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power departed. By its victory over Spain in 1898, the United States took its place among the colonial powers of the world; and through the solution of the problems presented by the necessity of reconciling the element of autocracy inherent in the administration of foreign possessions with the republican theory of American institutions, the term colony, already loose in meaning, has attained a still broader application. See the articles on the various countries for detailed accounts of their colonies.
BIBLIOGRAPHY. Brougham, An Inquiry into the Colonial Policy of the European Powers (Edinburgh, 1803); Heeren, A Manual of the History of the Political System of Europe (London, 1857); Money, Java, or How to Manage a Colony (London, 1861); Cairnes, Colonization and Colonial Government (London, 1873); Leroy-Beaulieu, De la colonisation chez les peuples modernes (Paris, 1874); Deckert, Die Kolonialreiche und Kolonisationsobjekte der Gegenwart (Leipzig, 1885); Roscher, Kolonien, Kolonialpolitik und Auswanderung (Leipzig, 1885); Norman, The Peoples and Politics of the Far East (Lo lon, 1895); Worsfold, South Africa: A Study in Colonial Administration and Development (London, 1895); Dubois, Systèmes coloniaux et peuples colonisateurs (Paris, 1895); Englehardt, Les protectorats anciens et modernes (Paris, 1896); Zimmermann, Die europäischen Kolonien (Berlin, 1896-1901); Lanessan, Principes de colonisation (Paris, 1897); Kidd, The Control of the Tropics (London, 1898); Reinsch, World Politics (New York, 1900), and Colonial Government (New York, 1902); Giddings, Democracy and Empire (New York, 1900); Dilke, The British Empire (London, 1899); Egerton, A Short History of British Colonial Policy (London, 1897); Gaffarel, Les colonies françaises (Paris, 1893); Lanessan, L'expansion coloniale de la France (Paris, 1886); Franzel, Deutschlands Kolonien (Hanover, 1889); Reinsch, Colonial Administration (New York, 1905).
COL'OPHON (Lat., from Gk. Koλopwv, Kolophon). An ancient Greek city of Ionia in Asia Minor. It was situated on the river Hales, about nine miles north of Ephesus, was the native city of Mimnermus, and claimed to be the birthplace of Homer. The expression, 'to put the Colophon,' meaning 'to give the finishing stroke,' is explained by Strabo as arising from the belief that the cavalry of Colophon was so excellent that it always decided the contest. Hence, Colophon of a device at the end of a book.
COL'OQUIN'TIDA. See COLOCYNTH.
varying continuously between certain limits; while, if a train of waves of a definite wavenumber enters the eye, the sensation of color (if any) will be of a definite hue. Thus we speak of yellow light, of 1ed light, etc., meaning those ether-waves which produce these sensations of yellow or red in a normal eye. When the ether-waves fall upon an object, some of the energy goes into reflected waves at the surface, the rest goes into the entering waves; there will in general be absorption in the interior; but if the body is transparent there will be transmitted waves, and also, in general, waves reflected and scattered by little particles in the interior of the body. The color of a green leaf is due to the fact that when viewed in ordinary daylight, out of all the waves which enter the leaf, only those which combine to produce the sensation green are transmitted, the others being absorbed by the coloring matter of the leaf; thus, those waves which are scattered by the minute interior parts traverse a layer of this coloring matter, and only green light emerges from all sides. The light which in this case is reflected at the surface is simply diffuse white light. An object whose color is due, as here, to what is called 'body absorption,' appears of the same color when viewed by reflected light or by transmitted; that is, if we look through it at the source of light, or look at it from the same side as is the source. The colors of almost all natural objects are due to this body absorption.
COLOR (Lat., connected with Lat. celare, Gk. Kalúnтev, kalyptein, Ger. hehlen, to hide, Ir. celim, I conceal, Skt. sarana, refuge). The color of an object in nature depends upon sev eral conditions: the character of the light which illuminates it, the phenomena which take place in the body itself, the individual peculiarities of the eye which views the body. It has been shown by Sir Isaac Newton that ordinary white light may be regarded as a mixture of many colors; that is, it may be analyzed into parts, each part producing a different color-sensation. In scientific language, the sensation white, as perceived by looking at any ordinary 'white' object, is due to the incidence upon the eye of trains of ether-waves of different wave-numbers,
The colors of metals, however, and some aniline dyes, are due to what is called 'surface absorption.' When white light is incident upon a piece of gold, yellow light is reflected by the surface, thus giving the yellow color. If, however, the gold is hammered out exceedingly thin, it will be found to transmit greenish-blue light; so that in the case of surface color, the colors by reflection and transmission are different.
The energy of the waves which are absorbed in bodies generally goes to producing heat effects; but in some cases it is spent in producing other ether-waves, thus giving rise to other colors. These bodies are called 'fluorescent.' (See FLUORESCENCE.) In these cases, then, the color bodies sidewise will be different. as seen by transmission and by looking at the
The color of the blue sky, of fine smoke, and of water in many lakes is due to the scattering of light by extremely small particles—generally minute solid particles; for the short wavesthat is, blue light-are reflected by minute particles, while the other waves simply pass around them. In all these cases it is evident that if the incident light is altered, so will be the color perceived. A green leaf in a yellow light would appear black. For an excellent treatise on color, consult Rood, Modern Chromatics (New York, 1879). See LIGHT.
light and in shadow, near or at a distance; or, in other words, between the values of colors. No matter how different the colors of the pictures, they must all accord with the dominant color-tone.
the cause of the different hues. For example, when the light-wave is 5 of an inch long, red is the color produced, and as the waves decrease in force, we see yellow, green, blue, and so on through the spectrum. According to the theory of Chevreul, now generally accepted, white light is the union of all colors, and its decomposition by an object reveals the color separated from the rest. Thus, a rose absorbs all colors but red, which it reflects; while a white substance, rejecting all colors, is therefore colorless. Correctly speaking, there are but six colors-three primary (red, blue, and yellow), and three secondary (orange, violet, and green). Orange is composed of purple and yellow, violet of red and blue, green of yellow and blue. All other colors are compounds of these.
Complementary Colors are those which, combined with another color or colors, make up the three primary colors constituting white light. If the given color be primitive, its complement is composed of the other two primitive colors. For example, the complementary color of blue is orange-that is to say, red and yellow. If the given color be a secondary, its complementary is the remaining primitive color-as, for instance, the complementary color of green (blue and yellow) is red. In painting, brilliancy of coloring may be obtained by placing complementary colors side by side, because each lends to the other a favorable halo, while the juxtaposition of non-complementary colors has the opposite effect of dullness. This method of heightening and softening colors was used with great effect by Delacroix, and is to-day much practiced by French and Spanish painters.
It is also usual in the studios to divide colors into warm tones and cool, according as they approach or depart from the colors of sunlight. Reds, oranges, and yellows are regarded as warm; blues, greens, and violets as cool. In painting it has long been customary to relieve warm colors by placing them near cool. This is especially marked in Correggio's pictures, which have a central point of warm color with the surroundings cool. The Florentines reversed this process, while the Venetians intermixed warm and cool tones, and Rubens placed them side by side.
Contrast of Color is either simple or compound. Each of the primitive colors forms a contrast to the other two. Thus, blue forms a simple contrast to red and yellow. But if red and yellow were mixed together, the complementary colors to blue would be produced-viz. orange, which is the most powerful contrast to blue. This was the earliest and simplest way of obtaining color effects. It was almost universal among the Italians of the Renaissance, as witness the reds and blues in the garments of the Madonna and the saints. In modern times it has been much used, but not with the same success, by the pre-Raphaelites in England and the followers of Ingrès in France.
Harmony of Color is more difficult to attain, and is based rather upon the accord than upon contrast or the use of complementary colors. In nature there are few sudden contrasts of color, but rather gradual transitions and delicate gradations. Harmony endeavors to preserve the same tones in a painting as exist in nature. It discriminates between the same color seen in sun
The mastery of color is the most difficult achievement of painting, and it has been truly said that the colorist, like the poet, is born and not made. Few even among the great painters have attained it. Concerning the Greeks, it is impossible to make statements with surety, since all their best work has perished. The East Indians attained it in the harmonious colors in their beautiful fabrics. Among the Italians of the Renaissance, the artists of Parma and Venice were distinguished as colorists, chief among whom were Correggio, Titian, and Veronese. Many of the old Dutch and Flemish painters were fine colorists, Rembrandt and Rubens being foremost among them. In the English school Turner was the only really great colorist; while the French school shows a stately array, including such names as Watteau, Chardin, Delacroix, Fromentin, Rousseau, Diaz, Millet, etc. In Spain the greatest colorists were Velasquez, Goya, and Fortuny. The American school of the past few years has produced a number of good colorists, among them La Farge, Sargent, and Whistler.
Consult: Van Dyke, J. C., Art for Art's Sake (New York, 1901); Blanc, Grammaire des arts du dessin (Paris, 1870); Reynolds, Discourses Before the Royal Academy (London, (1831); Munsell, Color Notation (Boston, 1905). quality and degree of pigmentation of skin and Specifically, in anthropology, the other integuments. See ETHNOLOGY; ANTHRO
Color of Office is the semblance or pretense of authority, by virtue of an official position, assumed or claimed by an officer when he does some act outside of his actual jurisdiction. The term includes acts done under an honest but mistaken. belief of power, as well as where one knowingly exceeds his authority from a corrupt motive. All such acts are void, and an officer who is thus guilty of an abuse of power is liable for any damages which may result from it. See CONVERSION; DE FACTO; FALSE IMPRISONMENT.
Color of Title is that which on its face appears to be proof of ownership, but which, by reason of some defect not easily discoverable, does not in law constitute a valid title. The term is generally used to describe documents purporting to give title to some one, but has sometimes been applied to a claim of ownership by adverse pos session. A conveyance by one so claiming title gives the vendee only such rights as the vendor