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COPYRIGHT, 1907, BY DODD, MEAD & CO.

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average for the previous decade. The industry following comparative table for the years 1900 is almost wholly confined to oyster-fishing, the and 1906 includes the more important varieties product of which was valued at $1,471,582 in of crops and domestic animals: 1902. Next in importance are the lobster and menhaden fisheries.

AGRICULTURE. With the exception of the river valleys, Connecticut soil is not favorable to agriculture. The surface is broken and stony, and generally lacks fertility. With the development of the fertile and easily cultivated plains of the West, Connecticut, in common with the other New England States, found market prices reduced below the point of profit, and its farmers were forced to give up the occupation or improve their methods of farming. Since 1860 there has been a continual decrease in the production of almost every staple crop. In 1906 the acreage of corn (55,595) was more than twice that of all other cereals, and it showed a rather steady increase from 40,445 in 1890. Proximity to the best markets of the country has been of great advantage to Connecticut, and this, together with improved methods of tilling the soil, particularly the extensive application of fertilizers, has saved the agricultural interests from complete ruin. Hay is by far the most extensive crop, the acreage (489,599 in 1906) being more than three times that of the total for all other crops. Tobacco ranks next to hay in importance. The cultivation of this plant was begun in 1640, if not earlier, and it is confined mostly to the valleys of the Housatonic and Connecticut rivers. The tobacco, which is of superior quality and of mild flavor, is used chiefly for wrappers for cigars, made from the stronger-flavored Havana tobacco. The acreage for 1906 (14,140) was the largest for any year recorded, and though constituting but 2.4 per cent. of the area of other principal crops, returned 26 per cent. of their income. The average value of the product per acre was $312, exceeding the corresponding figure for any other tobacco-growing State except Massachusetts. Vegetables rank next to tobacco in value of product. The influence of the large city popu lation of the State on agriculture has been to increase the interest in dairying and vegetable and fruit raising, for which purposes the land is well adapted. The dairy cows number about 135,000, and the dairy product for 1899 exceeded in value $7,000,000. The production of milk increased over 30 per cent. from 1890 to 1900, but this gain was somewhat offset by a decrease in the manufacture of butter and cheese. There has been a decided increase during recent years in the number of peach orchards, but appletrees still constitute about three-fifths of the total number of orchard trees. With the exception of dairy cows, horses are the only kind of farm stock showing an actual increase during the last half-century; swine, sheep, and meat cattle have greatly decreased. Of the total land surface of the State, 74.6 per cent. is included in its farms, and of this but 46 per cent. is improved. While the farm area has remained about constant for a number of decades, the percentage of improved land has greatly decreased, particularly during the last decade. This curious fact is explained by the increase in dairying, etc., as stated above. The average size of the farms is 86 acres. Eighty-seven per cent. of the farms are operated by their owners, and among those rented the cash-rent method predominates. The

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MANUFACTURES. Connecticut is notably a manufacturing State, about 20 per cent. of the total population being engaged in that industry. it ranks eleventh (1900) in the importance of its Though one of the smallest States of the Union, manufactures. Influential among the factors which have developed these interests have been lence of the land and water communication of the the favorable geographical location and the excelState, the water-power afforded by its streams, and especially the inventive talents and industrious habits of its people. The proverbially ingenious Yankee is indigenous in Connecticut, and from an early day has excelled in the invention and manufacture of 'Yankee notions.' The names of Colt, Whitney, Goodyear, and Howe, among others, suggest the State's prominence in the past, while to-day more industries are protected by patents in Connecticut than in any other State; and in proportion to population the State also leads in the number of patents received.

By the Twelfth Census the State surpassed any other State in 11 important industries, producing 75 per cent. in value of the total ammunition output of the country; 56 per cent. of the brass manufactures; 63 per cent. of the clocks; 47 per cent. of the hardware; 76 per cent. of the plated and Britannia ware; 64 per cent. of the needles and pins. The development of manufactures has been steady, and the absolute gain was the greatest from 1890 to 1900, both in the number of establishments and the value of the product. In the seventeen most important industries a tendency toward centralization is evident, inasmuch

as the number of establishments increased but 4.6 per cent. 1890-1900 and but 3 per cent. 19005, while the total product increased 45 per cent. 1890-1900, and 18 per cent. 1900-5. In certain industries, however, quite the contrary drift is noticeable. The textile and the brass-manufacturing industries lead in importance, and both showed substantial gains from 1890 to 1900, and from 1900 to 1905. The influence of the development of cotton-mills in the South is probably reflected here, the principal increase in the textile manufactures being in the woolen goods and silk products-branches which have not yet developed in the South. The cotton-mills of the State are clustered on the streams that flow into the Thames at Norwich. The following table shows

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TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE. The railroad system of Connecticut reached an early development, and has been but little extended in recent In 1906 the total mileage was 1020, the years. greater part of which was owned or leased by the New York, New Haven and Hartford Company. There were 64,400,000 passengers carried during the year 1904; the freight carried amounted to 20,100,000 tons. While railroad-building has remained for some time almost stationary, street railways, on the other hand, especially crosscountry lines, show a noteworthy growth. These had in 1905 reached a total length of 687 miles, having authorized capital stock amounting to $30,000,000. Transportation within the State is also much helped by the improvement of country roads, in which enterprise the State aids the communities.

port of New York, most of the foreign trade of the State passing through that city. Although there are few exports to foreign countries direct

The ports of entry are Hartford, Fairfield, New Haven, Stonington, and New London. There is a brisk coastwise trade, particularly with the

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from Connecticut, there were foreign imports in 1905 amounting to about $2,958,020, two-thirds of which entered by the port of Hartford.

GOVERNMENT. The present Constitution was approved by the people of the State in 1818. Thirty-three amendments have since been adopted. An amendment originates in the House of Rep resentatives, is approved by a two-thirds vote of each House at the following session, and in turn by a majority vote of the electors present at the town meetings held for its consideration. Applicants for franchise must be twenty-one years of age, must be able to read, and must have lived one year in the State and six months in

the town.

Legislature.-General elections for State officers and the General Assembly are biennial, in even years, on the first Tuesday after the first Monday in November. The General Assembly consists of 35 Senators, elected from districts of contiguous territory, no town being divided or part

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