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seventy years. Consult Rabanis, Clément V. et Philippe le Bel (Paris, 1858); Lacoste, Nouvelles études sur Clément V. (Bordeaux, 1896).CLEMENT V1., Pope 1342-52. Pierre Roger, Archbishop of Rouen, and like his three predecessors a Frenchman. He too was entirely under French influence, and refused to return from Avignon to Rome, in spite of a formal invitation delivered by a delegation headed by Petrarch. He excommunicated the Emperor Louis of Bavaria, and compelled him to submit to the most humiliating conditions. As suzerain of the Kingdom of Naples, he acquitted Queen Joanna of the murder of her husband, and purchased the territory of Avignon from her for 80,000 crowns. He maintained the ecclesiastical jurisdiction against the encroachments of Edward III. of England, and made some negotiations for a reunion with the Eastern Church. He lived in great splendor, and contributed largely to the beautifying of the Avignon residence.-CLEMENT VII., Pope 152334. Giulio de' Medici, born about 1475. Be fore his elevation, he had acquired some reputation for capacity in affairs which the unfortunate events of his pontificate showed to have been illfounded. His worldliness and lack of insight into the tendencies of the age disqualified him from comprehending the great upheaval which threatened the Church, while his timidity and indecision no less disabled him from following a consistent policy in secular affairs. He was at first attached to the Imperial interest, but by the overwhelming success of the Emperor Charles V. in the battle of Pavia was terrified into joining the other Italian powers in a league with France. But his zeal was soon cooled, and by want of foresight and unreasonable economy he laid himself open to an attack from the turbulent Roman nobles, which obliged him to invoke the mediation of the Emperor. When this danger seemed past, he veered back to his former engagements, and ended by drawing upon himself the army of the Constable de Bourbon. On May 6, 1527, followed the memorable and terrible sack of Rome by the Imperial troops. The Pope retired to the Castle of Sant' Angelo, where he was kept a prisoner for over six months. He was released upon very onerous conditions, and fled immediately to Orvieto. The following year he returned to Rome, and in 1529 he made his peace with Charles V., who undertook to assist in the restoration of the Medici in Florence, and whom the Pope crowned at Bologna in 1530. For several years Clement followed a policy of subserviency to the Emperor, on the one hand endeavoring to induce him to act with severity against the Lutherans of Germany, and on the other striving to elude his demand for a general council. The loss of half of Germany to the Church, and the breach with England, occasioned by the Pope's refusal to sanction the divorce of Henry VIII., made this a most unfortunate pontificate. Consult: De' Rossi Memorie storiche del pontificato di Clemente VII. (Rome, 1837). The title of CLEMENT VII. was also assumed by Robert of Geneva, Antipope (see ANTIPOPE), 1378-94.-CLEMENT VIII., Pope 1592-1605. Ippolito Aldobrandini, born about 1536. He brought about the reconciliation of Henry IV. of France with the Church (1593), and, on the extinction of the male line of the house of Este, annexed Ferrara, the last addition of importance to the States of the Church. He acted as medi

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ator in the negotiations which resulted in the Peace of Vervins. The last years of his pontificate were occupied, among other important questions, by the controversy between the Jesuits and Dominicans on the question of grace, which led him to establish in 1597 the celebrated Congregatio de Auxiliis Divina Gratia. He was a man of marked piety; he confessed daily to Saint Philip Neri, and after the latter's death to his successor in the headship of the Oratorians, Cardinal Baronius. His love for letters was shown by his promotion of a number of learned scholars to the purple, and the issue of revised editions of the Vulgate, the breviary, and the liturgical books. The title CLEMENT VIII. was also assumed by Ægidius Nuñoz, Antipope, 142529.-CLEMENT IX., Pope 1667-69. Giulio Rospigliosi. He was born in 1600 and studied in the Roman Seminary. As Nuncio to Spain, he acquired an insight into political affairs, and an influence which enabled him, after his elevation to the Papal throne, to bring about the peace of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668) between France and Spain. He endeavored to adjust the Jansenist difficulties in France, but his efforts failed to bring about a permanent peace.-CLEMENT. X., Pope 1670-76. Emilio Altieri, born 1590. He was the immediate successor of Clement IX., who had made him a cardinal but a few months before his death, and with his last breath designated him as his choice for the Papal throne. In consequence of his advanced age, he left much of the government to his nephew, Cardinal Paluzzo Paluzzi.-CLEMENT XI., Pope 1700-21. Giovanni Francesco Albani, born 1649. He was employed in many important diplomatic affairs, and made cardinal a few months before his election to the Papacy. His pontificate was troubled by many disputes, with Prussia, with the Empire, and with the recalcitrant Jansenists in France, against whom he launched the famous constitutions Vineam Domini Sabaoth (1705) and Unigenitus (1713). Another important decision by this Pope forbade the Jesuit missionaries in China to employ certain native ceremonial forms in China and India which they had adopted in their mission work to overcome native prejudices.CLEMENT XII., Pope 1730-40. Lorenzo Corsini, born 1652, made cardinal 1706. He was more dis tinguished as a wise and kind-hearted temporal sovereign, who did much for both art and industry in his dominions, than as a great international power. In 1738 he condemned the Freemasons.-CLEMENT XIII., Pope 1758-69. Carlo Rezzonico, born 1693; made cardinal 1737, on the recommendation of Venice, his native State. His reign was occupied with unceasing struggles for the rights of the Church, and for the preservation of their ardent champions, the Jesuits, against the liberalizing governments of his day, such as those controlled by Pombal in Portugal and Choiseul and Madame de Pompadour in France. He witnessed, however, the expulsion of the Jesuits from Portugal, France, and Spain. It was believed that he was about to yield to the demand for the suppression of the Order, when he died, leaving these thorny questions to his successor, Clement XIV.-CLEMENT XIV., Pope 1769-74. Giovanni Vincenzio Antonio Ganganelli, born 1705 at Sant' Arcangelo, near Rimini, where his father was a physician. At the age of eighteen he entered the Order of Minorites, and studied philosophy and theology,

which he afterwards successfully taught. His merits were appreciated by the keen-sighted Benedict XIV., who appointed him to the important post of counselor to the Inquisition, and under Clement XIII. he was made a cardinal. No Pope had ever confronted greater difficulties on his accession. The kings of Portugal, France, Spain, and Naples were at variance with him, chiefly on account of his support of the Jesuits; Venice wished to reform the religious orders without his interference; Poland was seeking to diminish his influence; the Romans themselves were discontented. He first set about reconciling the monarchs; he sent a nuncio to Lisbon, suspended the bull In Cena Domini, and entered into negotiations with Spain and France. After several years of negotiation he signed, on July 21, 1773, the famous brief Dominus ac Redemptor Koster, suppressing the society of the Jesuits. The motive assigned in the brief is, "regard to the peace of the Church." From this time he showed signs of constant disquietude and uncertainty as to whether he had acted rightly in this grave matter, and his strength gradually gave way. He died of a scorbutic disease. September 22, 1774. Clement XIV. was remarkable for liberality of mind, address as a statesman, sound learning, and mildness of character. He cherished the arts and sciences, and was the founder of the Clementine Museum, which, by the additions of Pius VI. and Pius VII., became the chief ornament of the Vatican. Consult: A. Theiner, Geschichte des Pontificats Clement XIV. (Paris, 1853); Von Reumont, Ganganelli (Papst Clement XIV.), seine Briefe und seine Zeit (Berlin, 1847); Ravignan, Clément XIII. et Clément XIV. (Paris, 1854).

CLEMENT OF ALEXANDRIA (Lat. Clemens Alexandrinus, Gk. Kλhuns 'Aλežavôpeios, Klēmēs Alexandreios) (c.150-c.215). Titus Flavius Clemens, a celebrated Greek father of the Church. He was probably of heathen parentage, and his birthplace is unknown. He received a libera education, and sought out many teachers in his search for truth. He finally resorted to the Christian Pantanus, who presided over the catechetical school at Álexandria, and here he entered the Church. He was ordained a presbyter, and succeeded Pantanus as head of the famous school, which was destined to achieve much greater renown because of the influence of his own and Origen's teaching. During the persecution in the reign of Septimius Severus (c.203 A.D.), Clement left Alexandria. We hear of him afterwards in Palestine and Asia Minor; but his later life is veiled in obscurity, and we know neither the place nor the date of his


every-day life. In this Clement has not hesitated to draw freely from Stoic sources. The third is an unsystematic discussion of various points of doctrinal theology, designed to guide the mature Christian to a perfect knowledge (gnosis). Appended to the Stromata is one of the earliest Christian hymns, familiar to the modern world in the version beginning, "Shepherd of tender youth." Of Clement's other writings the best known is the tractate, Who is the Rich Man that Shall be Saved? In his interpretation of Scripture Clement followed the allegorical method, so much in vogue in Alexandria. The best edition of Clement's works is by Potter (Oxford, 1715), reprinted in Migne's Patrol. Græc., viii. and ix. (Paris, 1857).

An English translation may be found in the Ante-Nicene Fathers, vol. ii., ed. by A. C. Coxe (New York, 1885). Consult in general, the article "Clement," in Smith and Wace, Dictionary of Christian Biography (London, 1877-87); Charles Bigg, The Christian Platonists of Alexandria (Oxford, 1886); F. R. M. Hitchcock, Clement of Alexandria (London, 1899); and Eugène de Faye, Clément d'Alexandrie (Paris, 1898).

Clement was a man of wide learning, and was proficient in Greek philosophy, literature, and history. Jerome called him the most learned of men;' but this is mere friendly exaggeration. As a theologian he ranks high, although inferior to his famous pupil, Origen (q.v.). According to his system, the divine Logos exhorts, educates, and perfects the true Christian gnostic, through a gradual process which is marked out, in three stages, in Clement's chief works-the Exhortation to the Greeks, the Instructor, and the Stromata (miscellaneous'), which together form a kind of trilogy. The first is a defense of the faith, designed to win converts. The second contains instructions in manners and morals for

CLÉMENT, klâ'män', JACQUES (c.1567-89). The assassin of Henry III. of France. He was born at Sorbon, in the Department of Ardennes, and in early life seems to have been a soldier.

Later he entered a Dominican convent in Paris. Clément became a fanatic partisan of the League Ignorant, passionate, and probably also demented, in its struggle against the French King and Henry of Navarre. After the murder of the Duke of Guise and his brother, at Blois, in 1588, Clément began to think of himself as the instrument selected by Heaven to overthrow the 'tyrant,' that is, Henry of Valois, and to avenge the death of the two great leaders of the League. He is said to have confided his plan to assassinate the King to Bourgoing, the prior of his convent, and to have received the latter's approbation. It is asserted also by historians friendly to the cause of Henry of Navarre that the plan was brought to the knowledge of the Cardinal of Mayenne and his sister, the Duchesse de Montpensier, and that it was, in fact, carried out with their assistance; but historians friendly to the League deny that its leaders had any previous knowledge whatever of Clément's murderous scheme. Letters of introduction to the King were obtained for Clément from the president, Harlay, and the Count de Brienne, who were then prisoners of the League in Paris. On July 31, 1589, Clément set out for Saint Cloud, from where Henry III. was directing the operations against the capital. On the morning of August 1, he was admitted to the presence of the King as the bearer of an important letter, and while the King was reading it, stabbed him. Henry threw the knife into the assassin's face, exclaiming: "Oh! the wicked monk; he has killed me! Put him to death!" Clément was immediately cut down and his body was subsequently quartered and burned. The King died the next day. By the zealots among the Leaguers, the deed was received with undisguised rejoicing, and according to Daubigné, a Protestant, the act of Clément was praised from the pulpit, and the monk declared a martyr. De Thou, a partisan of Henry IV., asserts that Pope Sixtus V. lauded Clément, but both Daubigné's and de Thou's statements

have no authority beyond their own assertion. For a defense of the assassination of Henry III., consult Pinselet, Le martyre du frère Jacques Clément (Paris, 1589).

CLÉMENT, JEAN PIERRE (1809-70). A French political economist and historian, born at Draguignan. He was an official in the Ministry of Finance, and wrote, with the aid of original documents, a number of authoritative works on finance, particularly French financial administration. These include: Histoire de la vie et de l'administration de Colbert (1846); Histoire du système protecteur en France depuis Colbert jusqu'à la révolution de 1848 (1854); and Etudes financières et d'économie sociale (1859). CLEM'ENT, JUSTICE. An 'old merry magistrate' in Jonson's Every Man in His Humour, who threatens Cob with jail because "he depraves and abuses an herb so generally received into the courts of princes"-i.e. tobacco.

CLEMENTI, klå-měn'tê, JACOPO DI, DA EMPOLI (often called CHIMENTI) (1554-1640). An Italian painter of the Florentine school, born at Empoli. He was a pupil of Tommaso di San Friano (or Tridano), and was influenced by the works of Andrea del Sarto and other Florentine


In his own canvases his manner is

severe to rigidity, his treatment often realistic, and his color pleasing. Among his chief paintings are "Christ in Gethsemane," in the Prado Museum, Madrid; "Saint Ives," and the "Sacrifice of Isaac" in the Uffizi Gallery, Florence. He was also a painter of still life.

CLEMENTI, klâ-měn'tê, MUZIO (1752-1832). An Italian piano virtuoso and composer, born in Rome. His father, a goldsmith and fervent music-lover, placed him under a relative, Buroni, for lessons in piano and harmony, and in 1761 Clementi became an organist. Later on, Carpani taught him counterpoint; and Sartarelli, singing. In 1766 an Englishman, Beckford, delighted with his playing, took him to England, where he continued his musical studies until 1770. He was now a finished virtuoso, and published three piano sonatas (Op. 2)-the first works of this kind that bear the modern form. His success as a performer in London was extraordinary, and in 1777-80 he was cembalist (conductor) at the Italian opera there. His first tour (1781) included Strassburg, Munich, and Vienna, where his public contest with Mozart became an historic event, though the palm was awarded to neither. He aroused great enthusiasm in Paris (1785), but, in spite of it, decided to enter business. He returned to London, secured an interest in the publishing and piano-manufacturing firm of Longman & Broderip, and after its failThe ure formed a partnership with Collard. mechanical perfection of the piano absorbed most of his energies, yet he found time to write theoretical works, and to give instruction-a field in which he had no rival. His concert tours in Russia (1802), and afterwards in Germany and Italy, were wonderfully successful; but his enterprises in London, by which he amassed a fortune, claimed most of his attention. He retired in old age to his estate at Evesham, near London, and died there March 10, 1832. Among Clementi's pupils, Field, Cramer, Moscheles, Kalkbrenner, and Meyerbeer are the most noteworthy. Even Beethoven owes much to Clementi in his works for the piano. His style as a performer was that

of a virtuoso, characterized by polish, vigor, and brilliancy, and a beautiful singing tone; and he especially excelled in improvisation. Of his works the sonatas are brilliant and melodious, while his series of exercises, Gradus ad Parnassum (1817), remains an indispensable work in Consult: Ferris, every pianist's equipment. Great Violinists and Pianists (New York, 1894); Shedlock, The Pianoforte Sonata (London, 1895); Frojo, Muzio Clementi, la sua vita, le sue opere e sua influenza sul progresso dell' arte (Milan, 1878).

CLEM'ENTI'NA, or PSEUDO-CLEMENTINE (su'dō-klem'en-tin) WRITINGS (Lat. nom. pl., from Gk. Kλŋuévria, Klementia, from Lat. Clemens, Clement). A collection of discourses and stories, bearing the name of Clement of Rome (q.v.), of uncertain authorship and date, but in their present form not earlier than the beginning of the third century. The first external testimony to their existence is found in the writings of Origen (died c.254). The groundwork upon which the compilation rests may, perhaps, date from the second century. The pseudo-Clementine literature includes twenty Homilies, ten Recognitions, and an Epitome, which were all written in Greek. The last is In the Homilies and relatively unimportant. Recognitions we have what purports to be the story of Clement's career, in company with his teacher, the Apostle Peter. The bulk of the narrative consists of an unsystematic and frequently interrupted account of the experiences of Peter with the arch-heretic Simon Magus, with whom he carries on doctrinal and ethical discussions, and whom he victoriously follows from place to place, founding churches on the way.

ly discernible. He is a Jewish Christian Gnostic, The theological position of the writer is clearperhaps of the sect of Elkesaites (q.v.). He ignores (some would say, opposes) Paul, and exalts the person of James, "the Lord's brother." It is for the sake of the teaching contained, rather than for the sake of any historical narration, that the Clementina exist. This purpose appears most plainly in the Homilies. The Recognitions traverse the same general ground, but with variation of treatment and with greater attention to the events themselves. Historical criticism has not yet reached definite conclusions on

all the problems presented by these curious writings. That there has been more or less working over of earlier material is generally conceded. Recent opinion inclines toward Syria as the probable home of the work on which the writings are based (Uhlhorn), and toward Rome as a possible source for the books in their present form (Harnack). But we have thus far no means of constructing even a plausible hypothesis as to the person or persons by whom they were


BIBLIOGRAPHY. Among editions of the pseudoClementine writings may be mentioned: the edition of the Homilies by Lagarde (Leipzig, 1865); of the Recognitions by Gersdorf (Leipzig, 1838); of the Epitome by Dressel (Leipzig, 1859); Eng. trans. in the Ante-Nicene Fathers, ed. by A. C. Coxe, vol. viii. Consult, in general: G. Krüger, History of Early Christian Literature (Eng. trans., New York, 1897); Harnack, Geschichte der altchristlichen Litteratur, i. (Leipzig, 1893); C. Bigg, The Clementine Homi

lies, in Studia Biblica et Ecclesiastica, ii. (Ox- throne not later than B.C. 518 or 517. In compliford, 1890).

ance with the mandate of the Delphic Oracle, he in B.C. 510 assisted the Athenians in expelling from their city Hippias, the last of the Pisistratidæ. Shortly after this event, he joined Isagoras, the head of the Oligarchical Party at Athens, in an attempt to overturn the Clisthenian Constitution. Clisthenes was driven from the city, and seven hundred families, partisans of Clisthenes, were sent into exile; but the undertaking, as a whole, proved unsuccessful. Later he made another attempt to aid Isagoras, but again without success. At the time of the Ionic revolt, he was appealed to in vain by Aristagoras to join the Grecian cause. In the war which broke out between Sparta and Argos, about the time of the capture of Miletus by the Persians, Cleomenes, having by a piece of stratagem defeated the Argives near Tiryns, treacherously slew a number of the survivors, and destroyed the rest by setting fire to the grove in which they had taken refuge. No fewer than six thousand Argive citizens perished at this time, in and after the battle. On his return to Sparta, Cleomenes was impeached for not having attacked Argos, but was acquitted. He afterwards, by bribing the Delphic Oracle, secured the dethronement of his colleague, Demaratus, and in his later years became insane, finally taking his own life.

A CLEMENTINA, kla'měn-tě nå, LADY. character in Richardson's novel Sir Charles Grandison.


(Lat. Clementina, CLEM'ENTINES leges, laws, from Clemens, Clement). A collection of decrees and constitutions published by Pope Clement V. in 1313. They constitute five books and 52 titles in the Corpus Juris Canonici, and were edited and published by the Benedictines in 9 vols., with an appendix (1885-92).


CLEM'ENT'S INN. An Inn of Chancery; attached to the Inner Temple, in London. originally served as a place of entertainment for those who made use of the waters.

CLEMSON COLLEGE. An institution at Clemson College, S. C., chartered in 1889 and opened in 1893. Courses are offered in agriculture, mechanic arts, and electricity, chemistry, and textile arts. There are also military and academic departments. The institution is engaged in State work, such as the inspection of fertilizers, the protection of farmers against injuri ous insects and the diseases of animals, and in extension work among the farmers, teachers, etc. The student enrollment in 1905-6 was 670, and the instructors numbered 47. The college has an endowment fund of $154,439, and a total income of about $175,000. The value of grounds, buildings, and appliances in 1906 was $653,961.

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CLEOM'BROTUS I. (Lat., from Gk. KλeóμBporos, Kleombrotos (? -371 B.C.). A king of Sparta (B.c. 380-71). He was a son of Pausanias and succeeded his brother, Agesipolis I. He commanded the Spartan army which was sent against Thebes in B.C. 378; and two years later he led into Beotia a second equally unsuccessful expedition. He was defeated and killed in the battle of Leuctra (B.c. 371).

CLEOMEDES, kle'ô-mē’dēz (Lat., from Gk. Κλεομήδης, Kleomédés). A Greek writer on astronomy of the first or second century A.D. He composed a treatise, The Circular Theory of the Heavenly Bodies (Κυκλική θεωρία τῶν μετεώpwv, Kyklike theōria tōn meteōrōn), which contains many truths of modern science the spherical shape of the earth, the revolution of the moon about the earth, etc. The best edition is that by Ziegler (1891).

CLEOMENES (klê-ômê-nẽz) I. (Lat., from Gk. Kλeoμérns, Kleomenēs). A king of Sparta. He was the son of Anaxandrides, and came to the

CLEOMENES III. ( ? -219 B.C.). A king of Sparta. He was the son of Leonidas II. and the last of the Agidæ. He became King about B.C. 235. Cleomenes was the inheritor of the aspirations of King Agis IV.; his aim was to do away with the ephorate at Sparta, and reassert the power of the kings, and then to raise Sparta to the position of leader in Greece. The furtherance of his plans brought him into opposition to the Achæan League. War broke out between Sparta and the League in B.C. 227, and in the following year Cleomenes twice defeated the Achæans in battle-once at the foot of Mount Lycæus, in Arcadia, and a second time at Leuctra, in the territory of Megalopolis. After this he proceeded to introduce his changes in the Spartan Constitution; he abolished the ephorate, restored the prerogatives of the kings, made a redistribution of the lands, and extended the In the year B.C. 224 he utterly defranchise. feated the Achæans in a battle at Dyme, near Hecatombæum, but in B.C. 221 was himself defeated at Sellasia by the combined forces of the Macedonians and Achæans, under the command of Antigonus and Philopomen. Fleeing to Egypt, he there later endeavored to head an insurrection of the people, but, failing in that, took his own life. Cleomenes was the last great statesman that Greece produced.


CLEOMENES, or THE SPARTAN HERO. play by Dryden and Southerne, produced in May, 1692. The title character is an exiled monarch, who seeks the assistance of a foreign ruler to The subject caused some opposition to the presentation of the play, as it was thought to have a disagreeable Jacobite significance.

restore him to his throne.

CLE ON. The governor of Tharsus, in Shakespeare's Pericles, who, with his wife, is burned to death for planning the murder of Marina, daughter of Pericles.

CLEON (Lat., from Gk. Kλéwv, Kleon) ( ? -422 B.C.). An Athenian demagogue, who

lived in the early part of the Peloponnesian War. He was a son of Cleænetus, and was by trade a leather-dealer. He first came into prominence as a public speaker who was opposed to the policy of Pericles; and in B.C. 427, when the matter of the treatment of the inhabitants of Mytilene came up for consideration in the Athenian Assembly, he advocated the utmost severity tolerated by custom of war. In B.C. 425, when envoys arrived at Athens to treat of the release of the Spartan citizens shut up on the island of Sphacteria and to suggest peace, the Athenians, instigated by Cleon, imposed such terms upon Sparta that peace was found to be impossible. Later in the same year, owing to a casual remark made in the public assembly to the effect that, if he were general, the Athenians would not long remain in front of Sphacteria, Cleon himself was placed in charge of the operations against the island. He promised to end the siege within twenty days; and, in conjunction with Demosthenes, he did this. In B.C. 422 Cleon was sent to oppose Brasidas, the Spartan general, in Macedonia and Thrace, and to recover the city of Amphipolis. He was successful in taking the towns of Torone and Galepsus, but was defeated and slain in the battle which took place beneath the walls of Amphipolis. Cleon is described by Thucydides and Aristophanes as an insolent and venal politician, and a demagogue of low type. It is generally admitted that some of the details of Aristophanes's picture may be out of proportion; but whether Thucydides's estimate of Cleon's character is a thoroughly just and unprejudiced one is a mooted question. Cleon was a persuasive speaker, a clever hand at managing public business in a popular way, and a strong advocate of war. Consult Grote, History of Greece, vol. vi. (London, 1888).

carried off to grace Cæsar's triumph at Rome. Cleopatra now nominally married her younger brother, Ptolemy XV., and, after settling their joint government upon a secure basis, went to Rome, where she lived as Cæsar's mistress until his assassination in B.C. 44. After Cæsar's death, having, it is said, poisoned her brother, Ptolemy XV., she returned to Egypt, where she associated with her on the throne her son by Cæsar, called Cæsarion. In the civil war following Cæsar's death, Cleopatra having hesitated to take sides with either party, Antony, after the battle of Philippi (42), summoned her to meet him at Tarsus in Cilicia to explain her conduct. When she appeared upon the Cydnus on a splendidly adorned vessel, in the garb of the goddess Aphrodite, the Roman triumvir fell a victim to her charms, and returned with her to Egypt. After living with her for some time, in the course of which she bore him twin children, Antony was compelled to return to Rome, where he married Octavia, a sister of Octavius. When, in 36, he went to the East in command of an expedition against the Parthians, he sent for Cleopatra, and she joined him at Antioch, and after his defeat she met him in Syria with troops and supplies. In 34, after a more successful campaign against the Parthians, he celebrated his triumph at Alexandria and continued to reside in Egypt. In 32 Octavianus declared war against Cleopatra, and Antony, in revenge, divorced his wife Octavia. Against the counsel of Antony's advisers, Cleopatra insisted on taking part in the ensuing campaign. At the naval battle of Actium (31), believing Antony's defeat to be inevitable, she withdrew her fleet from action, and fled to Alexandria. Her lover, beholding her flight, made no further effort to retrieve his fortunes, but retired from the battle and followed her. On the approach of Octavianus, Antony, deceived by the false report of the Queen's death, fell by his own hand. Cleopatra made some attempts to bring Octavianus under the influence of her charms, but, failing in this, and hearing that he intended to exhibit her

in his triumph at Rome, she killed herself (B.C. 30), probably by poison, and according to an old venomous serpent. tradition, by the bite of a Cleopatra combined rare intellectual gifts with physical charms, and she is immortal as one of the most fascinating women of all time; so that theme for artists, dramatists, and poets. There is no authentic portrait of Cleopatra extant, except in her effigy upon coins. A composite phograph has been made of these by Gorringe in his book Egyptian Obelisks (New York, 1865).

ever since her death, she has been a constant

Cæsarion, her son by Cæsar, was put to by Antony, her daughter CLEOPATRA married death by Octavius. Of her three children Juba, King of Mauretania, who was allowed y Octavius to take under his protection his wife's two brothers. Alexander and Ptolemy. In A.D. 40, Ptolemy, son of Juba and the younger Cleopatra, was slain by Caligula, and with (See him ended the line of the Ptolemies. PTOLEMY.) Consult: Strack, Die Dynastie der Ptolemäer (1896); Mahaffy, The Empire of the Ptolemies and History of Egypt Under the Ptolemaic Dynasty (1899); Lombroso, L'Egitto dei Greci e dei Romani (1895).

CLÉONTE, Klå'ôNt'. A character in Molière's Le bourgeois gentilhomme, in love with Lucille. CLE'OPA'TRA (Gk. KλоTáтpа). The name of several queens and princesses of Egypt of the family of the Ptolemies (q.v.). The most famous of them, CLEOPATRA VI., daughter of Ptolemy XIII., Auletes, was born in B.C. 69 or 68. Her father died in 51, leaving a will wherein he appointed as his successors his elder daughter, Cleopatra, and his elder son, Ptolemy, and requested the Roman people to see his testamentary dispositions carried into effect. The will was duly

ratified by the Roman Senate, and Cleopatra, then about seventeen years old, and her brother, Ptolemy XIV., a child of about twelve years, succeeded jointly to the throne of Egypt, with the understanding that they should shortly marry, In the third year of their reign, Ptolemy, urged by his advisers, assumed sole control of the gov

ernment and drove his sister into exile. She promptly gathered an army in Syria, and prepared to assert her claims. It was at this time that Pompey, seeking refuge with the King of Egypt, after his defeat at Pharsalia, was murdered by the King's advisers. Cleopatra seems to have been unable to make good her claim by force of arms; but, shortly after Pompey's death, Cæsar arrived at Alexandria and, yielding to the fascinations of the Egyptian Queen, became her lover and espoused her cause. He was for a time hard pressed by the Egyptians, but ultimately triumphed and Ptolemy lost his life. Arsinoë, the younger daughter of Ptolemy Auletes, was

CLEOPATRA'S NEEDLES. The name given to two Egyptian obelisks of red syenite, which

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