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town seems to have been insignificant, perhaps due to its not being able to recover from the great earthquake of about A.D. 60, which laid many towns in the neighborhood in ruins. Its place was taken by Chona, the modern Khonas, about three miles south of the ancient town.

as an end in itself, as it was with the Essenes ; ii. 18, which shows them to have been given to angel-worship, a cult which was more consonant with Essenism than with the practice of Judaizers, though this worship was apparently accompanied by visions which were foreign to Essenism). (5) There are passages which seem to indicate the presence of Gnostic elements in these errors (e.g. ii. 2-9, which give us characteristic Gnostic terms such as "the mystery of God," "all the fullness of the Godhead," also ii. 10, which discloses the distinctive Gnostic idea of a graded series of supernatural beings, conceived of as emanations from God-"who is the head of all principalities and powers." This idea is repeated in verse 15-"having despoiled the principalities and powers" and appears in various forms in the long passage i. 15-20, e.g. "the first-born of all creation""in Him were all things created, in the heavens and upon the earth, things visible and things invisible, whether thrones or dominions or prin cipalities or powers"-"He is the head of the body, the Church, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead," which latter passage, together with ii. 9-11, 15, 19, shows the significant emphasis placed by the Apostle upon the supremacy of Christ, in both the physical and the spiritual worlds, and the absolute essentiality of union with Him in order to foster spiritual life and well-being. This would combat the Gnostic tendency to subordinate Him to the category of these angelic emanations, which would thus seem to have been one of the Errorists' ideas). (6) These errors, moreover, while vague and indeterminate, appear to have had with these false teachers an inter-related form and to have been promulgated in a dogmatic way (cf. ii. 4, 8, 18), being held forth as a mystery for the initiated (ii. 2-3; iii. 3).

COL'OSSE'UM. See AMPHITHEATRE. COLOSSIANS, kô-losh'i-anz or ko-losh'anz, EPISTLE ΤΟ THE (Gk. πρὸς Κολοσσαεῖς, SC. moToh, pros Kolossaeis, to the Colossians, sc. epistole, epistle). One of the New Testament group of Paul's Epistles. It is addressed to the Christians at Colossæ (q.v.).

It belongs, with Ephesians and Philemon, to a closely connected group of three writings of the Apostle, addressed to this same general region and produced within the same general time, evidently at Rome during the captivity mentioned in Acts. With Philemon it is connected by an identity of personal references; to Ephesians it is bound by a significant community of contents. Its Pauline authorship has been vigorously assailed by such individual critics as Mayerhoff (1838) and Holtzmann (1872), and by such schools as that of Tübingen (1845)-the critics holding that it gives proof of a literary imitation of other writings (Ephesians) which prevents it from being considered genuinely Paul's; the school claiming that it betrays such a presence of second century Gnostic ideas as to make it necessary to assign it to that post-Pauline age. Neither of these contentions is accepted by the best scholars of the present time. As a matter of fact, assuming, as a working hypothesis, the claim involved in the Epistle's greeting that it was written by Paul, the document shows itself throughout so consistent with the claim as to make it critically impossible to deny its validity.

Within the circle of those who accept its Paulinity, however, the chief question among critics to-day concerns the nature of the errors opposed by the Apostle. From a careful study of the Epistle the following facts are apparent: (1) The errors had not so developed as to cause separation from the Church (the phrase in ii. 19 "not holding fast to the Head" could hardly be said of full separatists). (2) The teachers were Jews, and Jews of a Judaistic type (the references to circumcision in ii. 11 and to the ordinances of the law in ii. 14 show that Paul was opposing propagandists of a Jewish legalistic character). (3) At the same time they went beyond this type (see the mention of 'Drink' in the warning of ii. 16, an element which did not enter into the restrictions of the Judaizers; see also the designation of their position as being "according to the traditions of men," ii. 8, and "according to the precepts and teachings of men," ii. 22, which would not have been Paul's way of designating the Judaistic position that rested on the authority of the Old Testament law; notice also the absence of all antithesis between faith and works and of any insistence on legalism as necessary to salvation, which were characteristics of the Judaistic propaganda). (4) In fact, there are passages which seem to show these teachers to have been open to the influence of Essenism, though they do not show them to have been Essenes (e.g. ii. 20-23, which describes their regulations as an ascetic severity toward the body- ȧpeidla-though asceticism is evidently not represented as practiced

It would thus seem that these errors constituted a teaching of a more or less systematic kind, in which the underlying speculative principles were brought to bear upon the rule and habit of life; that it was something more than mere Judaism, even Judaistic Judaism; that, in its main features, it was influenced by the Essenic attitude of mind and possessed elements which appear in the Gnosticism of the second century. The great difficulty is in historically locating such a combination as is thus presented before us.

In the effort approximately to accomplish this locating it is to be remembered: (1) That, while these errors constituted a system of teaching, the system was not a fully developed one-at least Paul does not so treat it. (2) That Gnosticism was, in reality, an attempt to assimilate Christianity and philosophy, and that its philosophic element was a mystical rather than a logical one; so that we should be prepared to find the place of its beginnings in the East rather than the West. (3) That this attempt at assimilation was made on the principle of eclecticism, Gnosticism being, in fact, a combination of Jewish, Pagan, and Christian elements, the Jewish element being furnished by Essenism, the Pagan by Hellenic philosophy and Oriental theosophy, the Christian by the evangelistic preaching. (4) That Essenism, in particular, was a thoughtful tendency working in all Jewish minds, which, while never passing, as an organization, beyond Syria, where it originated in the second century,

B.C., yet, as a dynamic influence, must have been more or less present throughout the Diaspora and was not likely to have been absent even from the Jewish membership of the Christian Church. (5) That, as this Essenic tendency came in contact with Eastern speculation, it fermented, and this fermentation, going on within the Christian Church and in contact with Christianity, produced the germs of Gnosticism.

Inasmuch, therefore, as this Epistle was sent to a church of the East, in the region where and at the time when the thoughtful Jew and the philosophic Greek and the theosophic Oriental were coming together-especially to this region of Phrygia, the Jews of which had been imported out of Babylon, and from which place they may have brought with them an Oriental habit of Jewish thought-it would seem though we had in these Colossian errors a specimen of just that process of fermentation which produced the beginnings of Gnosticism.


The attempt of Harnack and others to consider the Apostle as referring to parish difficulties of a purely practical nature, devoid of all speculative elements, results from a superficial exegesis which does not take the Epistle seriously.

BIBLIOGRAPHY. Commentaries: A. Klöpper (Berlin, 1882); J. B. Lightfoot (London, 1890); H. Oltramare, Commentaire sur les épîtres de S. Paul aux Collossiens, aux Ephésiens et aux Philippiens (Geneva, 1891-92, 3 vols.); H. v. Soden, in Hand-Kommentar zum Neuen Testament (Freiburg, 1893); G. Wohlenberg, in Strack and Zöckler, Kommentar (Munich, 1895); E. Haupt, in Meyer, Kommentar (Göttingen, 1897); T. K. Abbott, in International Critical Commentary (New York, 1897). Introductions: H. J. Holtzmann (Freiburg, 1892); F. Godet, Eng. trans. (Edinburgh, 1894); G. Salmon (London, 1894); A. Jülicher (Leipzig, 1901), B. Weiss, Eng. trans. (Edinburgh, 1888); Th. Zahn (Leipzig, 1900); J. Moffatt, The Historical New Testament (New York and Edinburgh, 1901). Discussions: E. T. Mayerhoff, Der Brief an die Kolosser (Berlin, 1838); F. C. Baur, Paulus (Eng. trans., London, 1873-75); H. J. Holtzmann, Kritik der Epheser und Kolosserbriefe (Leipzig, 1872); F. A. Henle, Kolossä und der Brief des Apostels Paulus an die Kolosser (Munich, 1887).

COLOSSOCHELYS, kô-lõs'sô-kelis (Neo-Lat., from Gk. ooooós, kolossos, colossus + xéλus, chelys, tortoise). A gigantic fossil turtle found in the Pliocene deposits of India. See TURtle.

statue of the same goddess, of gold and ivory, in the Parthenon at Athens; and the Olympian Zeus, of the same material, the masterpiece of Phidias, who was also the author of the two statues just mentioned. Among the seven wonders of the old world was reckoned the gigantic Colossus of Rhodes, representing Helios, the sungod, the national deity of the Rhodians. It is said to have been the work of Chares, of Lindus, a famous pupil of Lysippus. It was erected by the Rhodians, at a cost of 300 talents, apparently as a thank-offering after the successful defense of the city against Demetrius. It is said to have been of bronze, cast in separate pieces, and to have occupied the artist twelve years. It was set up about B.C. 280, but fifty-six years later was overthrown by an earthquake, and lay in ruins, until in A.D. 653 the Arabs captured the city and sold the metal to a Jewish merchant. The height is variously stated, but was probably about 90 feet. The Hellenistic age seems to have taken delight in colossal statues and groups, and the Romans followed the Greeks. We hear of a statue of Jupiter on the Capitol made from the spoils of the Samnites, of such a size as to be visible from the Alban Hills. More celebrated was a Colossus of Nero, executed in marble, of the enormous height of 110 or 120 feet, from which the neighboring amphitheatre is believed to have derived the name of 'Colosseum. At the death of Nero the head was changed to that of the sun-god. It was subsequently moved by Hadrian to make room for his temple of Venus, and finally disappeared during the Middle Ages. Its later pedestal was discovered in 1828, and may be seen between the Colosseum and the temple built by Hadrian. In modern times many colossal statues have been set up. Especially celebrated are the "Bavaria," at Munich, the "Germania,” at the Niederwald on the Rhine, the equestrian statue of Peter the Great in Saint Petersburg, and the Bartholdi statue of "Liberty Enlightening the World," in New York Harbor.

COLOS'SUS (Lat., from Gk. Koλorrós, Kolossos). A rare Greek word of unknown origin, used to denote a statue very greatly above the size of life. In English, the adjective colossal is used in a somewhat wider sense, to denote all statues which exceed the size of life. The colossal was the peculiar characteristic of Egyptian art, and innumerable colossi were raised in Egypt, mostly of the hardest stone, many of them 50 to 60 feet in height. Among the most celebrated are the two statues of Amenophis III., near Thebes, one of which was called by the Greeks 'Memnon,' and famed for its supposed vocal qualities. But it was in the artistic world of Greece that the most famous colossi appeared: e.g., the bronze statue of Pallas Athene, on the acropolis of Athens, the plume of whose helmet and the point of whose spear were landmarks to sailors between Sunium and Athens; another

COLOSTRUM (Lat.). A term applied to the first milk yielded after the birth of the young. It differs materially from ordinary milk in appearance and composition, and is ordifacture. When examined under the microscope narily considered unfit for consumption or manuit is found to contain, in addition to the ordinary fat globules of milk, peculiar aggregations of very minute fat granules, which are known as colostrum corpuscles, and which are probably the débris of the cells of the mammary gland. The chief chemical differences between colostrum and milk are a larger percentage of total solids and ash, a much greater proportion of albumin to casein, and less milk-sugar. The fat differs somewhat in character from that of normal milk, containing considerable colesterine. Colostrum exerts a purgative effect upon the newborn infant, and thus removes the meconium which has accumulated in the fetal intestine. Colostrum disappears as such within a few days after parturition, gradually assuming the characteristics of normal milk.

COL PEO. A fox-dog (Canis Magellanicus) of Patagonia and Tierra del Fuego, larger, redder, and more wolf-like than the other South American species. See Fox-DOG.

COL/PORTAGE (from Fr. colporter, to carry on one's neck, from col, Lat. collum, neck +porter, Lat. portare, to carry). The distribution of religious publications, books, tracts, and periodicals, by carriers called colporteurs.

soon afterwards appointed major, and served as an aide to General Taylor at the battle of Buena Vista. From 1853 to 1855 he was a prominent Democratic member of Congress, but at the expiration of his term declined a renomination. On the approach of the Civil War he became an active secessionist, and was a prominent member of the Georgia secession convention. He enlisted in the Confederate Army early in 1861; quickly rose from the rank of captain to that of majorgeneral; was engaged in most of the operations in Virginia; distinguished himself at Antietam and Petersburg, and was engaged at the battle of Olustee, Fla., and the defense of Fort Fisher. After the war he was Governor of Georgia from 1876 to 1882, and was a member of the United States Senate from 1882 until his death.

COLQUHOUN, ko-hoon', ARCHIBALD Ross (1848-). An English traveler. He became associated with the Indian Department of Public Works in 1871. After acting as secretary of the British Commission to Siam, he in 1881-82 and 1883-84 made extensive tours of exploration in order to find a route for a railway between India and China. He became administrator of Mashonaland in 1890, and subsequently visited Central America as a representative of the Panama and Nicaragua canal projects. In 1904-5 he traveled throughout South Africa. His publications include Across Chrysé (2 vols., 1883); The Opening of China (1884); English Policy in the Far East (1885); The Key of the Pacific (1895); China in Transformation (1898); Overland to China (1901); Greater America (1904); Mastery of the Pacific (1904); and Africander Land (1906). He was also joint author of a Report on a railway between India and China.

COLQUHOUN, JOHN (1805-85). A Scottish writer on sport. He was born at Edinburgh, and was educated at the university in that city. In 1840 he recorded his manifold adventures as a sportsman in the extremely interesting and popular volume entitled The Moor and the Loch, which has passed through six editions.

COLQUHOUN, PATRICK (1745-1820). An English police magistrate and writer, distinguished for his efforts in behalf of administrative reform and the amelioration of the condition of the poor. He was born at Dumbarton, and at an early age went to Virginia, where he became a successful merchant. Returning to Glasgow in 1766, he became prominent in public affairs, and in 1782 founded the Glasgow Chamber of Commerce, the oldest institution of its kind in Great Britain. He removed to London in 1789, and published there in 1795 his famous Treatise on the Police of the Metropolis, in which he advocated a complete reform of the police system of that city. Several of the recommendations made by him in the work, which passed through seven editions, were subsequently adopted. In consequence of the numerous important municipal reforms introduced by him, he was appointed magistrate at Westminster, London, in 1798.

COLQUHOUN, Sir PATRICK, or MAC CHOмBAICH DE (1815-91). An English lawyer. He was a great-grandson of Patrick Colquhoun (q.v.) and was educated at Westminster, Cambridge, and Heidelberg. He was for many years a member of the diplomatic service, more particularly in Saxony, where he was counselor of legation until 1866. He also held the position of Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Ionian Islands while these were under British rule (186164). His principal work is the Summary of the Roman Civil Law (1849-60).

COL QUITT, ALFRED HOLT (1824-94). An American soldier and politician, the son of Walter T. Colquitt (q.v.). He was born in Walton County, Ga., graduated at Princeton in 1844, and was admitted to the bar in the following year. He volunteered for service in the United States Army at the beginning of the Mexican War; was


COLQUITT, WALTER T. (1799-1855). American lawyer and politician, born in Halifax County, Va. He studied at Princeton, read law at Milledgeville, Ga., was called to the bar in 1820, and practiced with eminent success, first at Sparta and later at Cowpens. In 1834 and 1837 he was a member of the State Senate of Georgia, and from 1839 until his resignation in 1840 occupied a seat in the Federal House of Representatives. In 1842-43 he was again in Congress, and from 1843 until his resignation in 1848 was a United States Senator. He was originally a States-rights Whig, but became a Van Buren Democrat. During the Mexican War he was strongly opposed to the Wilmot Proviso (q.v.).

COLT, költ, SAMUEL (1814-62). An American manufacturer, inventor of the revolver. He was born in Hartford, Conn., where he worked in his father's factory. Obtaining a knowledge of chemistry, he lectured on that subject in the United States and Canada, and in 1835 secured patents for a revolving pistol, a wooden model of which he had made while at sea when a boy. In the same year the Patent Arms Company was formed for the manufacture of his invention, but became insolvent in 1842 through insufficient demand for its product. In 1847 Colt contracted to make 1000 weapons for General Taylor, and the improvement of the revolver, together with the increased demand for it, set the business on a stable footing, while new improvements were constantly made in the weapon. In 1852 he built a large armory in Hartford, where, besides firearms, machinery is made for their manufac ture in other places, notably at the English and the Russian arsenals. He invented a battery for submarine harbor defense, and in 1843 laid and successfully tested in New York Harbor the first submarine telegraph cable. His line was insulated with a combination of cotton yarn, beeswax, and asphaltum, incased in a lead pipe, gutta-percha not then having been discovered.


COLTON, kōl'ton, WALTER (1797-1851). An American writer. He was born in Rutland, Vt., graduated at Yale and Andover, and for several was professor of moral philosophy and belles-lettres in the Middletown (Connecticut) Academy. In 1831 he became chaplain in the navy. He was made alcalde of Monterey, Cal., in 1845, and founded the Californian, the first newspaper published in that State. He also built the first school-house and made the first announcement of the discovery of gold. Colton edited newspapers in Washington, Charlestown, Mass., and Philadelphia, and published Ship and

Shore in Madeira, Lisbon, and the Mediterranean (1835); A Visit to Athens and Constantinople (1836); Three Years in California (1850); and Deck and Port (1850), besides other lively stories of travel and the sea. COLTSFOOT.

See TUSSILAGO. COLU’BRIDE (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from Lat. coluber, serpent). The largest and most scattered family or group of snakes. It is variously limited by systematic authors, and has served as a residuary group for all serpents not easily classified elsewhere, so that a definition is difficult. The group, however, may be said to include the 'common' small, harmless serpents everywhere. The garter-snakes, water-snakes, hognose, etc., are North American representatives of this family, to which, indeed, all non-venomous American snakes belong except a few species along the Mexican border.

COLUGO, kô-looʻgo, or KAGUAN. See COBEGO. COLUM’BA, SAINT, SAINT COLUM-CILLE, or SAINT COLM (521-597). An Irish missionary, one of the greatest names in the early ecclesiastical history of the British Isles. He was born at Gartan, County Donegal, northwest Ireland, December 7, 521. His father was Fedhilmidh, of the powerful Clan O'Donnell, and related to several of the rulers of Ireland and West Scotland; his mother was Eithne, who also boasted royal ancestry. He studied first at Moville, County Down, five miles south of Bangor, on Belfast Lough, under Bishop Saint Finnian, and was ordained deacon by him; next under another Saint Finnian, at Clonard, who ordained him a priest. He was early distinguished by his piety, and the name Columba, i.e. dove, was recognized as an appropriate one. He showed rare monastic zeal. In 545 he founded the church and monastery of Derry, and in 553 those of Durrow, not far west of Dublin. The latter became of great importance, and in both places the saint is still commemorated by a well and a stone. He founded other monasteries, the chief of which was Kells. In 561 he embroiled himself in the civil strifes of his country and was charged with having incited the bloody battle of Culdreimhne (now Cooladrummon), because he appealed to his tribe to defend by force of arms the copy of the Latin Psalter which he had made from one borrowed of his old teacher, Saint Finnian of Moville. But for being thus the occasion of bloodshed he was censured by an Irish ecclesiastical synod, and recommended to do penance by foreign missionary labor. Accordingly, in 563, he headed a little company of twelve disciples and sailed across to the west coast of Scotland, and landed upon the little island of Hy, since called I-columcille, but better known as Iona. It lies just opposite Oban. There he began the great work of converting the Picts, to which he owes his fame. His missionary operations were probably very simple, consisting of persistent personal appeals. In the legends which are told about him, as in the life of him by Adamnan and in the Book of Deer, a Celtic MS. of the eleventh or twelfth century, preserved at Cambridge, England, edited by John Stuart for the Spalding Club (Aberdeen, 1869), the miraculous enters. Many miraculous occurrences are narrated of him, whose traditions still linger in the scenes of his labors. He promoted monastieism, overcame the opposition of the Druids, made

many converts, including royal personages, and founded many churches. As in Ireland, so in Scotland, he took part in secular affairs, and at least one battle is said to have been incited by him. He died at Iona at midnight between June 8 and 9, 597, and left an imperishable name. With loving care his bones were enshrined, and his relics-the tone pillow on which he slept, the books he loved so well, the staff which was the symbol of his pastoral authority, and other objects which he had used-were long preserved and exhibited. Columba was a poet. and three Latin hymns now extant are attributed to him. In one of them, the "Altus Prosator," published with an English paraphrase, by John, Marquis of Bute (Edinburgh, 1872), each strophe begins with a different letter, in alphabetical order. Besides these, some Celtic poems are attributed to him, and a Rule (printed in Celtic and English in Haddon and Stubbs, Councils and Ecclesiastical Documents, ii. 119, and in English only in Skene, Celtic Scotland, ii. 508).

Columba was an ascetic, capable of any amount of deprivation. He was an eager student and made copies with his own hand of documents which fell in his way. Two of these -the Book of Kells and the Book of Durrow -were long preserved. His energy sometimes led him to harsh actions, but that he was tenderhearted the affection of his monks evinces. He seems to have had original ideas upon Church government; for Bede writes of Iona that its ruler was "an abbot, who is a priest, to whose direction all the province, and even the bishops, contrary to the usual method, are subject, according to the example of their first teacher [Columba], who was not a bishop, but a priest and a monk" (Eccles. Hist., iii. 4). Bede then criticises the Columban monks because they did not, until 715, keep Easter after the Western manner, but upon the 14th of Nisan, or whatever day it came, as the Eastern Church did. Other peculiarities of the Columban monks, presuming that they followed the Irish models, was that they lived in huts grouped around a church and surrounded by a wall; each hut had its head, but all were under the abbot, who performed episcopal functions though not usually a bishop, and was a spiritual father to all the community, and when he pleased summoned all the members to him by ringing a hand-bell, one of the insignia of his office. The monks dressed in an undergarment covered by a coarse woollen wrapper fastened around the waist by a rope. They shaved the front part of their heads from a line drawn over the top from ear to ear. Their religious services were numerous and strictly attended to, but the rest of their time was spent in labor, either in working upon their fields and tending cattle (for they raised what they needed for their support), or in copying books, particularly the Bible, or in studying or in teaching others. Latin was spoken as well as Celtic, and was employed by them in writing. Some of the monastic communities contained famous schools, where Greek and even Hebrew were taught. The continuance of the memory of Saint Columba in Scotland is shown by the fact that his is one of the commonest names given to a church, even to-day, among the Presbyterians. The life of Saint Columba was written by two of his successors in the abbacy of Iona-Cuimine Ailbhe, seventh abbot (657-69), whose De Virtutibus

Sancti Columba (printed by Pinkerton, London, 1789; Paisley, 1889) was incorporated in the Vita Sancti Columbæ of Adamnan, the ninth abbot (679-704). But both these writers are concerned not so much with the life as with the prophecies, miracles, and other unusual phenomena which were ascribed to their subject, and so the amount of real biographical facts is very small. This life' by Saint Adamnan is, how ever, one of the best of the medieval lives of saints. It has been edited in a very superior manner, first by W. Reeves (Dublin, 1857), and again upon Reeves's edition by J. T. Fowler (Latin text and English notes, Oxford, 1894; English translation of the text, 1895).

COLUM'BÆ (Lat. nom. pl. of columba, dove). An order of birds, containing the pigeons (Columbida and allied families) and the dodos (Didiida). See DODO; DOVE; PIGEON.

COLUM'BAN, or COL'UMBA'NUS, SAINT (543-615). One of the most learned and eloquent of the many missionaries whom Ireland sent to the Continent during the Dark Ages. He was born in Leinster. Having studied under Saint Congall, in the great monastery of Bangor, in Ulster, he passed over to France, accompanied by twelve companions, and in Austrasia and Burgundy, near the southern extremity of the Vosges Mountains, founded the monasteries of Anegray, Luxeuil, and Fontaine. His adherence to the Irish rule for calculating Easter involved him in controversy with the French bishops about 605; and a few years later the courage with which he rebuked the vices of the Burgundian Court led to his expulsion from France. Passing through Switzerland into Lombardy, he founded, in 612, the famous Monastery of Bobbio, in the Apennines, where he died on November 21, 615. The writings of Saint Columban, which are wholly in Latin, consist of a rule for the government of his monastery, a few poems, several letters on ecclesiastical affairs, and sixteen short sermons. His monastic rule has been printed more than once; but the most complete edition of his works is in Patrick Fleming's Collectanea Sacra, published at Augsburg in 1621, and at Louvain in 1667. It is reprinted in Migne, Patrol. Latina, lxxx. Of the scrmons of Saint Columban, M. Guizot remarks that "the flights of imagination, the pious transports, the rigorous application of principles, the warfare declared against all vain or hypocritical compromise, give to the words of the preacher that passionate authority which may not always and surely reform the soul of his hearers, but which dominates over them, and, for some time at least, exercises paramount sway over their conduct and their life." The town of San Colombano, in Lombardy, takes its name from the Irish monk, as the town and Canton of Saint Gall (q.v.), in Switzerland. perpetuate the name of the most favored of his disciples. For his life, consult: Jonas, who was almost a contemporary and one of his successors as the Abbot of Bobbio, in Migne, Patrologia Cursus Completus (Paris, 1857-60); Besser (Leipzig, 1857); Zimmermann (Saint Gall, 1865); and Bispham (New York, 1904).

urns or sarcophagi of marble or terra-cotta containing the ashes of the deceased; finally, to the sepulchral chamber itself. Tombs of this description were chiefly used by the poorer classes who could not afford separate tombs, and were erected by great families for their slaves and dependents, or by funeral associations or corporations under the Empire. Several perfect examples have been found near Rome; among them, those of the Vigna Codini, at the Licinian Gardens. Others exist at Naples and elsewhere in Italy. The ustrina, or places for incinerating the bodies, were attached to the columbaria. recent times the term columbarium is applied to a room or hall connected with a crematory, and provided with niches for the cinerary urns.


COLUMBARIUM (Lat., dove-cote, from columba, dove). From a fancied resemblance to a dove-cote, the name given to the niches in Roman burial places arranged in rows around the walls of the sepulchral chambers to receive the little;

COLUM'BA'S ISLE. The poetic name for the island of Iona, on the western coast of Scotland, where Saint Columba, 'The Apostle of Caledonia,' founded a monastery about 565, and

was buried in 597.

COLUMBIA (Neo-Lat., from Columbus). The name under which the United States is usually personified.

COLUMBIA. A name formerly applied to the region, west of the Rocky Mountains, embracing British Columbia and the States of Washington and Oregon.

COLUMBIA. A city and county-seat of Boone County, Mo., 146 miles by rail west-northwest of Saint Louis; connected by branch with the Wabash and the Missouri, Kansas and Texas railroads (Map: Missouri, D 3). It is the seat of the University of Missouri (State), opened in 1841; of institutions for women, Christian College (Christian), established in 1851, and Stephens College (Baptist), founded in 1856, and two academies. The library of the State Historical Society is in one of the State university buildings. The monument to Thomas Jefferson, originally erected in Monticello, Va., is located here, also a United States Government weather station. Columbia has flouring and planing mills, elevators, packing-plant, and manufactures of agricultural implements; also farming, fruit-growing, and stock-raising interests. Settled in 1820, Columbia is governed by a mayor, elected biennially, and a council. Population, 1890, 4000; 1900, 5651; 1906 (local est.), 9000.

COLUMBIA. A borough in Lancaster County, Pa., 28 miles southeast of Harrisburg; on the Susquehanna River, here more than a mile wide, and on the Pennsylvania and the Philadelphia and Reading railroads (Map: Pennsylvania, E 3). It is an important industrial centre, its manufactures including boilers and engines, iron, laundry machinery, silk, lace, shirts, wagons, brushes, flour, novelties, malt liquors, stoves, etc. Wrightsville, on the west bank of the river, is connected with the borough by one of the longest bridges in the United States. The place was founded in 1726 by English Quakers from Chester County, and was for many years called Wright's Ferry. In 1789 it was proposed to locate the capital of the United States here. In June, 1863, the original bridge was burned to prevent the Confederate troops from marching on Philadelphia. Population, in 1890, 10,199; in 1900, 12,316; in 1903 (estimated), 12,832.

COLUMBIA. The capital of South Carolina, and county-seat of Richland County, on the east

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