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shipments for the same year were 4,969,000 tons. Grain and live stock ranked next in importance. Cleveland is the largest market for fresh-water fish in America.
The city has remarkable advantages for the accommodation of its shipping-two parallel piers, built out 1500 feet into the lake, form a channel 200 feet wide and 21 feet deep at the mouth of the Cuyahoga; and the many windings of the latter afford 16 miles of river-frontage, over five of which are docked. A branch of the Cuyahoga flowing westward, not far from the lake, and parallel with it, has been dredged so as to afford room for excellent ship-yards and docks. In 1878 the United States Government began a breakwater to inclose a harbor of refuge 360 acres in extent, with an opening of 500 feet, opposite the mouth of the river. Later plans and appropriations, however, provide for an opening of 700 feet and a breakwater 4 miles in length, inclosing a harbor of 800 acres; over 2 miles of breakwater have been completed at a cost of $3,200,000, and the remaining 2 miles, now under contract, will cost about $2,000,000. The harbor is being dredged to 25 feet. In the number of tons of freight received and shipped by vessel, Cleveland ranks fourth among the ports of the Great Lakes. Cleveland is on nine railways, some of which are the leading trunklines of the country, including three of the Vanderbilt lines and the Pennsylvania and the Wabash systems.
Cleveland is now the se d largest manufacturing centre on the Great Lakes and is rapidly gaining on Cincinnati, its only rival within the State. During the decade 1890-1900, the value of its product increased from $113,240,000 to $139,849,000, or 23.5 per cent. A special Federal census in 1905 developed the fact that the value of manufactured products had increased 36.4 per cent. since 1900. In 1905 there were employed in factories 65,000 wage-earners. As above intimated, the most important group of manufactures consists of iron and steel, and the large number of industries which depend upon iron and steel as their raw material. According to the special census of 1905, the iron and steel products were valued at $38,398,000, and the foundry and machine-shop products ranked second with a value of $19,673,000. Other important industries are the production of wire and wire nails, in which Cleveland out-ranks all other American cities, and hardware, in which it takes second place; bridges, electrical apparatus and supplies, printing-presses and shipbuilding. From an early date Cleveland led in the construction of wooden vessels for the lake traffic and, with the change from wood to iron, has continued in the lead, producing to-day more steel merchant vessels than any other American city. The chief industries which depend upon agricultural resources are slaughtering and meat-packing, and the manufacture of malt liquors, the former exceeding a value of $10,300,000 in 1905. The Standard Oil Company has here one of its principal refining establishments. Paint factories, cabinet works, and clothing-factories are important.
GOVERNMENT, FINANCE, ETC. A new charter was obtained in 1891, in which the distinction between executive and legislative functions was clearly drawn, the new plan being known as the Federal System. But a new municipal code was enacted by the Ohio Legislature, October 22, 1902.
It provides for a City Council of 32 members. The Mayor, the Vice-Mayor (who is president of the Council and has the deciding vote), the three members of the Board of Public Service, the solicitor, and the treasurer are elected biennially by the people. The Board of Public Safety of two members is appointed by the Mayor, subject to the approval of two-thirds of the Council. The School Council of 7 members, and the city auditor, police judge, and the clerk of police court are elected by the people. Firemen and policemen are under civil service regulations.
The total indebtedness December 31, 1905, was $25,129,824, for which a sinking-fund provided $3,113,428. The net per capita debt was $40.04. The total tax-rate was $31.70 per $1000, of which $11.90 was for school purposes, $10.50 for city purposes, $4.95 for county, and $1.35 for State purposes. The total actual income for 1905 was $10,875,495, of which the property tax $3,895,197. The total expenditures for maintenance and operation were $4,745,153, and for construction and other capital outlays, $5,591,199.
The ample water-supply formerly was pumped into reservoirs from two tunnels sunk 90 feet deep, and running out for one and one-half miles to a crib on the lake bottom. A new crib and tunnel have recently been constructed, the crib four miles from shore.
POPULATION. Cleveland rose during the decade 1890-1900 from tenth to seventh rank among the cities of the United States, and is now the third largest city west of the Alleghanies, and the second largest of the Great Lakes cities. The following gives her population by decades: in 1830, 1076; in 1840, 6071; in 1850, 17,034; in 1860, 43,419; in 1870, 92,829; in 1880, 160,146; in 1890, 261,353; in 1900, 381,768; in 1905 (local est.), 450,000. There are few negroes, but many foreigners, the foreign-born in 1900 numbering 124,600, or nearly one-third of the total. Among the foreign-born the Germans are predominant, constituting in 1890 about 41 per cent., as against 13 per cent. for the Irish, and 11 per cent, each for the Bohemians and English. The native whites of foreign parents numbered 163,500.
HISTORY. In 1795 the Connecticut Land Company bought from Connecticut a large part of that State's Western Reserve (q.v.), and in the following year sent out a party under Gen. Moses Cleaveland to survey their purchase. Cleaveland selected the mouth of the Cuyahoga as the site for a settlement, and in July, 1796, laid out on the east bank a village, which took his name, though the spelling was changed in 1831 to meet the exigencies of a newspaper editor's head-lines. In 1800, by act of Congress, the Western Reserve was included for adminstrative purposes in the Northwest Territory, and Trumbull County was erected to include the land about the mouth of the Cuyahoga. Of this, Cleveland, then having a population of about 57, became the county-seat in 1809. In 1814, Trumbull County having previously been subdivided, the village of Cleaveland, in the county of Cuyahoga, was incorporated with a population of less than 100. In 1818 the first newspaper, The Cleveland Gazette and Commercial Register, began publication, and in 1827 the Ohio Canal, which five years later was completed to the Ohio, was opened between Cleveland and Akron, giving such an impetus to the former that her population increased tenfold (from 600 to 6000) between 1825 and 1835. In
(from 600 to 6000) between 1825 and 1835. In 1836 Cleveland was chartered as a city. In the early fifties it was first connected by rail with the East and with the other cities in Ohio, and from this period dates its rapid growth. In 1853 Ohio City, which had been founded in 1817, was united to Cleveland. During the Civil War a number of manufacturing establishments were set up, and in the interval 1861-65, owing to its ability to supply articles for which there was a great demand. Cleveland attracted many investors; its lake traffic was doubled, and its population increased 50 per cent. In 1872 it annexed East Cleveland, in 1873 Newburg, and in 1893 West Cleveland and Brooklyn. More recently (19056) Glenville and South Brooklyn were annexed, and other suburbs are considering annexation. Consult: Robison, History of the City of Cleveland (Cleveland, 1887); Avery, Cleveland in a Nutshell (ib., 1893); Kennedy, History of Cleveland (ib., 1896).
CLEVELAND. A city and the county-seat of Bradley County, Tenn., 30 miles east by north of Chattanooga; on the Southern Railroad (Map: Tennessee, G 5). It is the seat of the Centenary Female College. The city is in an agricultural district with important peach-raising interests, and has woolen-mills, flour-mills, stove-works, chair-factory, hosiery mills, ice and cold storage plant, lumber and planing mills, etc. Settled about 1820, Cleveland was incorporated about 1880. The government is administered under a revised charter of 1898, which provides for a mayor, biennially elected, and a municipal council. Population, 1900, 3858; 1906 (local census), 6227.
CLEVELAND, CHARLES DEXTER (1802-69). An American educator, born in Massachusetts. He graduated at Dartmouth in 1827, and was professor of Latin and Greek in Dickinson College, and of Latin in the University of the City of New York. From 1861 to 1867 he was United States consul at Cardiff, Wales. He vas a voluminous writer, but will be remembered only for his compendiums of English Literature (1850), American Literature (1858), and Classical Litcrature (1861); English Literature in the Nineteenth Century (1851); an edition of Milton's Poetical Works, with a Life (1851).
CLEVELAND, JOHN (1613-58). An English Cavalier poet. He was born at Loughborough, Leicester, and educated at Cambridge, where, in 1634, he became a fellow of Saint John's. Six years later he strenuously opposed Cromwell, and in consequence lost his fellowship in 1645. Joining the Royalists, he was appointed judgeadvocate in the King's army. In 1655 he was seized at Norwich and imprisoned at Yarmouth for three months, when he was released by Cromwell. After that he lived in retirement. Cleveland had a great reputation as a wit and satirist. A volume of his poems in circulation before 1656 was reissued in that year. In 1677 appeared his collection entitled Clievelandi Vindicia: or Clieveland's Genuine Poems, etc. It is incomplete. Cleveland still awaits a competent editor. Thomas Fuller describes him as "a general artist, pure Latinist, exquisite orator, and eminent poet."
CLEVELAND, (STEPHEN) GROVER (1837-). The twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. He was born at Caldwell, Essex County, N. J., March 18, 1837. In 1841
his father, the Rev. Richard F. Cleveland (Yale, 1824), a Presbyterian minister, removed with his family to Fayetteville, near Syracuse, N. Y., and afterwards to Clinton, N. Y., in the schools of which places Grover Cleveland was a scholar. The death of his father in 1853 obliged him to earn his own living, and the first position that he held was that of a teacher in the New York Institution for the Blind. A little later he started for Cleveland, Ohio, where he expected to study and practice law. While passing through Buffalo, however, he was induced to remain there by his uncle, Lewis F. Allen, who secured for him a position with a prominent law firm. He was admitted to practice in 1859; became assistant district attorney for Erie County in 1863; was the Democratic candidate for district attorney in 1865, but was defeated at the polls; and in 1870 was elected sheriff of the county. At the conclusion of his term of office of three years, he resumed the practice of law, with marked success. In November, 1881, he was nominated as Democratic candidate for Mayor of Buffalo. The city was strongly Republican, but long-continued tenure of office had engendered flagrant corruption, and good men of all parties joined to uproot it. Cleveland, being elected by a handsome majority, reorganized the departments under his charge on business principles, overcame corrupt combinations, and promptly vetoed all measures that savored of extravagance or dishonesty. His notable service in that office was recognized in 1882, when he received the Democratic nomination for Governor of New York. His opponent was Charles J. Folger (q.v.), then Secretary_of the Treasury under President Arthur. The Republican Party in the State was divided, and among the independent voters there was strong dissatisfaction with the methods that had secured Mr. Folger's nomination. Mr. Cleveland's reputation as a reformer was strongly in his favor, and he was elected by the extraordinary plurality of 192,854. His conduct as Governor was marked by integrity, independence, and good judgment, and he was early spoken of as a candidate for the Presidency. At the Democratic National Convention, July, 1884, he was the leading candidate on the first ballot, and in spite of a zealous minority of delegates from his own State, secured the necessary two-thirds of all the votes on the second ballot. A large body of Independent Republicans declared themselves in his favor; but the accession of this new element was partly offset by the defection of many Democrats. Cleveland received 219 electoral votes against 182 for his opponent, James G. Blaine. Besides the Southern States, he carried Connecticut, New York, New Jersey, and Indiana. He was inaugurated March 4, 1885. On June 2 of the following year he married Miss Frances Folsom. His term was characterized mainly by his bold advocacy of a reduction of tariff duties, and by his opposition to what he considered unworthy bills. During his term he vetoed or 'pocketed' 413 bills, 297 of which were private pension bills. During the first session of Congress he directly antagonized the Senate by refusing to give to that body his reasons for removing certain officers, or to deliver up the papers ordering such removals; on the ground that, under the Constitution, the President is not amenable to Congress for such acts, and that the papers were not official documents. His supporters maintain that, considering