« AnteriorContinuar »
special forms of ruled surfaces. Wallis (1663) effected the cubature of a conoid with horizontal directing plane, whose generatrix intersects a vertical directing straight line and vertical directing circle.
CON'OLLY, JOHN (1794-1866). An English alienist. He was born at Market Rasen, Lincolnshire, and studied medicine at the University of Edinburgh. In 1839 he became director of the Middlesex Asylum at Hanwell. Immediately after his installation, he abolished all the devices theretofore employed to confine and restrain the insane by means of strait-jackets, straps, and similar appliances. During the period in which he was connected with the institution (18391851) he succeeded in completely revolutionizing the treatment of mental disease, and his so-called 'no restraint system' found rapid extension everywhere. Among his principal works may be mentioned: The Treatment of the Insane Without Mechanical Restraints (1856); Construction and Government of Lunatic Asylums (1847); Essay on Hamlet (1863).
CO'NON (Lat., from Gk. Kóvwv, Konōn). A distinguished Athenian commander. He first came into prominence in B.C. 413, when he was chosen admiral for the year. In B.C. 407 he was appointed general to succeed Alcibiades, but was defeated by Callicratidas at Mitylene. In B.C. 405 he was defeated by Lysander at Egospotami, but succeeded in escaping with eight ships to Cyprus. In B.C. 394 he commanded the combined fleets of Persia and Athens which defeated the Spartans at Cnidus. He afterwards rebuilt the Long Walls of Athens, and was, in B.C. 392, sent as envoy to the Persian Tiribazus, by whom he was thrown into prison. He died, according to the more probable account, at the court of Evagoras in Cyprus.
CO'NOSCOPE (from Gk. кāvos, kōnos, cone +σкожеiv, skopein, to view). A polariscope adapted to the study of crystals, having a revolving stage for regulating the position of the
crystal section under examination, two Nicol's
prisms (polarizer and analyzer) for production of double polarized light, a strongly convergent lens system below the stage to cause the light to enter the crystal in a cone of rays, and a similar system above the stage to correct the divergence of the rays, so that the eye may focus them for the retina. A conoscope is chiefly used to examine the so-called interference figures of crystals. The mineralogical or petrological microscope is constructed so as to be used either as a stauroscope or a conoscope. See POLARISCOPE. CONQUEROR, THE. A surname popularly given to William, Duke of Normandy, on becoming King of England.
Military conquest is developed from mere occupation of territory when the victorious State exercises continuously sovereign powers over the section affected, and such conquest is deemed to be completed in the legal sense by the conqueror's signifying by some formal act his intention of adding it to his dominions, such as the publication of a diplomatic circular or a proclamation of annexation. The conditions justifying such acquisition and insuring immunity from interference by other States are: (1) A situation where, in order to redress a wrong or in selfprotection, it becomes necessary to strip an aggressor of a portion of his territory. (2) The completion by treaty of the title which possession by conquest has given. (3) A general acquiescence in the act of the conqueror by neutral States. The changes in the map of Europe wrought by Napoleon's conquests and annexations were not accepted by the nations affected, and, by the Congress of Vienna, a return to the original conditions was made.
CONQUEST (from OF. conqueste, Fr. conquête, Sp., Port., It. conquista, from ML. conquista, conquest, from Lat. conquirere, to procure, from com-, together + quærere, to seek). The forcible extension of sovereignty by one State over the territory of another as the result of successful war. Though it is denied by advocates of natural justice that this carries with it inherent rights of appropriation in territory, and destruction of national life, conquest has been one of the strongest agencies in molding civilization, and, in its influence upon the relationship of nations, it belongs to the realm of international law as well as to that of history.
Title by conquest is, in principle, to be distinguished from title by cession, by the fact that, whether ratified by treaty or not, title by conquest rests avowedly on force, whereas the cession of territory is, in theory at least, always a voluntary act on the part of the ceding power. Thus, the acquisition of Porto Rico by the United States, as the result of the late war with Spain, was due to its conquest by the military and naval forces of the United States, while the acquisition of the Philippine Islands was disguised as a voluntary cession thereof by Spain. Indeed, it is usual for conquering nations in modern times to require as a condition of peace that the defeated nation shall recognize the title of the former to the conquered territory by a treaty of cession. The title is then, in legal theory, referred to the cession, rather than to the act of conquest upon which it is really based.
Unless otherwise defined by treaty, the following rules govern the status of property and
of the inhabitants of conquered territory:
public property passes to the conqueror absoutely. Except in the case of rebellion, private Property rights remain undisturbed, and the conqueror is bound to make laws to insure the political system imposed. Political laws and sysenjoyment of such rights, appropriate to the new tems, being based upon reciprocal relations beand, in the absence of treaty stipulations, polititween citizens and the body politic, are destroyed, cal and civil rights of the inhabitants depend upon the provisions of the new régime. Absolute allegiance is due the conqueror, and, on bare conquest, he may forbid emigration from the country, but not in case of cession. Municipal laws regulating the private relations of individuals are not abrogated, however, but continue in force by the implied acquiescence of the new sovereign, until superseded by new enactments.
Difficult problems arise in determining the conflicting claims caused by the temporary exercise of sovereign powers by a conqueror. A famous example is Hesse-Cassel, overrun by Napoleon's troops in 1806, and later annexed by him to the Kingdom of Westphalia. When the Elector returned under the Treaty of Vienna, he refused to respect payments made by the public debtors and the sale of the Crown lands by Jerome Bonaparte. After passing before several tribunals, it was finally decided that the Elector's reinstate
Iment was not a continuation of his former sovereignty, and that the acts of the conqueror were valid. Consult: Lawrence, Principles of International Law (London and New York, 1897), and also the authorities referred to under INTERNATIONAL LAW. See ALLEGIANCE; CESSION; CITIZEN; TITLE.
To ameliorate the condition of his subjects, he instituted the Truce of God (q.v.). In 1026 he crossed the Alps, chastised the rebellious Italians, was crowned at Milan as King of Italy, and in the following year was anointed Emperor of the Romans by the Pope. He was soon recalled to Germany by the outbreak of formidable revolts, which he succeeded in suppressing. In 1032 he annexed the Arletan territories to the
CONQUEST, IDA. An American actress, who made her début at the Tremont Theatre, Boston, in 1892, with Alexander Salvini, in a performance of Rohan the Silent. She is the daughter of a merchant of Boston, where she pursued her dramatic studies, and, when a child, played the part of Little Buttercup in Pinafore, at the Boston Museum. She has since appeared in number of successful pieces, among them The Charity Ball and Americans Abroad, under Daniel Frohman's management; Liberty Hall and Under the Red Robe, with the Empire Theatre Company, which she joined in 1895; Too Much Johnson, in which she played with William Gillette in London, and Gillette's Because She Loved Him So, produced in Boston in 1898. In 1901 she appeared with John Drew in The Second in Command. Consult Strang, Famous Actresses of the Day in America (Boston, 1899).
CON'RAD I. ( -918). King of the Germans from 911 to 918. He was the son of Conrad, Duke of Franconia, and the grandson of the Emperor Arnulf. On the extinction of the direct line of the Carolingians, the Germans determined to make the sovereign dignity elective, but preferred to choose one who was related to the late imperial family, and elected Conrad in 911. He was supported by the Church, but could not command the obedience of the great dukes who were almost independent. He died December 23, 918, and was buried at Fulda. On his death-bed he enjoined his brother to carry the royal insignia to his mortal enemy, Duke Henry of Saxony, with whom he had been continually at war since A.D. 912. Consult: Stein, Geschichte des Königs Konrad I. (Nördlingen, 1872); Dümmler, Geschichte des ostfränkischen Reiches, vol. ii. (Leipzig. 1887).
CONRAD II. (c.990-1039). King of the Germans and Roman Emperor from 1024 to 1039, known as the Salic. He was the son of Henry, Duke of Franconia, and was elected King of the Germans in 1024, after the extinction of the Saxon imperial line, becoming the founder of the Franconian dynasty. Immediately after his election he commenced a tour through Germany for the purpose of administering justice.
Empire. In 1036 a rebellion in Italy again compelled him to cross the Alps; but his efforts to restore his authority were this time unsuccessful, and he was forced to grant various privileges to his Italian subjects. Shortly after his return he died, at Utrecht, June 3, 1039. Conrad was one of the most remarkable of the earlier monarchs of Germany. He repressed the power of the great feudal nobles, and, by keeping the great duchies in his own family, strengthened the position of the Crown. Consult Bresslau, Jahrbücher des deutschen Reiches unter Konrad II. (Leipzig, 1879-84).
CONRAD III. (1093-1152). King of the Germans from 1138 to 1152. He was the son of Fred
erick of Swabia, and the founder of the Hohenstaufen (q.v.) dynasty. Conrad, with his elder brother, Frederick, supported Henry V. against his enemies, and in return that monarch granted Conrad the investiture of the Duchy of Franconia. He subsequently contested the crown of Italy with the Emperor Lothair of Saxony, but without success. On the death of Lothair the princes of Germany, fearing the increasing preponderance of the Guelph party, and attracted by Conrad's brilliant courage and noble character, offered him the crown, and he was accordingly elected at Aix-la-Chapelle, March 7, 1138. He was immediately involved in a quarrel with Henry the Proud, Duke of Bavaria and Saxony, and this was the origin of the conflict that raged for centuries between the Welfs or Guelphs, the partisans of Duke Henry, and the Waiblings or Ghibellines, the supporters of the Franconian ouse. (See GUELPHS AND GHIBELLINES.) In 1147 Saint Bernard of Clairvaux commenced to
preach a new crusade, and Conrad set out for Palestine at the head of a large army (see CRUSADES), in company with his old enemy, Welf of Bavaria. He died February 15, 1152. Consult: Bernhardi, Jahrbücher des deutschen Reiches unter Konrad III. (Leipzig, 1883); Jaffé, Geschichte des deutschen Reiches unter Konrad III. (Hanover, 1845).
CONRAD IV. (1228-54). King of the Germans from 1250 to 1254. He was the son of Frederick II., and was born at Andria, in Apulia, April 25, 1228. He was elected King of the Romans in 1237, but was never crowned. Fredcrick II. died in 1250, and Conrad and William of Holland contended for the imperial throne. Unable to make head against the increasing anarchy in Germany, Conrad retired to Italy in 1251, and succeeded in reëstablishing the power of the Hohenstaufen in Naples in the face of the hostility of the Papacy. He died of fever, May 20, 1254. Consult: Schirrmacher, Die letzten Hohenstaufen (Göttingen, 1871).
CONRAD, kōn'råt, JOHANNES (1839-). A German political economist. He was born in West Prussia, and was educated at Berlin and Jena. He became successively professor of political economy at Jena and Halle, and took a
prominent part in the proceedings of the second commission appointed to revise the civil code of Germany. In 1878 he became editor of the Jahrbücher für Nationalökonomie und Statistik, and associate editor of the Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaften (1889-95; 2d ed. 1898 et seq.). His works include: Das Universitätsstudium in Deutschland während der letzten fünfzig Jahre (1884); Grundriss zum Studium der politischen Oekonomie (1896).
CON'RAD, JOSEPH (1857—). An English novelist, the son of a Polish revolutionist. He passed his youth in Poland. On the death of his father, Conrad, then only thirteen years old, wandered to Marseilles, where he became a merchant seaman and afterwards captain in the merchant service. He has embodied his experiences in the Malay Archipelago in novels, fresh in subject and in style. They comprise: Almayer's Folly (1895); An Outcast of the Islands (1896); The Nigger of the Narcissus, published in the United States as The Children of the Sea (1897); Tales of Unrest (1898); Lord Jim (1900); The Inheritors, with F. M. Hueffer (1901); Typhoon (1902), and others.
CONRAD, ROBERT TAYLOR (1810-58). American judge and dramatist, born in Philadelphia, Pa. While a student he wrote Conrad of Naples. He wrote also for the press, and in 1832 began the Daily Intelligencer, which was soon merged in the Philadelphia Gazette. Failing health compelled his retirement from editorial work, and he became judge of the Court of Criminal Sessions, continuing until its dissolution, when he resumed his literary work and became editor of Graham's Magazine and associate editor of the Philadelphia North AmeriFrom this work he was called to be mayor of his city, and from 1856-57 was judge of the Court of Quarter Sessions. His Aylmere, or the Bondman of Kent, a drama, was played by Edwin Forrest. In 1852 this was published with other poems.
CONRAD, TIMOTHY ABBOTT (1803-77). An American paleontologist, born in New Jersey. He was geologist in, 1837 and paleontologist from 1838 to 1841, to the State of New York, and published a number of valuable works. His paleontological writings include: American Marine Conchology (1831); Fossil Shells of the Tertiary
Formations of the United States (1832); A Monography of the Family Unionide of the United States (12 parts, 1835-59). He was also the author of numerous original papers.
CON'RADE. (1) In Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, a follower of Don Juan. (2) In Scott's Talisman, the Marquis of Montserrat, a conspirator against Richard Cœur de Lion.
CONRÄDER, kôn'rå-der, GEORG (1838—). A German painter. He was born at Munich, studied under Piloty at the academy there, and first attracted attention by his "Tilly in the Grave Digger's Dwelling at Leipzig." Other works of his are: "The Destruction of Carthage" (Maximilianeum, Munich), and "The Death of the Emperor Joseph II." He was appointed to a professorship in the Munich Academy.
years old. Innocent IV. immediately seized upon the young prince's Italian possessions, on the plea that the son of a prince who died excommunicated had no hereditary rights; and other enemies of the House of Hohenstaufen were only too glad to follow the Pope's example. His uncle Manfred took up arms in his behalf, drove the Papal forces from Naples and Sicily, and declared himself King till the young prince came This antagonism between the Papacy and the Hohenstaufen induced Clement IV. to offer the crown of the Two Sicilies to Charles of Anjou (q.v.). Charles immediately invaded Italy, and met his antagonists in the plain of Grandella, where the defeat and death of Manfred, in 1266, gave him undisturbed possession of the kingdom. The Neapolitans, however, detested their new master, and sent deputies to Bavaria to invite Conradin, then in his fifteenth year, to come and assert his hereditary rights. Conradin accordingly made his appearance in Italy, and, being joined by the Neapolitans in large numbers, gained several victories over the French, but was finally defeated, and, together with his relative, Frederick of Baden, taken prisoner near Tagliacozzo, August 23, 1268. The two unfortuof Naples, on October 29. Consult Schirrmacher, nate princes were executed in the market-place Die letzten Hohenstaufen (Göttingen, 1871).
CONRADIN (kôn'rá-dên) OF SWABIA (1252-68). The son of Conrad IV., and the last descendant of the imperial house of Hohenstaufen (q.v.). At his father's death he was only two
CONRART, kôN'rär', VALENTIN (1603-75). A French writer, born in Paris. A careful student of modern languages, he became an authority on matters of style. He gathered about him a weekly circle of littérateurs, who read and discussed original works. In 1635, under the auspices of Richelieu, this company was organized by royal letters patent as the French Academy, of which Conrart became perpetual secreHe wrote little-a few poems, letters, and brief Mémoires, besides compiling copious Hence extracts from contemporary writers. the well-known verse from the First Epistle of Boileau: "J'imite de Conrart le silence prudent." Consult Kerviler and Barthélemy, Conrart, sa vie et sa correspondance (Paris, 1881).
CONRIED, HEINRICH (1855-). A theatrical manager. He was born in Bielitz (Austria), and received his education at the Realschule in Vienna. Beginning life as an actor he soon and operatic concerns. undertook the management of various dramatic He came into prominence when he assumed the management of the Irving Place Theatre in New York. In 1903 he succeeded Maurice Grau (q.v.) as director of the Metropolitan Opera House. His first season was notable through the first production of Parsifal outside of Bayreuth. For his advancement of art he was decorated by the Emperors of Germany and Austria and the kings of Italy and Belgium.
CONRING, HERMANN (1606-81). A German physician, jurist, and miscellaneous writer, born at Norden, East Friesland. at Helmstedt and Leyden, in 1632 was appointed professor of natural philosophy at Helmstedt, and in 1636 professor of medicine. He subsequently was transferred to the chair of politics. In 1664 he was granted a pension by Louis XIV. of France, and in 1669 was ap: pointed by the King of Denmark a Councilor of He was State. a determined opponent of alchemy, and contended for the pharmaceutical value of chemistry and for Harvey's theory of
the circulation of the blood. His De Origine Juris Germanici (1643) was the pioneer work on the history of German law; and his Exercitationes de Republica Imperii Germanici (1674) was an important contribution to the literature of the civil law. A six-volume edition of his works was prepared by Göbel, with a biography (Brunswick, 1730). Consult Stobbe, Hermann Conring, der Begründer der deutschen Rechtsgeschichte (Berlin, 1870).
CONSALVI, kôn-säl'vê, ERCOLE, Marchese (1757-1824). A Papal diplomatist and former of abuses in the Papal States. He became chamberlain to Pope Pius VI. in 1783, and auditor of the Rota Romana in 1792, in which office he displayed great administrative ability. As secretary of the conclave at Venice, in 1799, he contributed mainly to the election of Pius VII., who in 1800 made him a cardinal and Secretary of State. In this capacity he concluded with great diplomatic skill the concordat with Napoleon in 1801; but having afterwards incurred the displeasure of the Emperor by his stout resistance to the encroachments of France on the rights of his sovereign, Napoleon demanded his removal from office in 1806. After the Emperor's downfall, the Pope sent him as his representative first to London, to meet the allied princes assembled there; then to the Congress at Vienna, where, by his tact and moderation, he succeeded in securing the restoration of the Papal States, the government of which he assumed as Secretary of State, continuing in office until 1823. His clever management of the relations to the European Powers resulted in the conclusion of concordats with most of them under conditions most favorable to the Papal authority, and he made his domestic policy memorable by beneficial reforms and the suppression of abuses in various branches of administration. The sciences, literature, and especially the fine arts, are much indebted to his liberal patronage.
CONSANGUINITY (Lat. consanguinitas, from consanguineus, having the same blood, from com-, together + sanguis, blood). The relationship which subsists between persons who are of the same blood; that is, who are descended from a common ancestor. It is either direct, which is the relationship between ascendants and descendants; or collateral, between persons who have a common ancestor but are in a different line of descent; as cousins, who have the same grandparents on either their fathers' or mothers' sides, but who are the issue of different children of those grandparents.
DEGREES OF CONSANGUINITY. For legal purposes different degrees of consanguinity are established. Thus, in the direct line, a child is in the first degree from its parents, a grandchild in the second degree, and so on. In the collateral line degrees are established beginning with brothers and sisters and extending to the most distant collateral relatives.
By the canon law, where the parties are equally removed from the common ancestor, consanguinity is computed by the number of degrees between them and the common ancestor, and by this rule brothers would be in the first degree and others correspondingly one degree less than under the civil law.
The method of computing degrees varies in different jurisdictions according as they follow the civil or canon law in this particular. By the civil law the degrees are separately numbered downward to each party, the common ancestor not being counted. Thus, by this rule brothers would be in the second degree, uncle and nephew in the third, and so on.
The estion of consanguinity is important, and sometimes controlling in determining a person's legal rights, qualifications, or disabilities, especially as to entering into certain relations with another, or acting in certain capacities. Thus the law prohibits marriage between certain relations; judges and jurors and other officers particular capacities because of relationship with are sometimes disqualified from serving in their persons who may come before, or deal with, them in public matters; and consanguinity within the prohibited degree is the gravamen of the crime of incest. It is the controlling factor in the laws of inheritance and descent, which, although they vary somewhat in different jurisdictions, are always based on relationship; and blood relatives always take in preference to collaterals. See AFFINITY; COLLATERAL; MARRIAGE; SUCCESSION; HEIR.
CONSCIENCE (Lat. conscientia, from conscire, to be conscious, from com-, together + scire, to know). A term that has been used with various shades of meaning. Perhaps the definition that agrees best with general usage, and with the requirements of the scientific treatment of ethics, is that conscience is the process of consciousness which surveys one's own past, present, or contemplated action, and judges that it comes up to or falls short of a moral standard -a process which is pleasant or unpleasant according as the judgment approves or condemns the act. See ETHICS.
CONSCIENCE, COURTS OF. English courts for the recovery of small debts, constituted by special local acts of Parliament in London, Westminster, and other trading districts. These courts were also called courts of requests. The first of these, the Court of Conscience for London, was created in the ninth year of Henry VIII., but others were subsequently established and their jurisdiction and procedure minutely regulated by Parliament. They were freely resorted to for the small cases within their jurisdiction, which was originally limited to 40s., but after-· wards extended to £5. With the reorganization of the county courts in 1888 (the County Courts Act, 51 and 52 Vict. c. 43) the courts of conscience lost their importance, and were, with a few exceptions, abolished. See COURT.
CONSCIENCE, kov’syäns”, HENDRK (1812 83). A Belgian novelist, distinguished for his pictures of Flemish village life. He was born in Antwerp, December 3, 1812, and was largely selfeducated. He entered the army in 1830, left it in 1836, and in 1837 published his first novel in Flemish, In the Wonderful Year 1566, which won him great success, but left him in debt to his printer. Patronage secured him a post in a Government office. He wrote Phantasy (1837), a collection of fantastic tales, and The Lion of Flanders (1838). Finding office work irksome, he abandoned it for gardening, which in turn he gave up for a sinecure at the Royal Academy of Painting. In 1845 he was appointed associate professor in the University of Ghent and in
structor in Flemish to the royal children. In 1868 he was made custodian of the Wiertz Museum. These posts and others were rewards for unflagging efforts to revive and stimulate a literary interest in Flemish. He died in Brussels, September 10, 1883. Among other wellknown works of Conscience, most of which are translated into French and German and a few into English, are: How One Becomes a Painter (1843); The Poor Nobleman (1851); The Good Luck to be Rich (1855); Duke Karl's Justice (1876); Benjamin of Flanders (1880). He has probably contributed more than any other individual to the revival of Flemish literature. For his biography, consult Eekhoud (Brussels, 1881), and Pol de Mont (Haarlem, 1883).
CONSCIENCE WHIGS. A name applied to those members of the Whig Party in Massachusetts who in 1850 and thereafter refused to cooperate with those of their old associates-the so-called 'Cotton Whigs'-who declared that the slavery question had been permanently settled by the Compromise of 1850. In New York the two factions were known respectively as the 'Woolly Heads,' or 'Seward Whigs,' and the 'Silver Grays,' or 'Snuff-Takers.'
CONSCIOUS LOVERS, THE. A comedy by Sir Richard Steele (1722), modeled upon Terence's Andria. This play was an attempt by Steele to purify the stage, and is referred to in Fielding's Joseph Andrews as the only fit play for a Christian to see.
CONSCIOUSNESS. A term employed by psychology in two principal meanings. (1) In the first meaning, it is the equivalent of 'mental endowment' or 'the possession of mind.' I am conscious of the objects and persons about me, of my own successes or shortcomings, of the validity of an argument or the beauty of a work of art, in the sense that I am mentally alive to these things, am capable of a mental reaction upon them, whether by way of mere perception or by way of critical estimate and appreciation. So if I am sound asleep, or in stupor from a blow on the head or from the action of some
drug, I am said to be 'unconscious'; my mental life and reactions are in abeyance. This meaning, which would perhaps have lapsed from psychological usage were it not deeply rooted in the phraseology of philosophy and in popular parlance, must be carefully distinguished from the second and more technical meaning, according to which (2) consciousness is simply 'present mind,' 'mind now,' the total mental experience given at a particular time. "Consciousness," says Wundt, "does not mean anything that exists apart from mental processes; nor does it refer merely to the sum of these processes, without reference to their mode of interrelation. It expresses the general synthesis of mental processes, within which the single complexes are marked off as more intimate connections." It is "a comprehensive interconnection of simultaneous and successive mental processes." We may therefore define it as a cross-section or temporal division of mind (q.v.); mind consists of a series of consciousnesses, more or less sharply differentiated. As we begin the day we have the waking consciousness, followed by the getting-up consciousness, the breakfast consciousness, the work consciousness, etc., etc.
The separate complexes which enter into and compose a consciousness are termed the 'contents of consciousness.' Thus, the consciousness of a writer, at his desk, contains various psychological ideas, mostly in verbal form; the perceptions of sight and touch that are aroused by the act of writing; a general feeling of effort, etc. The question of the 'range of consciousness,' i.e. of the number of mental processes that a single consciousness can contain, has been approached experimentally, and partly answered. It is found, e.g. that if an auditory consciousness be set up, by subjecting an observer (whose mind is otherwise unoccupied) to a continued series of metronome strokes, its range lies between the limits of 8 double impressions (16 strokes, rhythmically grouped in twos) and 5 eightfold impressions (40 strokes, rhythmically grouped in eights). In other words, a practiced observer can distinguish, without counting, between two successive series of 40 and of 39 strokes, if he be allowed to group by eights; whereas he cannot, however he may group them, distinguish between series of 41 and 42 strokes; these num
bers exceed the maximal range of consciousness. The phrase 'state of consciousness,' formerly applied to mental processes like ideas, emotions, etc., now designates the mode of existence (clearness, prominence, obscurity, inhibition) of the contents of a particular consciousness; it is fully explained under ATTENTION (q.v.). Other phrases in general use are 'field of consciousness' and 'stream of consciousness,' the one formed after the analogy of the phrase 'field of vision,' the other emphasizing the essentially transient
nature of conscious contents.
Consult: Wundt, Physiologische Psychologie, 5th ed.; Titchener, Outline of Psychology (New York, 1902); James, Principles of Psychology (New York, 1890); della Valle, La Psicogenesi della Coscienza (Milan, 1905). See SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS; UNITY OF CONSCIOUSNESS; EPISTEMOLOGY; and PSYCHOLOGY. CONSCIOUSNESS, UNITY OF. See UNITY OF CONSCIOUSNESS.
A name given to the Roman senators after the expulsion of the Tarquins, when Brutus added 100 to the number of senators, the names of the newcomers being 'written together' (conscripta) on the rolls with those of the original councilors. The proper designation was then Patres et Conscripti, afterwards abridged to Patres Conscripti.
CONSCRIPTION (Lat. conscriptio, from conscribere, to enroll, from com-, together + scribere, to write). The enlisting of men for military service by a compulsory levy. Conscription, in its modern sense, is built on the military constitution of ancient Rome. Four legions of infantry, two for each consul, and each legion containing 6666 men, were annually levied. The consuls, who in the time of the Republic were always commanders of the army, would announce by herald or written proclamation that a levy was to be made. The proper conscription was as follows: Milites cogere, colligere, scribere, conscribere. From 1798 conscription by compulsory levies, and individual selection determined by the drawing of lots, prevailed in France; but in 1872 substitution was abolished and personal service made obligatory on every man not physically unfit. Prussia followed France with a conscription system in