« AnteriorContinuar »
adopting a gold standard at 26 to 1, and making the colon (worth 46.5 cents) the monetary unit. Under this law all debts contracted in national money are payable in the new coin, on the basis of I colon to a silver peso. Foreign silver is not legal.
and commercial events most acceptable to the men in power in 1890.
Consult: Barrantes, Geografía de Costa Rica (Barcelona, 1892); Villafranca, Costa Rica, the Gem of American Republics: The Land, Its Resources and Its People (New York, 1895); Biolley, Costa Rica and Her Future (Washington, 1889); Schroeder, Costa Rica State Immigration (San José, 1894); Rivista de Costa Rica, en el Siglo XIX (San José, 1902).
POPULATION. The population of Costa Rica, as given by the census of 1892, was 243,205, but the actual population, including about 4000 aborigines, was supposed to be over 260,000. The foreign population exceeded 6000, consisting mostly of immigrants from Spain and Germany. The natives are in the main descendants of Spanish colonists from Galicia, and by their industry and peaceful disposition present a favorable contrast to their neighbors in South and Central America. On December 31, 1905, the population was estimated by the Government statistical office at 334,297. During the year the births numbered 12,594, the deaths 9205, the immigration 6570, and the emigration 7002. The capital is San José (q.v.).
Costa Rica leads the Central American States in education. Public instruction is free and is enforced. There are
several institutions of higher education, and three important public libraries. The majority of the population, however, are illiterate. The Roman Catholic Church
is recognized and supported by the State, but
other religions are tolerated.
HISTORY. Costa Rica was first visited, and probably named, by Columbus in 1502, and settled permanently about 1530. It formed a part of the Audiencia and Captain-Generaley of Guatemala till 1821. With other Central American States, Costa Rica was a part of Mexico till 1823, when the proclamation of a Mexican republic caused them to withdraw from a connection which had always been distasteful and which in effect had been merely nominal. A federal republic of the seceding States was first tried. It lasted until 1839, but its authority does not seem to have extended over the Costa Ricans, who busied themselves with commerce and took little interest in public matters. Affairs remained in an unsettled condition, however, and Costa Rica's exact status was not definitely determined until 1848, when she successfully declared herself an independent republic. In 1856 Costa Rica was involved in war against the filibuster William Walker (q.v.). The country has been freer from revolution than its neighbors. The present Constitution dates
from 1871. In 1897 Costa Rica became a member of the short-lived Greater Republic of Central America, established in 1895 by Honduras, Nicaragua, and Salvador for the purpose of common defense and the harmonious adjustment of foreign relations. Within the last half-dozen years nothing more serious than boundary disputes has disturbed the Government of Costa Rica. The most important of these, with Colombia, was adjusted in 1900, in favor of Costa Rica. Besides the general works on Central America, of which Squier, States of Central America (New York, 1858), is the best, and Bancroft, Central America, vol. iii. (San Fran
cisco, 1890), is the most copious, consult the English translation of Calvo, Republic of Costa Rica (Chicago, 1890). This is a popular and patriotic work, authorized by the Costa Rican Government, and gives the version of political
COSTE, kôst, JEAN VICTOR (1807-73). A French naturalist, noted for researches in embryology and for efforts toward the cultivation of fishes in his country. In 1841 he became professor of embryogeny at the Collège de France. Mainly through his influence, 600,000 salmon and trout were placed in the Rhone. In 1862 he was appointed inspector-general of the river and coast fisheries. He published Embryogénie comparée (1837); Instructions pratiques sur la pisciculture (1853); and Voyage d'éxploration sur le littoral de la France et de l'Italie (1855).
COSTEANING (kos-ten'ing) DITCH (from costean, from Corn. cothas, dropped + stean, tin, Welsh ystaen, Gael. staoin, Manx stainny, Lat. stannum, tin). A ditch dug with the object of encountering the outcrop of a mineral deposit, the presence of which is suspected. Some
times a series of ditches is dug to determine the direction of the line of outcrop.
COSTELLO, LOUISA STUART (1799-1870). An English author and miniature painter. For a time she occupied herself entirely with painting, but having attracted the attention of Scott and Moore, she adopted literature as her profession and produced many works which attained popularity. Some of them are: Songs of a Stranger (1825); The Maid of the Cypress Isle and Other Poems (1815); Specimens of the Early Poetry of France (1835); A Summer Among the Bocages and Vines (1840); and a number of semi-historical novels, of which the most prominent are: Memoirs of Mary, the Young Duchess of Burgundy (1853), and Memoirs of Anne, Duchess of Brittany (1855).
COSTER, kōs'ter, LAURENS JANSZOON. A native of Haarlem, Holland, reputed inventor of printing (about 1440). He is said to have printed sentences from beech-bark blocks, to have discovered a suitable ink, and to have substituted types of lead and later of pewter for beech-wood. As he is alleged to have endeavored to counterfeit manuscript, he is supposed to have worked in secret, but to have taken apprentices, one of whom, Johann Gänsfleisch, a member of the Gutenberg family, is said on Coster's death to have stolen types and matrices and fled to Mainz, where he might have revealed the secret to GutenCoster's claim, vigorously mainberg (q.v.). tained by many Dutch scholars, was disproved by Van der Linde (1870), who showed that Coster was a tallow-chandler and tavern-keeper,
that he was confused with Laurens Janszoon, a claim for him as inventor was first made by wine merchant and town officer, and that the Gerrit Thomaszoon in 1550. Consult Morley, English Writers, vol. vi. (London, 1890).
COSTER, SAMUEL. See KOSTER, SAMUEL. COS TIGAN, CAPTAIN. A retired shabbygenteel Irish officer in Thackeray's Pendennis, whose sense of family dignity is second only to
COSTIGAN, JOHN (1835–). A Canadian statesman. He was born at Saint Nicholas, Quebec Province; was educated at Saint Anne's College, and subsequently became a judge of the inferior common pleas court. He sat for Victoria in the New Brunswick Legislature from 1861 to 1866, and after the union of 1867 was elected by the same constituency to the Dominion House of Commons, of which he is still a member. In 1882-92 he was Minister of Inland Revenue, from 1892 to 1894 was Secretary of State, and afterwards was Minister of Marine and Fisheries.
COST MARY (from cost, Lat. costum, an Oriental aromatic plant, from Gk. Kóσros, kostos, spice-root+mary, Fr. marine, Lat. marinus, per taining to the sea, from mare, sea, but confused by popular etymology with Mary). The rayless form of Chrysanthemum balsamita, a perennial plant of the natural order Compositæ, a native of western Asia, long cultivated in gardens for the agreeable fragrance of the leaves. The root-leaves are ovate, of a grayish color, on long footstalks; the stem is two to three feet high; it has small heads of flowers in loose corymbs, deep yellow.
COSTS (from cost, OF. coster, couster, Fr. coûter, ML. costare, to cost, from Lat. constare, to cost, stand together, from com-, together stare, Gk. lorával, histanai, Skt. sthā, to stand). In a litigated case, the sum of money which the successful party is allowed to recover from his opponent, as a partial compensation for the expenses of the litigation. In actions at common law, costs are the creation of statute; but in equity and admiralty suits they are fixed by the court, except where this power has been taken away or modified by legislation. Even in common-law actions, discretion is often vested in the court to grant an allowance to the prevailing party in addition to the ordinary costs; and in some jurisdictions paupers and seamen may be relieved from costs altogether.
Costs are either: (a) interlocutory, that is, such as are awarded upon motions or similar proceedings during the pendency of the action; or (b) final, that is, such as follow upon the determination of the action. Upon the decision of a motion, or upon a judgment on appeal reversing the judgment appealed from and awarding a new trial, costs are often ordered to abide the event. In such a case, if the final judgment is in favor of the party who succeeded on the motion or appeal, he gets his costs of those proceedings, otherwise he loses them.
The taxation of costs is the official adjustment, on notice, of the various items to which the successful party is entitled. For details relating to costs, consult the authorities referred to under PRACTICE.
probably connected with suus, own). Both dress and costume are concerned with what men and women have worn, in all epochs and under civilizations of all degrees; but dress (q.v.) deals with preserving the natural heat of the body, or protecting it from the sun or from rain, and with the requirements of that conventional propriety which varies so much in different lands and with different conditions; while costume has to do with appliances used to give to the person stateliness or grace, or an effective show of forms and colors, as well as with the strictly regulated ceremonial dress assumed by dignitaries or officials; but the description of these exceptional forms of costume cannot be included in this article. See e.g. CORONET; CROWN; and the article on various forms of knighthood.
COSTUME (Fr. costume, ML. costuma, costume, from Lat. consuetudo, custom, from consuescere, inchoative of consuere, to be accustomed, from com-, together + suere, to be accustomed,
Costume, as a matter of display, or at least of decorative effect, consists partly in the use of textile fabrics which are beautiful in themselves, or substitutes for them made of bark or leather, and decorated by printing or stamping; partly in the shaping and adjusting of the garments made of these decorative stuffs. Cognate subjects are the arrangements of jewels attached to the dress or hung upon the body, and the care of the hair, skin, and beard. See JEWELRY; HAIR-DRESSING; HAIR-POWDER; etc.
To judge from the artistic remains of ancient Egypt and Assyria, the use of rich stuff's was the primary thought of the Egyptians, who sought to be splendid in appearance. Beauty of material and of pattern at least held an even place in their minds with jewelry. Thus, from the earliest era known to us by the painted monuments down to a period later than the Macedonian conquest, the little-changing adornment of the Egyptian official or Court lady was something very magnificent indeed, in the way of broad necklaces made up apparently of ring within ring of carved gems, mounted in gold with exquisite handling and taste, and covering the shoulders and the junction of the throat with the breast, as completely as the steel gorget of the sixteenth century. The full significance of these collars is not entirely certain. It may be that in some cases the jewelry was sewn upon a collar-shaped piece of stuff, which has fallen away from those jewels which are found in the ancient tombs. Armlets worn on the upper arm and also on the wrist, like the modern bracelet, are as common as the necklaces, and there are evidences of a jeweled girdle as rich and as broad as the combination of necklaces, although this, being worn, as the necklaces are, directly upon the skin, is only in part seen, being often covered by the folds of the skirt,
which is sometimes secured to the belt and falls below it. The stuffs themselves are found of still greater splendor in the representations of upholstered furniture; but this appears to be in part because a larger surface could be presented there than in the garment worn by man or woman. The patterns are so similar to the earlier painted designs of the tomb interiors that
there becomes evident a close connection in the mind of the Egyptian designer between one surface and another, the beautifying of which was to be intrusted to color. There are, however, stuff's of the eighteenth dynasty, and perhaps earlier, usually of linen, which have been found in a more or less fragmentary condition in the tombs, and many of these are of the most ex
the present day, the most magnificent stuffs in texture and in color are those used by the ladies and gentlemen of the Court. On the other hand, personal jewelry, that which is worn apart from the garments, is not very rich nor very costly, though it may be effective. Strings of pearls are known, and many stones that we, in the West, ignorantly despise because they are inexpensive, are made much of by the Chinese, who will use a rough turquoise, a piece of veined or spotted agate, or even a beautiful piece of glass accidentally rich in its veining and cut deliberately from the vessel to which it belonged-setting them in bronze or silver-gilt, and making a very decorative clasp, or buckle, or pommel of a sword-hilt. Chinese costume should be most carefully studied, because it has been maintained in its traditional character even to our own time. The blue cotton blouse of the working man, and the garment of delicate blue and gold silk, woven in very elaborate patterns expressly for this garment, with gold or gilt buttons spherical in shape and working in loops, are mainly the same garments as those of a century
The people of India are even more divided among themselves in details of costume than are the people of Europe. The general character of the different races, north and south, leads toward a great distinction between classes of the population. The simple piece of stuff, four feet wide by thrice as long, worn by the women, is most gracefully draped about the shoulders and breast; in very recent times it is often a piece made in Europe of three large handkerchiefs, with their several borders complete. This is worn over a petticoat; arms and legs are bare, and the feet, except for occasional use of sandals; but the dark skin is barred and spotted with many and large jewels. Necklaces, broad armlets and wristlets, rings for toes and fingers, earrings, and nose rings, are all made of silver wire for the poorer women, who often put their whole savings into these adornments. The necessity of providing for a very warm summer climate, and in the south for a wholly tropical year, has caused the making of muslins of a fineness and perfection of weave never approached in Europe, though these native manufactures have been destroyed by the competition of British cottons. A few of the native princes alone encourage the making of these Besides these there are figured exquisite weaves. cottons of such perfect make and so beautiful in design that they are worn even by princes, as if of equal importance with silk. The gold-flowered and silver-flowered textiles of silk and cotton, or even of fine cotton alone, are famous in Europe, under the name kinkab or kincob. The costume of India in general is mainly an affair of beautiful stuffs, very little shaped to the body, and usually worn loosely, and of jewels in great abundance.
quisite beauty, equaling in the perfect intelligence of the design adapted to textile fabrics the finest work of the Byzantines or Persians two thousand years later. In the warm climate of Egypt the clothes even of persons of rank were very slight, and rather for ceremonial purposes than for utility. In the Assyrian monuments, on the other hand, there is a marked tendency toward covering the whole person with what seem to be heavy draperies, whereas in the Egyptian bas-reliefs the lines of the body are often made visible through the opening which represents the outer garments, suggesting either a partly transparent material or at least a material so little adjusted to the person and so slight that the body itself was never forgotten. The monuments of the Assyrian tombs, on the contrary, show wrappings apparently opaque and stiff. It is evident, however, that embroidery was much used; for parts of the garments, as of a king, are sculptured in low relief upon relief, and in a way which resembles closely the representation of the embroideries upon priestly robes in the sculpture of the Italian Renaissance. As for jewelry, it was as rich and splendid in Assyria as in Egypt, though the forms differ.
Among the peoples of western Asia even partial nudity was considered dishonorable, or at least the badge of inferiority. Accordingly, the heavy garments shown in the works of art of Mesopotamia are easy of explanation, for where only slaves are wholly or partially naked, the tendency is strong toward the association of high rank with complete clothing. But then another tendency appears, that of making the garments of plainer stuff when the body is covered by them from shoulders to ankles, and using the richer stuffs, as above explained, for borders and the like. The Egyptian, with body, arms, and feet bare, might make his kilt of the most splendid piece of weaving obtainable, but the Assyrian, using yards of material for his garment, would naturally employ a simpler stuff: not to avoid expense, but because people of such refined taste as those of Mesopotamia would shun the use of large surfaces, of uniform patterns, or the contrast, side by side, of differing patterns, of about equal size and brilliancy.
This tendency is not maintained, however, in that other ancient civilization in a sense equal in antiquity as in importance to the civilization of western Asia. The Chinese, from the oldest times of which we have any knowledge, have been among the greatest artists in textile fabrics, as in other industrial arts, and history does not tell us of the time when the population, whether of true Chinese origin or of conquering Tatar dynasties and their followers, have not been more and more clothed in proportion to their rank and station. Porters may go bare-legged and barearmed, and, in warm weather, with the body naked above the belt, but as one ascends in the orders of rank, the clothing becomes more and more complete. This tendency is not, however, accompanied by any objection to brilliant and rich stuffs. The more abundant the means of the wearer, the richer his costume-that seems to have been the rule from all time; and this is partly explained by the beauty of the floral and foliated designs. Embroidery, too, is used to heighten and complete the splendid weaves, and at least from the tenth century of our era until
Among the people of the tropical islands, the Malays, and the black and brown inhabitants of Polynesia, the art of weaving has never reached suflicient perfection to allow the stuff's to be sought for their own sake. Very beautiful patterns are printed upon cotton by the women of the larger islands, wood blocks being used for the purpose in a way almost exactly like that employed in the printing of paper hangings among the Western nations; but these stuffs, however attractive to our eyes, however superior