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at $18,500,000, giving the State sixth rank. The output of anthracite was 68,343 tons. In the amount of coke produced Colorado ranked sixth among the States. Copper is found in all the counties west of Denver, but the State has no copper mines. The production in 1906 ($9,100,000 pounds) was in the form of a by-product of gold and silver ores. More tungsten and bismuth are produced in Colorado than in any other State. Other leading mineral products are petroleum, sandstone, limestone, iron (brown hematite), zinc, gypsum, and mica.

The

AGRICULTURE. Colorado, with its extreme elevation and aridity, was long thought to be fit only for mining and grazing. But it has been found possible to utilize many of the watercourses, which are distributed so liberally over the State, for purposes of irrigation, and by this means large portions of the State have been brought into profitable cultivation, the total area irrigated in 1900 being greater than in any other State. Fourteen and three-tenths per cent. of the land surface was included in farms in that year, and 3.4 per cent. or 2,273,968 acres were improved, of which 1,611,271 acres, or 70.9 per cent., were irrigated. During the decade ending in 1900 the actual irrigated area increased 80.9 per cent. The main canals and ditches had a total length of 7374 miles. largest irrigated area lies to the east of the Rocky Mountains in the north central part of the State. The supply of water is here obtained from the tributaries of the South Platte River. The storage system is being adopted, whereby the flood waters of this section are conserved. The Arkansas, Rio Grande, and the other streams are also drawn upon for purposes of irrigation, and every county contains some irrigated land. By the application of improved methods, irrigation can be extended to a much greater area than has yet shared its advantages. Colorado is unlike California in that its irrigated area is devoted almost wholly to the less intensively cultivated crops. The value per acre of the product is therefore not so great as in the latter State, while the average size of the irrigated farm is much greater, being 354 acres, of which 91 acres are actually irrigated. Considerably over one-half of the crop acreage is devoted to hay and forage, the acreage of this kind of crop having nearly doubled in the last decade of the nineteenth century. Alfalfa constitutes nearly half of this amount, almost the entire acreage of alfalfa being irrigated. Its yield is very great, and in a large measure it is made to take the place of grain as feed for stock. The acreage in wheat more than doubled in the decade ending in 1900, but in 1906 it showed a decrease. The flour manufactured from Colorado wheat ranks first in the market. Oats and corn, respectively, rank next in importance, the acreage of the former having decreased and the latter having increased during the decade 1890-1900, although the acreage of both increased during the period 1900-06. Irish potatoes are a very prominent crop in the northern part of the State. Hundreds of car-loads of muskmelons are annually shipped from the Arkansas River region. They include the famous Rocky Ford cantaloups. The production of the sugar-beet is an important industry. and in 1906 Colorado had a larger acreage devoted to this crop than any other State. In the decade 1890-1900 remarkable progress was

made in fruit-culture. The apple-trees, which constitute 69.3 per cent. of the total number of fruit-trees, increased during that period from 77,790 to 2,004,890, and the per cent. of increase of other varieties was equally great. The western slope of the State seems to be especially well adapted to fruit-growing.

STOCK-RAISING developed before tillage was attempted, and for some time had almost the whole field to itself. The introduction of mixed farming has not been detrimental to this industry, but, on the contrary, has resulted in an increase in the number of animals raised. Large herds receiving little attention are being supplanted by many small herds carefully looked after. For every decade since 1870 the number of cattle has more than doubled. Sheep-raising, which is largely confined to the southern counties, made large gains in the last decade of the Nineteenth Century. Horses and mules are raised in suflicient numbers to supply the local needs. The number of dairy cattle is rapidly increasing, and dairying is becoming a prominent industry. The tables appended show the relative importance of the different varieties of live stock and crops:

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MANUFACTURES.

Manufacturing yields precedence to mining and farming, although 4.6 per cent. of the population is engaged in this occupation. But manufacturing is growing, owing to a combination of favorable circumstances, chief of which is abundance of raw materials. The State has extensive deposits of coal and iron, and consequently a large amount of coke, iron, and steel products is manufactured. The presence of coal makes possible the smelting and refining of copper and lead ores, which has rapidly developed. Further advantage is given the State from the development of its railways and its position as a distributing centre. In those manufactures in which freight rates are an important consideration, Colorado's great distance from the manufacturing centres of the East is another advantage. The foundry and machineshop products, which had a rapid growth during the decade 1890-1900, consist largely of mining machinery, in the production of which the State holds high rank. An increase in the flouring and the meat-packing industries is a natural consequence of the growing importance of agriculture. In 1900 there were 3570 manufacturing establishments in Colorado, with 24.725 wage-earners, and products valued at $102,830,137. A special census was taken in 1905, covering 1606 establishments, with 21,813 wage-earners, and products valued at $100,143,999. An investigation con

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TRANSPORTATION AND COMMERCE. Colorado has better railroad accommodations than any other Rocky Mountain State. January 1, 1907, there were 5216 miles of track, most of which was constructed prior to 1890. The Union Pacific, Missouri Pacific, Atchison, Topeka and Santa Fe, the Denver and Rio Grande, the Colorado and Southern, and the Rock Island Route, with their branches, are the principal railroads. There are no navigable streams.

FINANCES. In 1906 the total debt of the State was $4,600,045. The total receipts and disbursements for the two years ending November 30, 1906, were respectively $4,949,446 and $4,651,077.

BANKS. In September, 1906, there were 87 national banks in operation, with a capital stock aggregating $7,718,500, the outstanding circulation being $5,955,000; deposits, $46,933,000; and surplus, $3,263,000. In July of the year 1905 there were 41 State banks, with $24.665,000 total resources, $2,670,000 capital and $20,655,000 deposits. There were also 17 private banks with $1.126,000 resources and $790,000 deposits. No savings banks were reported.

CHARITABLE AND PENAL INSTITUTIONS. The State board of charities and corrections, consisting of six members, has the power to investigate the whole system of public, charitable, and correctional institutions, and to examine into the condition and management of all institutions which are wholly or partly supported by State, county, or municipal appropriations. The State institutions subject to the inspection of the board are: State Home for Dependent and Neglected Children at Denver; State Industrial School for

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Number of establishments

898

718

180

25.1

55.9

54.3

186

132

34

29

13

9

52

49

88

77

11

14

87

116

416

278

11 14

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$1,113,000 was expended for the above institutions, of which sum $935,000 was for maintenance.

POPULATION. Colorado is the most populous of the Rocky Mountain States. The following gives the population by decades: 1860, 34,277; 1870, 39,864; 1880, 194,327; 1890, 412,198; 1900, 539,700, of which only 10,654 were colored; 1905 (est.), 602,925. The foreign born in 1900 numbered 91,155, about one-half of whom came from the United Kingdom and Canada. In 1880 twothirds of the population were males, but in 1900 the male population constituted less than 55 per cent. of the total. There is a marked tendency to segregate in towns, as is usual in mining regions. There were in 1900 eight places with over 4000 inhabitants, constituting 41 per cent. of the population.

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there were 144,007 pupils enrolled in the public schools, of whom 101,500 were in average daily attendance; the teachers numbered 4600. average length of the school session was 160 days as against a general average for the Western States of 148 days, and for the whole United States of 147 days. The expenditures for school purposes aggregated $4,486,227, of which twothirds was for teachers' salaries. Male teachers received (1904) an average monthly salary of $73.47, and female teachers, $55.69, the general monthly average in the Western States for male teachers being $70.98, and for female teachers, $56.42, and for the whole United States $50.96 for male teachers, and $41.54 for female teachers. The principal institutions for higher learning are: University of Colorado (State) at Boulder; Colorado College (nonsect.) at Colorado Springs; University of Denver (M. E.) at Denver; College of the Sacred Heart (R. C.) at Denver; Colorado Agricultural College (State) at Fort Collins; Colorado School of Mines (State) at Golden. There is also a State Normal School at Greeley. The National Government maintains a non-reservation school for Indians at Fort Lewis.

GOVERNMENT. The Constitution was adopted by a vote of the people August 1, 1876. By a two-thirds vote of each House, a proposed amendment may be referred to popular vote; but amendments must be voted upon separately. A proposal for a constitutional convention may also be referred to the people by a two-thirds vote of each House, and if a majority of the people approve, the next session of the Legisla ture must provide for such convention. It must consist of twice as many delegates as there are members of the Senate, and the Constitution drawn up must be submitted to the people for ratification. The Constitution specifies a twelve months' residence in the State as a prerequisite to voting, and authorizes the Legislature to make other time requirements. Either sex may vote at school-district elections, or hold school-district offices. Suffrage rights may be further extended to women by legislative enactment approved by a vote of the people. In the State elections in 1893 the people voted in favor of woman suffrage. An educational qualification may be imposed by law. The rights of citizenship can be denied an individual only during a period of imprisonment.

LEGISLATIVE. State elections are held on the first Tuesday in October of even years, and the Legislature meets on the first Wednesday of the following January. Senators and Representatives are elected for terms of four and two years respectively. The aggregate number of Senators and Representatives can never exceed 100. No bill can be so altered or amended on its passage through either House as to change its original purpose. Revenue bills must originate in the House of Representatives. Ordinary expenses only can be included in general appropriation bills. A member cannot vote on a bill in which he has a personal or private interest.

EXECUTIVE. The executive officers are a Governor, Lieutenant-Governor, Secretary, Auditor, Treasurer, Attorney-General, and Superintendent of Public Instruction, the term of each being two years. Their salaries are determined by law, and neither Treasurer nor Auditor can be his own immediate successor. A two-thirds vote of both Houses overrules the veto of the Governor. VOL. V.-12.

The Governor may veto any item of a money appropriation bill. He may grant reprieves, commutations, and pardons, and convene the General Assembly in special session. The LieutenantGovernor, who is President of the Senate, succeeds to the Governorship in case of vacancy.

JUDICIAL. The judicial power of the State as to matters of law and equity, except as in the Constitution otherwise provided, is vested in a supreme court, district courts, county courts, justices of the peace, and such other courts as may be provided by law. There are three supreme court judges, elected for nine years; the district judges-one or more for each judicial district-elected for six years; and a judge for every county, elected every four years.

LOCAL GOVERNMENT. Three county commissioners (five permissible in counties exceeding 70,000) are elected in every county, the term of office being four years. Other county officers, elected on the first Tuesday in October of the even years, are: clerk, sheriff, coroner, treasurer, superintendent of schools, surveyor, and assessor. Towns and cities may be classified into not more than four classes, and the powers of each class are defined by general laws.

MILITIA. The organized militia of Colorado in 1905 consisted of: Two regiments of infantry, one of 10 companies, the other of seven companies; one squadron of cavalry (3 troops); one light battery; signal corps; and hospital corps (3 detachments). The total strength was 1074.

HISTORY. Prehistoric remains, similar in character to those discovered in New Mexico and Arizona, have been found in southern Colorado. In the second half of the eighteenth century several expeditions into the limits of the present State were undertaken by the Spaniards. The most important of these was the one headed by Francisco Escalante, who in 1776 traversed the southwestern corner of the State, and explored the region of the Dolores and Gunnison rivers. But though Spain claimed the region, she attempted no settlement. The country, a portion of which was included in the Louisiana Purchase (1803), was partially explored in 1806 by Lieutenant Pike, and in 1819 by Colonel Long. Further exploration was carried on by Frémont in 1842 and 1844, and before the Mexican War fur-trading stations had been built on the Arkansas and Platte rivers. In the Treaty of Guadalupe-Hidalgo (1848) Mexico relinquished her territorial rights to the United States. Prospectors and emigrants from Georgia and Kansas entered Colorado in 1858. In 1859 the discovery of gold near Boulder and Idaho Springs was followed by a large immigration and the sudden rise of the mining towns of Denver and Boulder. The region, together with lands taken from Nebraska and New Mexico, was organized into the Territory of Colorado on February 28, 1861. From 1864 to 1870 wars were waged with the Cheyenne and Arapaho Indians. The Utes ceded the mountain and park regions between 1863 and 1880. In 1864 and 1868 unsuccessful attempts at organizing a State Government were made. The final enabling act was passed by Congress on March 3, 1875, and on August 1, 1876, Colorado was admitted into the Union. Gold-digging was on the decline in 1878, and many mining towns were being deserted, when it was discovered that from the masses of carbonates discarded by the gold-seekers, silver and lead might be extracted. Immigrants flocked

to Leadville, and soon the value of the lead and silver output came to excel the yield of gold. Serious strikes broke out among the miners in 1894, 1896-97, and 1904, and recourse was had

to military force to restore order. The greatest disturbance was that of 1904, during which the strikers blew up the railway station at Independence, killing fifteen non-union miners and injur ing several others. In an endeavor to quell the disorder suspected persons were deported from the State, attempts were made by the soldiery to intimidate the courts, and the writ of habeas corpus was suspended by the Governor. These measures, which aroused much criticism throughout the United States, were largely actuated by the Citizens' Alliance, an organization formed with the avowed purpose of exterminating the Western Federation of Miners. From 1876 to 1888 Colorado was Republican in national politics, but on the free-silver issue it was carried by a fusion of Populists, Democrats, and Silver Republicans in 1892, 1896, and 1900. In 1904 the State again gave its electoral vote to the Republicans. The State election in 1904, however, was bitterly contested. The attitude of Governor Peabody, the Republican candidate, during the mining troubles, lost him the support of a large part of the labor element, and the returns showed the election of Adams, Democrat. A contest ensued, and the Republican legislature seated Peabody, who resigned almost immediately afterward, and who was succeeded by McDonald, the Lieutenant-Governor.

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also extensive salt-works and cotton-gins. Population, 1906 (local est.), 2800.

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1893-1895

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..Dein. and Silver Rep.. 1897-1899 .Dem., Pop, and Silver Rep. ..1899-1901

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1901-1903 1903-1905 .1905..19051905-1907 1907

1876-1879 1879-1883 1883-1885 1885-1887

COLORADO COLLEGE.

An institution of

1887-1889 higher education, founded in 1874 at Colorado

1889-1891

Springs, Colo. The college offers courses leading 1891-1893 to the bachelor's degree in arts, science, and phil

Consult: Bancroft, History of the Pacific States, vol. xx. (San Francisco, 1890); Hayes, New Colorado and the Santa Fé Trail (New York, 1880); Pabor, Colorado as an Agricultural State (ib. 1883); The Resources, Wealth, and Industrial Development of Colorado (Denver, 1883); Labor Disturbances in the State of Colorado from 1880-1904, etc. (58th Congress, 3d sess., Senate doc. 122); Snook, Colorado History and Government (Denver, 1904).

COLORADO, Sp. pron. kō'lô-rä'Do. A name given by the Spaniards to various unrelated tribes in different parts of Spanish America, including Texas, owing to their custom of painting the body with red pigment. Of the tribes thus known, one of the most noted was that of the Sacchas, 'men,' as they call themselves, of whom a few still survive in the upper valleys of the Daule and Chones rivers, in northwestern Ecuador. They go naked, and are naturally lightskinned, almost blond, but paint their whole bodies with a red paint. They belong to the

Barbacoan stock.

COLORADO. A town and the county-seat of Mitchell County, Tex., 262 miles by rail westsouthwest of Dallas, on the Colorado River and on the Texas and Pacific Railroad (Map: Texas, D 3). It is the commercial centre of a cottongrowing and stock-raising region, with a considerable trade in cotton, cattle, and hides, and has

COLORADO, UNIVERSITY OF. An institution of higher learning, situated at Boulder, Colo. It was incorporated by the Territorial Legislature in 1861, and in 1876 the Constitution of Colorado provided for its erection as a State university. At the formal opening of the institution, in 1877, it consisted of the college and a preparatory department. The Medical School was organized in 1883, the Law School in 1892, and the School of Applied Sciences in 1893. In following colleges and departments: (1) The 1906 the University of Colorado comprised the College of Liberal Arts, offering courses leading to the degree of B.A.; (2) the Graduate Department, conferring the degrees of M.A. and Ph.D.; (3) the Colorado School of Applied Science, conferring the degree of B.S. in civil, electrical, mechanical, and chemical engineering; (4) the School of Medicine, conferring the degree of M.D.; (5) the School of Law, conferring the degree of LL.B.; and (6) the Summer School. Women are admitted to the university on equal terms with men. The university library contains 37,000 volumes, besides pamphlets. The total registration in 1905-06 was 743, excluding the preparatory department. The university is maintained by a direct State tax, and its government is vested in a State board of regents.

Osophy, and in 1905-06 had an attendance of 527 students. There are also connected with the college a preparatory school and a conservatory of music, a department of fine arts, and an engineering school. The buildings include Palmer Hall, the library building, and a science building, erected, with its equipment, at a cost of $350,000. The library numbers about 38,000 volumes. The institution has an endowment of $450,000.

COLORADO DESERT. An arid region of southern California (Map: California, F 5). It extends from the eastern base of the coast ranges of San Diego County eastward to the Colorado River, and embraces the Coahuila Valley, which extends toward the northwest between the San Bernardino and San Jacinto Mountains. A considerable portion of the desert, including part of the Coahuila Valley, is below sea-level. At some prehistoric period part of this region was included in the Gulf of California, from which it was separated by the growth of the delta of the Colorado River. Later it formed the basin of a fresh-water lake, and in recent times a considerable portion of the area has been flooded from the river, so as to produce a temporary

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