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were transported from Heliopolis to Alexandria about the year B.C. 14, and remained there until 1877, when they were presented to the governments of Great Britain and the United States by the Khedive Ismail Pasha. Of the two companion monoliths, one now stands on the Thames Embankment, London, the other in Central Park, New York. The latter is 69 feet high, with a base 7 feet 7 inches in diameter, and weighs 200 tons. It is supported on four bronze crabs, reproductions from the originals preserved in the neighboring Metropolitan Museum. The obelisk bears inscriptions of Thothmes III. (about B.C. 1500) and Rameses II. See OBELISK. Consult, Gorringe, Egyptian Obelisks (New York, 1885).

CLEP'SYDRA (Gk. «λe‡úðpa, klepsydra, from KÉTTEL, kleptein, to steal + bdwp, hydōr, water). An ancient instrument for measuring time by the efflux of water through a small orifice. Two kinds have been in use. In the simplest form the water was allowed to escape from one vessel into another. This form was used in the Athenian courts, where a speaker was allowed a certain number of amphora of water for his speech, the quantity depending on the importance of the suit. The more complicated form was said by some to have been invented by Plato, while others gave the honor to Ctesibius of Alexandria. In this form the water was allowed to flow at a uniform rate into a receptacle, on which was marked a scale of hours. Both forms are said to have been introduced into Rome in B.C. 159, and were widely used. Athenæus iv. p. 174) applies the name to a variety of the hydraulic organ.

CLERC, klar, JEAN LE. See LE CLERC, JEAN. CLERC, LAURENT (1785-1869). A French deaf mute and educator, born near Lyons. He was a favorite pupil of the Abbé Sicard at the institution of the deaf and dumb founded in Paris by the Abbé de l'Epée, and after eight years of study became himself a teacher. In 1816 he came to the United States at the request of Dr. Gallaudet (q.v.), and the next year the two opened an institution for the deaf and dumb in Hartford, Conn., where Clerc successfully taught deaf-mutes for more than forty years. He married a deaf mute, who bore him several children, all of whom had the sense of hearing and could

speak. See DEAF MUTE.

pointed field-marshal and commander-in-chief of the Imperial armies on the Rhine, in which capacity he defeated Jourdan at Höchst (October 11), and relieved Mainz, storming the almost impregnable works of the besiegers, which were defended by an army of 80,000 men. After concluding an armistice with the French Republic, he returned to Vienna, where he was hailed as the savior of the Empire. Because of differences with the Imperial Minister Thugut, he afterwards resigned his position.

CLERESTORY. See CLEARSTORY. CLERFAYT or CLAIRFAIT, klâr‍fâ', CHARLES DE CROIX, Count (1733-1798). An Austrian field-marshal, born at the Castle of Bruille, Hainaut, Low Countries. He entered the Austrian service in 1753, fought with distinction in the Seven Years' War, and was advanced to the rank of colonel. During the Turkish war of 1787-91 he was commander of an army corps which defeated the Moslem troops at Mehadia and Kalafat. In 1792 he commanded the Austrian corps sent to the assistance of the Duke of Brunswick in the war with France, and defeated the French at Croix-aux-Bois (September 15). Having withdrawn into Belgium, he defeated the French at Aldenhoven (March 1, 1793), relieved Maestricht, decided the battle of Neerwinden March 18), and took Le Quesnoy (September 11). After this series of brilliant victories he met with reverses at Wattignies (October 15 and 16), Mouscron (April 29, 1794), and Hoogleede (June 13). In 1795 he was ap

CLERGY (OF. clergie, Lat. clericus, from Gk. Kλnpikós, klērikos, clergyman, from κpos, klēros, lot). A term very generally applied to the ministers of the Christian religion, in contradistinction to the laity (q.v.). This use of the term is very ancient, and appears to have gradually become prevalent, as the ministers of relig ion more and more exclusively, instead of the members of the Christian Church equally, began to be regarded as God's heritage' and 'priesthood' (I. Pet. ii. 9, and v. 3), consecrated to Him, and peculiarly His. The distinction between the clergy and the laity became more marked through the multiplication of offices and titles among the clergy, the ascription to them of a place in the Christian Church similar to that of the priests and Levites in the Jewish Church, with peculiar rights and privileges, their assumption of a peculiar dress and of official insignia, the growth of monastic institutions, and the introduction of celibacy. In harmony with the notions on which this distinction is founded is that of an indelible, sacramentally stamped character derived from ordination, so that a renunciation of the clerical office is either viewed as an impossibility or a sort of apostasy. These noof Rome. In the Protestant churches the distinctions in their highest degree belong to the Church and, although the same terms are often used, it tion between clergy and laity is much less wide; fication. The employment of official robes by the is rather conventionally than in their full signiclergy preceded their assumption of a peculiar ordinary dress, and is not so intimately connected ileges accorded to the clergy by the Roman with any peculiar pretensions. Among the privtion from civil offices; among the rights asserted emperors, and in the Middle Ages, was exempby them, and which caused much dispute, was exemption from lay jurisdiction, even in cases of felony. (See BENEFIT OF CLERGY.) The clergy were distinguished into the higher clergy and the lower clergy; the latter including ostiarii, acolytes, lectors, exorcists, etc. The term secular clergy is the designation of priests of the Church of Rome who are not of any religious order, but have the care of parishes. Monks who are in holy orders are designated regular clergy (from regula, rule). See ORDERS, HOLY; BISHOP; PRIEST; DEACON.

See BENEFIT OF

CLERGY, BENEFIT OF.
CLERGY.

LE CLERC, JEAN.
CLERICUS, JOHANNES (1657-1736). See

CLER'IDÆ. See CHECKERED BEETLES.

CLERK (AS. clerc, cleric, from Lat. clericus, clergyman). In the Middle Ages, an appellation for an ecclesiastic, extended at a later period to mean a complimentary title for men of learning, whether of the Church or not. In modern times. it indicates any one who makes and keeps rec

ords, public or private; but 'clerk in holy or- France. Several ecclesiastical councils were held ders' is still in England the legal designation of a minister of the Established Church. CLERGY; BENEFIT OF CLERGY.

See

of

CLERK, NAVAL. There are two classes clerks in the United States Navy, called 'paymaster's clerks' and 'captain's clerks.' Both formerly were civilians, and the paymaster's clerk is still one. He is appointed at the request of the pay officer, and serves until his appointment is revoked. While in service he wears a uniform similar to that of warrant officers, and messes with the junior officers. The pay varies from $1000 to $1300, according to the class of ship on which he is serving; on certain receiving-ships, and on shore, at certain navy-yards, the pay of the principal pay-clerk reaches $1800.

CLERK, PARISH. See PARISH CLERK. CLERKENWELL (clerks' well, Lat. Fons Clericorum, from its well which was a meetingpoint for the parish clerks of London). A par ish of London (q.v.), England, north of Saint Paul's Cathedral, between Holborn Viaduct and Islington. It is a noted district for the manufacture of metal articles, watches, and optical instruments.

CLERK-MAXWELL. See MAXWELL. CLERMONT, klâr'môn' (ML. Clarus Mons, fair hill, from clarus, clear, and mons, mountain). An ancient town in the Department of Oise, France, 36 miles north of Paris (Map: France, J 2). The town hall and Church of Saint Samson date from the fourteenth century, and the hill on which the town is built is surmounted by an old castle of the tenth or eleventh century, used in modern times as a penitentiary for women. Clermont was an important place in the Middle Ages. It was frequently taken and retaken in the wars with the English, and in 1487 it was surrendered to them as a ransom for the French leader La Hire. Population, in 1901,

5723.

CLERMONT-FERRAND,

-fer'räN'. The capital of the Department of Puy-de-Dôme, France, 215 miles south-southeast of Paris (Map: France, K 6). It is finely situated, on a gentle elevation, between the rivers Bedat and Allier, at the foot of a range of extinct volcanoes, crowned by the peak of Puy-de-Dôme, about five miles distant from the town. It consists of the two towns of Clermont and Montferrand, connected by a fine avenue of trees. It contains several remarkable buildings; such as the old Gothic cathedral, the corn and linen hall, the theatre, and the Hôtel-Dieu or hospital, various educational and scientific institutions, and a public library, in which are over 55,000 printed volumes and 1100 manuscripts. The manufactures of the place are manifold, and include woolen and linen goods, machinery, straw hats, chocolate, and needles, while there is an extensive traffic in the produce of the district, and considerable transit trade between Paris and the south of France. There are two hot mineral springs in the town, which are used for bathing. Clermont-Ferrand is the seat of a bishop. Population, in 1896, 50,870; in 1901, 52.933. A multitude of Roman antiquities attest the antiquity of the city. In the Middle Ages Clermont was the residence of the counts of the same name, and the capital of the Province of Auvergne, and became the seat of one of the oldest bishoprics of

here, the most remarkable of which was that in 1095, at which the First Crusade was decreed by Urban II. Among its monuments is a statue to Pascal, who was a native of Clermont.

CLERMONT L'HÉRAULT, là'ro', or CLERMONT DE LODEVE. The capital of a canton in the Department of Hérault, France, situated on a castle-crowned hill, rising from the banks of the Ydromiel, 10 miles south of Lodève by rail. Its Romanesque Church of Saint Guelhelm-le-Dessert is a fine building of the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. Clermont is noted for its woolen manufactures, especially army clothing, which date from 1678; it has also tanneries, potteries, manufactures of cutlery, lime and stone quarries, and a considerable trade in agricultural and commercial products. Population, in 1901,

5280.

known French family. It originated in Dauphiné CLERMONT TONNERRE, to'nâr'. A wellin the eleventh century. STANISLAS MARIE ADE

as

LAIDE, Count de (1757-92), was born at Pont-àMousson. He entered the States-General in 1789 as representative of the nobility, and there, well as in the National Assembly, acquired great influence. He was moderate in his views, argued for the English system of two legislative houses, and for the King's right to veto. With Malouet and others he founded, in 1790, in order to counteract the Jacobins, the Club des Amis de la Monarchie, and with Fontanes he published the Journal des Impartiaux. He perished in the massacre of August 10, 1792.AIMÉ MARIE GASPARD, Marquis, and afterwards Duke de (1779-1865), born in Paris, was a French general and minister. He was educated at the Ecole Polytechnique, entered the army and served in the campaigns in Italy, Germany, and Spain. He was made aide-de-camp to Napoleon's brother Joseph, King of Spain. After the restoration of Louis XVIII. he became Minister of Marine, and later Minister of War. After the July Revolution he refused the oath of allegiance to the new government. He died in retirement January 8, 1865.

CLÉRY, kla're', JEAN BAPTISTE ANTOINE HANET (1759-1809). The valet de chambre of Louis XVI. He was born near Versailles. By his own choice he followed the King to the Temple, and attended him with the greatest devotion. After his death he remained in imprisonment for some time, and then rejoined the royal family in Germany. In London he published his popular account of Louis's captivity, Journal de ce qui s'est passé à la tour du Temple pendant la captivité de Louis XVI., roi de France (1798), which has passed through many editions.

CLÉSINGER, kla'zan'zha', JEAN BAPTISTE AUGUSTE (1814-83). A French sculptor. He was born at Besançon, October 22, 1814; studied with his father, and made his appearance in the Salon of 1843. His first work that attracted attention was "The Woman Bitten by a Serpent" (1847). He executed "Louise of Savoy" for the Garden of the Luxembourg. In 1877 he exhibited "The Dance with Castanets," a bronze statue, and in 1867, "Cleopatra Before Cæsar." He occasionally exhibited paintings of scenery and architecture. He married a daughter of George Sand. He died in Paris, January

1883.

CLEVEDON, klev'don.

A watering-place in Somerset, England, on the Bristol Channel and Severn Estuary, nine miles northeast of Westonsuper-Mare. It has a fine beach, marine promenade, a pier, and a coast-guard station. It is noted for literary associations with Coleridge; also with Hallam, the historian, and his son Arthur, commemorated by "In Memoriam," whose graves are in the parish church of Saint Andrew. Population, in 1891, 5412; in 1901, 5898.

CLEVELAND (ME. clif, clef, pl. clives, cleves, cliffs + land). A hilly region with some picturesque fertile valleys, forming the eastern part of the North Riding of Yorkshire, England, between Whitby and the Tees. Since 1851 it has become a populous mining district, owing to the discovery of ironstone. See MIDDLESBROUGH.

CLEVELAND. The county-seat of Cuyahoga County, Ohio, the largest city of the State, and the seventh in the United States, and an important industrial and commercial centre, situated on the south shore of Lake Erie, at the mouth of the Cuyahoga River, in latitude 41° 30′ 5′′ N., longitude 81° 42′ 6" W. (Map: Ohio, G 2). It is 138 miles by rail northeast of Columbus, and 263 miles northeast of Cincinnati; 357 miles east of Chicago, 623 miles west by north of New York, and 527 miles northwest of Washington.

The city, 689 feet above sea-level, and, at its highest point, 302 feet above the lake, is beautifully situated on elevated land, which slopes gently toward the lake, and occupies an area of over 34 square miles, with a lake-frontage of 10 miles, and extending back more than half that distance. It is divided unevenly by the Cuyahoga River, the larger portion lying on the east side of that stream, and it is intersected also by Kingsbury and Walworth 'runs,' the east and west tributaries of the Cuyahoga. The land bordering the river is low and flat, and here lie many of the industrial works-lumber and coa! yards, ore-docks, etc.-almost hidden from view. Owing to the variation in level of different parts of the city, there are several elevated viaducts and many bridges (a number of which are owned by the municipality) spanning the Cuyahoga, and uniting the sections of the city. The most remarkable of these is Superior Avenue Viaduct of stone and iron, completed in 1878, at a cost of $2.250,000, 3211 feet long, with a central drawbridge 68 feet above the water-level. The Central Viaduct, completed in 1888, crosses the river and is 2838 feet long. The Abbey Street Viaduct, crossing Walworth Run, is 1092 feet long. A smaller one (835 feet) spans Kingsbury Run.

Cleveland has features of beauty in its broad streets, ranging from 40 to 132 feet in width, which are so abundantly shaded that the city has acquired the name of "Forest City." There are 646 miles of streets, 284 miles of which are paved, brick and asphalt being extensively used. The public park system includes about 1524 acres, exclusive of land acquired for the "group plan,' distributed in areas of varying extent throughout the city, and its suburban districts to the east and west are thoroughly accessible by the street railways, which operate 240 miles of track. In contrast with its extensive industrial and commercial interests, Cleveland has very few large tenements, with congested population; even apartment houses are a recent development. Detached houses with gardens are the rule.

VOL. V.-3.

The lake-shore front, the valley of the Cuyahoga and the area along the Cleveland and Pittsburg Railroad from Wason Street southeast to the city limits are centres of the manufacturing industry, while the business area extends from the lower part of the river east along Superior Avenue which is 132 feet wide, and along Euclid Avenue to East Ninth Street. The Public Square, or Monumental Park, containing the statue of Gen. Moses Cleaveland and the Soldiers' and Sailors' Monument, forms a park of 42 acres about the intersection of Superior Avenue and Ontario Street; from this centre and from Ontario Street, which extends north and south, the principal streets of the east side of the city diverge. The far-famed Euclid Avenue, 83 to 90 feet wide, begins at the southeast corner of the Public Square and extends beyond Lake View Cemetery, through the suburbs of East Cleveland, the continuation beyond there being Euclid Road. From Monumental Park to some distance east of East Ninth Street this avenue is one of the main business thoroughfares, but for the remainder of its length is built up with handsome private resi dences, surrounded by tasteful and well-shaded grounds. Other fine residence streets are East Fifty-fifth. Fortieth, Seventy-ninth, Ninety-third, Seventy-fifth, Eighty-ninth, Lake Avenue, N. W., West Fourteenth, and Franklin Avenue, N. W., Prospect Avenue, S. E., Carnegie Avenue, S. E., Detroit Avenue, N. W., and Overlook Road, the first two being 99 feet wide.

BUILDINGS. The more prominent buildings of the city include the City Hall, County CourtHouse, Chamber of Commerce, New Central Armory, Cleveland Grays' Armory, Public Library, Adelbert College, Medical College of Western Reserve University, Case School of Applied Science, Northern Ohio Insane Asylum, Union Depot, Young Men's Christian Association, and the New Sheriff Street Market, 400 feet long by 120 feet wide. The Arcade, 400 by 180 feet, built in 1889, at a cost of $850,000, has a fine interior; arranged on both sides of a central court are the several tiers of stores and offices fronted by balconies. On Euclid Avenue, opposite East Sixth Street, and extending through to Prospect Avenue, S. E., is the Colonial Arcade Building, at the Prospect Avenue end of which is the Colonial Hotel. Other structures worthy of note are the Williamson, New England, Society for Savings, Citizens, American Trust, Schofield, Rose, PerryPayne, Garfield, Cuyahoga, and Caxton buildings. The Plymouth and Pilgrim (Congregational), the First Methodist Episcopal and Epworth Memorial, First Presbyterian ("Old Stone Church”), Euclid Avenue Baptist and Saint Paul's (Protestant Episcopal) churches, and the Roman Catholic cathedral, are among the finest ecclesiastical edifices.

Recently a plan has been projected systematically to beautify the city by grouping the public buildings that are to replace the present edifices --an undertaking to which $20,000,000 will ultimately be devoted. The public buildings will be arranged in a quadrangle inclosing a mall, the whole occupying a plot of land in the heart of the city one-eighth of a mile wide by one-half of a mile long. The scheme of the "group plan" consists in placing the new Post-Office, now under construction, and the proposed Public Library at the south end of the Mall; at the

north end of the Mall and on its axis a monumental union railroad station will be placed, flanked on either side by the County Court-House and the City Hall. An imposing Court of Honor will join these two groups of buildings.

PARKS AND CEMETERIES. Among the many fine parks belonging to the city, the largest within the city limits is Rockefeller Park, of 273 acres, a part of which was given by the millionaire whose name it bears. It includes the Valley of Doan Brook, with several smaller parks and parkways, and is connected with Gordon and Wade Parks by the boulevard which extends also between these two. Gordon Park, on the lakefront, comprises 112 acres, and, with Wade Park (85 acres) to the southeast, is noted for its gardens. The latter contains the statue of Commodore Perry, formerly in Monumental Park, and a zoological garden. Edgewater Park (126 acres) has well-kept lawns, walks, and a beach with facilities for boating and bathing. Brookside Park (149 acres); Garfield Park (163 acres); Woodland Hills Park (102 acres); Shaker-Heights Park (279 acres), just outside the city limits, and named from the community which once occupied the land; Lakeview Park, on the lake shore; Lincoln Park; and Franklin Circle on the west side of the river, are noteworthy. Besides Euclid Avenue, the more attractive drives are the boulevard system of 33 miles, connecting the parks, and Lake Avenue and Clifton Boulevard.

Cleveland has a number of cemeteries, the largest of which are Woodland, Riverside, and Lakeview. The last, one of the most beautiful in the country, contains more than 300 acres, with great natural advantages skillfully improved. Here, on an eminence 250 feet above the level of the lake, stands the Garfield Memorial, completed in 1890 at a cost of $225,000-the balcony near the top, 165 feet high, affording a fine view of the city and its suburbs. It is built principally of Ohio sandstone, and contains a chapel with symbolical panels and reliefs of scenes from the President's career, and his statue. His remains lie in a crypt beneath.

In Lakeview Cemetery is situated the Wade Memorial Chapel, which cost more than $350,000.

EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS AND LIBRARIES. Cleveland has the normal equipment of a great city in the matter of public schools, with a sufficient number of high and manual-training schools, besides numerous private and parochial institutions. The public-school system is conducted under what is known as the "Federal Plan," which prohibits all corporal punishment, eliminates mechanical methods, introduces manual and domestic training in all grades, and practically abolishes stated written examinations in the primary and grammar grades—the teacher's judgment being accepted as the general basis of promotion. Cleveland was one of the first cities in the United States to establish a free high school, and the first west of the Alleghany Mountains, the date being July 13, 1846. It is the seat of Western Reserve University (q.v.), with its departments of Adelbert College, Women's College, and schools of medicine, law, and dentistry; Case School of Applied Science (q.v.); and Saint Ignatius College (Roman Catholic). It contains also Saint Mary's Theological Seminary (Roman Catholic), Baldwin University Law School, Cleveland College of Law,

Cleveland College of Physicians and Surgeons (Ohio Wesleyan University), Cleveland Homeopathic Medical College, and Cleveland School of Pharmacy.

In addition to libraries of the various educational institutions, Cleveland has a Public Library of over 280,000 volumes, the Case Library (subscription) of 61,000 volumes, Cleveland Medical Library Association, Law Library Association, and the Western Reserve Historical Society.

CHARITIES. The State institution for the insane, founded in 1855, has 98 acres of ground and buildings that accommodate 1250 patients. The City Infirmary and Hospital treat annually 3400 patients, and maintain a department for out-door relief. A tract of 1500 acres, lying south of the city, has been purchased for the purpose of colonizing the inmates of the Infirmary and work house. Other hospitals include the Lakeside Hospital, Federal Marine, Cleveland General, Cleveland Homeopathic, Saint Alexis, Saint Claire, Saint John's, and Saint Vincent's Charity hospitals. Other institutions are a house of correction, industrial schools, homes for the aged, and Jewish, Roman Catholic, and Protestant orphanages. Prominent in the charitable work is the Goodrich House, incorporated in 1897 -a social settlement in the poorer part of the city, which contains clubs, kindergartens, a gymnasium, baths, sewing-rooms, a public laundry, and parlors and reading-rooms. With this equipment the Goodrich House, constructed at a cost of $80,000, stands among the foremost institutional houses in the United States. The Hiram House and Alta House are prominent social settlements. It is estimated that the charitable institutions control property exceeding in value $3,500,000.

CLUBS, THEATRES, AND HOTELS. The Union, Roadside, Tavern, Colonial, Rowfant, Excelsior, and the Euclid and County Clubs, all owning the houses in which they are installed are representative organizations. Among the principal places of amusement are the Euclid Avenue Opera House and Keith's, Lyceum, Empire, and Colonial theatres. The more prominent hotels include the Hollenden, Colonial, Hotel Euclid, Forest City, Baldwin, Tavistock, American, Kennard, and Hawley House.

COMMERCE AND INDUSTRY. The construction of the Ohio Canal-completed in 1832-connecting Lake Erie with the Ohio River, the northern terminus being the Cuyahoga River, gave Cleveland commercial advantages over other cities on Lake Erie; and, though the canal has since declined greatly in importance, the city has now other and greater advantages by virtue of its location. Chief of these is its proximity to the coal and oil fields of Ohio and Pennsylvania and to the iron-producing regions of Lake Superior, Cleveland being one of the most convenient points for the collection and distribution of the products of both districts. The city has thus become an important commercial centre, and also a manufacturing place of the first rank.

The bulk of the lake traffic consists of coal and iron. The receipts of coal in 1905 by lake, rail, and canal amounted to 5,141,000 tons; and the shipments for the same year were 2,621,000 tons. The coal is distributed among the various lake ports farther west and north. The receipts of iron ore in 1905 were 5,869,000 tons; and the

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