine, which rises in the northwest, and by several of its affluents; by the Saône, and by the Arroux, a tributary of the Loire. Capital, Dijon.
COTELIER, kôt'lya', or COT'ELE'RIUS, JEAN BAPTISTE (1627-86). A French Hellenist. He was born in Nîmes, studied theology and philosophy in Paris, and in 1654 became counselor of the Archbishop of Embrun. He was appointed assistant librarian in the Royal Library in 1667, and in 1676 he became professor of Greek at the Collège de France. His principal publication, and one which made him widely famous, was his edition of the Sanctorum Patrum qui Temporibus Apostolicis Floruerunt Opera Græce et Latine (Paris, 1672). It was republished by Leclerc in 1698, and another edition of it appeared in 1724.
1705; and, in 1706, on the recommendation of
lish mathematician and physicist. He was born COTES, kōts, ROGER (1682-1716). An Engat Burbage, in Leicestershire; was graduated at Trinity College, Cambridge; became a fellow in Newton, Whiston, and Bentley, was made Plumian professor of astronomy. Cotes was editor of the second edition of Newton's Principia (1713). Various mathematical papers of his own, bearing on logarithms, trigonometry, and geometry, were published posthumously under the title Harmonia Mensurarum (Cambridge, 1722). Several theorems are known by his name-e.g. to determine the harmonic mean between the seg ments of a secant to a curve of the nth order reckoned from a fixed point (see CURVES; CIRCLE); and also the well-known theorem of trigonometry: If A is any point on the radius OB of circle O, and if the circumference is divided into n equal parts BP1, P1P2, P2P ̧... and into 2n equal parts BQ, QP1, P1Q2...., the product AP, AP, AP, (n factors) = ± (OA-OB"), and AQ, AQ2 AQ... (n factors) = OA" + OB".
Cotes was held in the highest esteem by the scholars and scientific men of his time. Newton remarked of him: "If Cotes had lived, we might have known something."
COTES, SARA JEANNETTE DUNCAN (1861-). An English novelist. She was born at Brant
ford, Ontario, Canada, and was educated at the Collegiate School there. She found her way to the novel through letters and sketches contributed to newspapers and periodicals, and made a brilliant success in A Social Departure, the observations of a tour round the world in
1889-90 with Mrs. Lilian Rood. In 1891 Miss Duncan married Everard C. Cotes, a press correspondent of Simla, India. Among her novels are: An American Girl in London (1891); A Daughter of To-day (1894); Vernon's Aunt (1894); The Simple Adventures of a Memsahib (1893); The Story of Sonny Sahib (1894); His Honour and a Lady (1896); A Voyage of Consolation (1898); The Path of a Star (1899); The Other Side of the Latch, the diary of an invalid in Simla (1901); Those Delightful Americans (1902); The Pool in the Desert (1903); and The Imperialist
CÔTES-DU-NORD, kôt'-du-nôr'. A depart ment in the northwest of France (q.v.), for merly a part of Brittany, bounded on the north by the English Channel (Map: France, D 3). Area, 2787 square miles. Population, in 1896, 616,074; in 1901, 609,349. The Armoric hills, called also the Montagne Noire, and the Menez Mountains, cross the department from east to west. These formations give a rude and broken aspect to the coasts. The chief rivers, which are short but navigable, are the Rance, Gouët, Trieux, Guer, and Arguenon. The cultivation of flax and hemp, with the pasturing of cattle and ironmining, supply employment in the mountainous districts; while in the sheltered valleys and on the coast levels grain, with pears and apples and other fruits, are produced. The coasts are well supplied with various kinds of fish. Capital, Saint Brieuc.
COT GRAVE, RANDLE (?-c.1634). An English lexicographer, born in Cheshire, and educated at Saint John's College, Cambridge. was while he was secretary to William Cecil, Lord Burghley, that he compiled his FrenchEnglish dictionary (1611). Other editions were published in 1632, 1650, 1660, and 1673. The work contains many absurd errors, but it shows much more care than similar productions of that time, and is still much used by philologists.
ocean tidal waves. The lines join the places where high water occurs at the same moment. COTILLON. A French dance, the same as the It
german, and performed to quadrille music. X., where it had been adapted from a peasant was a fashionable dance at the Court of Charles dance. At first for one, then for two performers, it soon became a ronde dance, in which form it dreds of possible figures in the modern dance and was introduced into England. There are hun
CÖTHEN, or KÖTHEN, keten. An ancient town of the German Duchy of Anhalt, situated on the Ziethe, about 22 miles north of Halle (Map: Germany, D 3). The streets are broad and the town is neat and well built. It is surrounded by high walls, and is divided into the old and new towns and four suburbs. Among its notable public buildings are the Gothic Church of Saint James, with some fine old stained glass and a handsome organ, and the former palace, now used as a museum and containing a library of 20,000 volumes. The chief industry is the manufacture of beet-sugar; there are also iron-foundries and machine-works. Population, in 1890, 18,215; in 1900, 22,100; in 1905, 22,978. Cöthen was an old Slavic settlement, and received municipal privileges in the twelfth century. In 1547 it joined the Schmalkaldic League and was taken by Charles V. Until 1853 it was the capital of the Principality of Anhalt-Cöthen.
COTHUR NUS. See BUSKIN.
COTI'DAL LINES. A system of lines on a globe or chart which show the movement of the
the accessories are most elaborate. The cotillon is begun by a small number of couples, who occupy the floor while the rest of the guests sit from among those seated, and after going through about the ballroom. These couples select others a figure all take seats and are replaced by other couples until the whole company has danced that particular figure. Another method is for each set of couples to dance a different figure. There is a good description of some excellent figures in Grove, and collaborators, Dancing (London, 1895).
COTIN, ko'tǎN', CHARLES (1604-82). A French and almoner to the King under Louis XIV., and poetaster, born in Paris. He was royal councilor in 1655 was admitted to the Académie Française. His knowledge of the Oriental and classic languages was extensive, and he was a member of the literary circles of the Hôtel Rambouillet and other salons. His verse, of which the Poésies chrétiennes (1657) are the most creditable, is of no importance. He is, however, unenviably famous as the object of Boileau's ridicule (Satires, 3, 8, 9) and the original of Trissotin in Molière's Femmes savantes.
COTINGA, kô-tên'gå, or CHATTERER (native South American). A bird of the family Cotingida, allied to the waxwings and manakins. Cotingas are numerous, both in species and individuals, inhabit tropical America exclusively, for the splendor of the nuptial plumage worn by feeding on insects and fruit, and are remarkable
the males in many cases, or for eccentricities of ornament. The bell-bird and unbrella-bird, elsepeculiarities, and the cocks-of-the-rock are inwhere described, are cotingas exemplifying such cluded by some systemists. They have been specially studied by Dr. Leonard Stejneger, who
refers to the group as follows in the Standard Natural History, vol. iv. (Boston, 1885): "The greater number of the species of cotinga are plain-colored, gray, rufous, or greenish though even among these rather modest forms there are some which are more or less highly adorned. Among these is the rose-breasted 'flycatcher' (Hadrostomus Aglaia), with a beautiful crimson rosy patch on the breast, which just enters our fauna across the southern frontier. Nevertheless, the cotingas are, generally consid cred, especially bright-colored and curiously adorned birds. From Central America we have the exquisite Carpodectes, white all over, with a delicate tinge of bluish-gray washed over the upper surface; from Guiana to Brazil are found the deep purplish-carmine Xipholæna, with white remiges, and the great wing-coverts singularly lengthened, narrow and stiffened, like a woodpecker's tail-feathers; the glorious cotinga, shining azure-blue, with purple throat, from the same countries: the greenish, fork-tailed Phibalura from Brazil; and the small, pipra-like Iodopleura, curious on account of the rare lilac