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there are two rainy seasons; on the coast, rains occur at any time of the year. Generally speak ing, the country is healthful.

FLORA. The climatic conditions and the ir regular formation produce a varied flora. In the lower regions plant life is purely tropical and includes the common plants of South America. The palms are very numerous, and include the lofty wax-palm (Ceroxylon Andicola). Of the more useful forest trees of this region is the rubber (Castilloa elastica). The mountain slopes are mostly clothed with thick forests, the timberline being above 10,000 feet. Cinchona-trees of several species are found between 7000 and 9000 feet above the sea, and the aloe, the sarsaparilla, and other medicinal plants grow in abundance. Cacao, coffee, sugar, and indigo are largely culti vated.

FAUNA. The fauna is also of great variety, and includes the larger South American mammalian types, such as the jaguar, puma, tapir, ant-eater, sloth, several species of monkey, and one or more species of red deer (on the plateaus). The condor, vulture, numerous toucans and parrots, and a variety of humming-birds are a part of the rich avifauna. Serpents of several kinds are found in the torrid regions.

GEOLOGY. The mountain regions here have long been the seat of great volcanic activity. The chief formations in the central range are granite, gneiss, basalt, and eruptive rocks, while in the eastern range Cretaceous formations predominate. The entire portion east of the Cordilleras is occupied by the llanos-vast treeless plains having an altitude of from 1000 to 1500 feet, and well adapted for pasturing. The isthmus section is partly hilly and partly low and swampy.

MINERAL RESOURCES. Colombia is very rich in minerals, especially in precious metals. Gold is found mostly in alluvial deposits and in the streams. During the Spanish régime the proceeds from the gold-mines constituted the chief revenue; but the extracting was carried on by most primitive means. Modern methods were introduced only during the last quarter of the Nineteenth Century, though the principal mines have long been operated by English companies. The chief centre of gold-mining is Antioquía, which yields about $200,000 per annum. The leading silver-mines are in Tolima and Cauca. The annual gold output of the country amounts to over $2,000,000, and the silver output to $2,000,000. The other mineral resources-iron, copper, platinum, lead, and salt-are little developed. Emeralds are mined chiefly in the Department of Boyacá, the mines of Muzo being the most noteworthy. Salt-mining, a Government monopoly, is carried on chiefly around Zipaquirá and Nemocón, where salt is found both in rock form and in springs. Coal exists in the Eastern Cordillera and in many other parts, but is as yet scarcely touched.

ported. In the less torrid regions the agriculture is more European in character, wheat, corn, and barley being leading crops. The banana-tree is found all over the Republic, and the fruit is exported in large quantities, mostly to the United States. The absence of adequate transportation facilities and the sparseness of population are such hindrances to agriculture that the total yield of the food crops is not sufficient, and it is cheaper for the coast towns to bring wheat from New York than from the interior plateau to satisfy the home demand, and the deficiency has to be made up by imports. The rubber-tree and the copaiba-tree grow wild and are tapped. The uplands are the home of the tolu, well known for its balsam. Cattle-raising is conducted on a considerable scale, especially on the llanos. In 1901 the number of cattle in the Republic was estimated at 3,450,000. Both cattle and hides form prominent items of export.

AGRICULTURE. The principal industry of Colombia is agriculture, which is greatly favored by the soil and climate, but is carried on by primitive methods. Cultivation is confined mainly to the elevated plateau of the western part. These sections are best adapted to settlement by European immigrants, on account of the salubrious climate. In the hot districts the chief plants are coffee, tobacco, sugar, cacao, etc. Tobacco, and especially coffee, are largely ex

MANUFACTURES. The manufacturing industries are insignificant. The Indians make pottery, cotton fabrics, and straw mats and hats. Genuine Panama hats come from Ecuador. The sugar-mills are of the most primitive kind. The industry of wood-carving and horn-carving, once well developed among the aboriginal population, is gradually dying out. The distilling of liquor from sugar is a Government monopoly.

TRANSPORTATION AND COMMUNICATION. Owing to its mountainous surface, Colombia is very deficient in roads. Communication is mostly maintained by means of narrow paths accessible only to pack-mules, and even the principal roads are usually in an almost impassable condition. The lack of good roads is partly remedied by the navigable waterways. The Magdalena chiefly, and the Atrato, Cauca, and a number of minor streams are utilized for transportation, while through the river Meta communication is had with the Orinoco. The construction of railways in the Republic has been very slow and irregular. There were in 1904 about 400 miles in operation. Some lines are operated by American companies, and others are managed by the States with the assistance of the Central Government. These short lines-ranging from 25 to 100 miles in length, and scattered all over the country-have little influence on the general economic conditions of the Republic. Under the new régime inaugurated by President Reyes contracts and concessions for many new lines have been made, some of which contemplate through rail routes between Bogota and both oceans. Soldiers were improving the main highways in 1905. There are nearly 9000 miles of telegraph line. About 1000 vessels of 1,300,000 tons annually enter and clear the ports. The Republic is in regular communication with Europe and the United States by means of ten lines of mail steamers.

COMMERCE. The commerce of Colombia, like its industries, is hindered by lack of transportation facilities, the frequency of political disturbances, and the heavy export and import duties. Chief exports are coffee, gold bars and dust, cattle, hides, tobacco, silver ore and bars, food articles, etc. Chief imports are salt, petroleum, flour, cottons, wine, iron, and steel wares, drugs and chemicals. From 1894 to 1898 the value of the imports fluctuated from 10,711,207 to 19,722,098 gold pesos; the exports, from 15,088.406 to 19,157,788-the largest total volume of trade being in 1897. Owing to the civil

By an arrangement with the bondholders in 1897, the Government was able to cut the external debt down to £2,709,000 ($13,122,000), and new bonds were issued to that amount at 11⁄2 per cent. interest, the rate to be gradually increased to 3 per cent. This programme was satisfactorily carried out until the civil troubles of 1899. The total debt with arrears of interest, 1905, was $15,255,000. An arrangement was made to secure the arrears of interest. The revenue is derived from import and export duties, and monopolies (salt, liquors, cigars, and meat). The budget fluctuates from 30,000,000 to 40,000,000 paper pesos. The receipts and expenditures for 1906 were estimated to balance at 10,632,389 pesos gold. The departments are independent in their internal financial affairs, and derive their revenues chiefly from monopolies. The currency of the country consists of depreciated paper pesos, of which there are about 40,000,000 in circulation. In 1894 a provision was made for their redemption by the free coinage of gold, but the scheme failed and gold is at a high premium.

war, the only trade statistics accessible for 1899 and 1900 are those for the port of Barranquilla. Of the exports, it is estimated that about 27 per cent. in value goes to the United States; 25 per cent. to Great Britain; 17 per cent. to France; 16 per cent. to Germany. The trade of Colombia with the United States has undergone great fluctuations. The imports from the United States stood at $2,596,000 in 1895 and $3,583,000 in 1905; the exports to the United States were $3,714,000 and $6,412,000 respectively. The commerce between Colombia and the other South American countries, excepting Venezuela, is insignificant. The inland trade, owing to the great variety in the products of the different portions of the Republic, is active, and carried on chiefly by means of weekly markets. The transit trade through the ports of Panama and Colón, east and west, is considerable, the largest item representing goods bound for New York.

GOVERNMENT. Colombia has practically had a republican form of government since 1819. The present Colombian Constitution (the seventh since 1821) dates from 1886, and, in contrast with the preceding instruments, which recognize the sovereignty of the constituent States, it provides for a very strong centralization of power. The Constitution of 1886, however, underwent radical changes in 1903, after the termination of the revolt headed by General Uribe. The President, according to the Constitution, is elected for a period of six years, but the term of General Reyes, who was elected in 1904, has been extended to ten years. The former Senate and House of Representatives were replaced in 1903 by a National Assembly consisting of members, three being nominated by the governor of each of the existing nine provinces. This National Assembly, whose status is only temporary, by a legislative act of March 28, 1905, determined that the first Constitutional Congress should meet February 1, 1908, until which time the National Assembly continues to exercise legislative functions. The law of March, 1905, did not determine the character of the future Congress or its mode of election. The President is assisted by a council of six ministers. The office of VicePresident and the State Council formerly existing were abolished. The number of provinces has been increased from nine to thirteen by the National Assembly. These are: Antioquia, Tundama Cauca, Boyacá, Tolima, Huila, Caldas, Nariño, Cundinamarca, Galán, Atlántico, Magdalena, Boltvar, and Santander. The departments have councils elected by the people at the rate of one member for every 25,000 inhabitants, and are divided into provinces presided over by prefects appointed by the Governor. For the administration of justice, there are a Supreme Court of seven judges, appointed by the President, distriet supreme courts, and provincial courts. Military service is obligatory in time of war, while in time of peace the army is recruited by lot, but substitutes are admitted. The size of the army in time of peace is regulated by Congress, and was fixed at 1000 in 1898.



Finance. The finances of the Republic have always been in a deplorable condition. The public debt has constantly increased. The internal debt in 1904 was the paper currency, 746,801,420 pesos, and 7,398,817 pesos additional. The external debt, held chiefly in Great Britain, amounted in 1896, with arrears, to $17,080,188.

POPULATION. No census of the population has been taken since 1870, when the inhabitants numbered 2,951,323. According to an official estimate in 1881, the number was 3,878,600. At the close of the century it was supposed to exceed 4,000,000, or about eight inhabitants per square mile. The language and civilization are Spanish; the assimilation of the aborigines, with the exception of those in the more secluded parts of the country, has been complete. Capital, Bogotá (q.v.). The following is a list of the departments and estimated population in 1906:




Square Miles

Federal District



1,002 24,880


























3,899,000 100,000 562,000


EDUCATION AND RELIGION. Education is free, but not compulsory, and is to a large extent maintained by the State. Besides the university at Bogotá, there are a national institute for working people, a school of arts and trades, and a national school of music. The secondary schools are mostly in the hands of the Roman Catholics. Altogether there were, in 1897, over 2000 public educational institutions, with an attendance of nearly 150,000, or about 4 per cent. of the population. Religious toleration and free speech are guaranteed by the Constitution; but the Roman Catholic Church is recognized as the national Church.

HISTORY. The northern coasts of Colombia were visited by Ojeda and Vespucci in 1499. Three years later Columbus explored a section






of the country, and attempted to found the first The standard work on the history of Colombia Spanish colony on the American mainland. Be- is Pereira, Les Etats-Unis de Colombia (Paris, tween 1511 and 1517, Balboa and Pedrarias ex- 1883). There are numerous narratives of events plored and settled both coasts of the Isthmus. of the war against Spain, written by English As early as 1515 Pizarro and Gaspar de Morales officers serving with the Revolutionists, of had explored the Pacific coast as far south as which the best are, perhaps: Hall, Present State "Biru," a term from which the present territory of Colombia (London, 1825), and the anonymous of Peru gets its name, although lying consider Recollections of a Service in Venezuela and Coably beyond Pizarro's "Biru." Between 1536 lombia (London, 1828). and 1540, Ximenes de Quesada conquered the COLOMBO, kô-lom'bô. The capital and chief Chibchas, or Muyscas, the principal nation, and seaport of Ceylon, situated on the western coast the country became a dependency of Spain. It of the island, on a rocky headland, in latitude was known as the Province of New Granada till 6° 54′ N. and longitude 79° 51′ E. (Map: India, 1718, when it was made a viceroyalty. With the C 7). The European part of the city is magother Spanish possessions, it revolted in 1810, and nificently laid out, with broad avenues shaded in 1819 became independent, joining with Vene- by tropical trees and lined by modern buildings zuela (1819) and Ecuador (1822) to form the of fine architecture. The business part of the Republic of Colombia. This union was dissolved European city occupies the site of an old Dutch in 1829-30, and New Granada was founded as a fort, and is still known as the 'Fort.' Its chief separate republic in 1831. A new Constitution thoroughfare is Queen Stree on which are situwas adopted in 1858, by which the separate "Prov- ated the palace of the Governor, the chief merinces" were changed into "States," associated under cantile houses and banks, and the post-office, the a federal government, known as "Confederación finest public building on the island. The resiGranadina." The States were made self-govern- dential section of the European city covers an ing in all internal affairs. In 1860 another revo- area of about 20 square miles. The part nearest lution broke out, and for more than two years the to the water is occupied by numerous clubs. country was devastated by civil war. Finally, in Farther inland it is crossed by beautiful roads 1863, the nine States again agreed upon a Consti- bordered with bungalows embosomed in luxuriant tution, organizing themselves under the name of gardens. The native part of the city, or Pettah, United States of Colombia. Another revolu- is dirty and crowded, with crooked and narrow tion, begun in 1884, was terminated in 1886 by streets, always thronged with motley crowds of the promulgation of a new Constitution, which different types and nationalities. The houses are transformed the loose federal union into a strong without doors or windows, and the passer-by can ly centralized State. In 1889 the insurrection- freely observe the private life of the natives. ary elements reappeared, but were suppressed Colombo owes its commercial importance chiefly before they had gathered headway. A year later to its artificial breakwater, one of the largest there was a more formidable outbreak, with structures of its kind. It has a length of 4000 severe fighting at Panama. The insurrection feet, and shelters a water area of 500 acres. was due in great measure to a general feeling Begun in 1875, it is still uncompleted, the northof discontent aroused by the corrupt conduct of ern arm and the graving dock still being in the Conservative Party, which was then in process of construction. The shipping of the port power. In August, 1900, the Vice-President, of Colombo is very extensive, nearly the whole of Marroquin, made himself master of the Govern- the imports and exports of Ceylon passing through ment, and carried on an energetic campaign it. Colombo is one of the most important coalagainst the Liberals. Late in 1901 Colón was ing-stations for British and foreign steamers on taken by the Liberals who, however, were com- the Australian and East Asiatic routes. It is pelled to evacuate it within a few days. Peace connected with Kandy and Pointe-de-Galle by was concluded through the intercession of the railway. It is the seat of a United States. United States in the fall of 1902. In September, consulate. 1903, the Colombian Congress rejected the HayHerran treaty with the United States for the construction of the Panama canal. This was followed by a proclamation of independence on the part of Panama on November 3 (see PANAMA). The rôle played by the United States in the Isthmian revolution aroused bitter resentment in Colombia. President Marroquin in vain pledged himself to conclude a new treaty on terms satisfactory to the United States Government. A conciliatory mission to Washington headed by Dr. Reyes was likewise without result. In 1904 Dr. Reyes became president.

The population of Colombo in 1901 was 158,228 (127,836 in 1891), including about 5000; Europeans, chiefly Englishmen and descendants of the Dutch, and a number of Parsees, Jews, Arabs, Tamils, descendants of Portuguese, and mixed breeds, many of whom live in houses made of mud. The natives are mostly artisans and laborers, while the Europeans are either owners. of large plantations or merchants.

Consult: Belasco, Nueva geografía de Colombia (ib., 1892); Nuñez and Jalhay, La république de Colombie: Géographie, histoire, organisation, etc. (Brussels, 1893); Regel, Kolumbien (Berlin, 1899); Scruggs, The Colombian and Venezuelan Republics (Boston, 1905); Wheeler, The Agricultural Condition of Colombia (London, 1889); Röthlisberger, El Dorado: Reise- und Kulturbilder aus dem südamerikanischen Columbien (Berne, 1897); Dawson, South American Republics (New York, 1904).

The early name of Colombo, Kalan-totta, the "Kalany ferry," derived from its proximity to the river, the Moors corrupted into Kalambu. At the arrival of the Portuguese, in 1517, Kalambu had merged into Kolamba, or Columbu, which they henceforth wrote Colombo, in honor of Christopher Columbus. It was taken by the Dutch in 1656, and by the British in 1796. Consult Caye, Golden Tips (London, 1900).

COLÓN, kô-lōn', or AsPINWALL. A seaport town in the Republic of Panama, situated on the Caribbean shore of the Isthmus of Panama, 471⁄2 miles northwest of the city of Panama (Map: Colombia, A 2). It is the northern terminus of the Isthmian Railway, and of the pro

posed Panama Canal, and has a deep harbor (Navy Bay), exposed to violent winds from the north. Its position, as the intermediary point for the Atlantic and Pacific trade, has increased its importance at the expense of its rival, Panama. Its growth has been retarded by its unhealthful site. In 1906 extensive sanitary im provements were initiated. Sewers are being laid, the land drained and filled in, a system of water-works constructed, hospital accommodations furnished, and a cold storage and ice plant has been completed. The. imports amounted in 1905 to $2,008,904. The imports from the United States were $1,376,074, and exports to the United States, $141,485. The town received the name of Aspinwall from one of its founders, who also built the railway across the Isthmus; but it is now better known as Colón, in honor of Columbus, to whom a magnificent statue was erected in 1870. Pop. (est.), 1901, 3000; 1903, 13,000.

COLÓN (Sp., Columbus). A town in the Province of Matanzas, Cuba, about 52 miles southeast of Matanzas, connected by rail with Havana, Matanzas, Cardenas, and other important cities. It is the centre of extensive sugar-refineries. Population, in 1899, 7175.

CO'LON (Lat., from Gk. Kóλov, kolon). The portion of the large intestine that extends from the cæcum (q.v.) to the rectum, which is the terminal portion of the intestinal canal. It is divided into the ascending, the transverse, and descending colon, and the sigmoid flexure. See ALIMENTARY SYSTEM.

The whole length of the colon, from its commencement in the cæcum to its termination

in the rectum, is rather more than four feet. It is retained in its position by the serous membrane, which envelops, more or less, all the intestinal viscera, and is termed the peritoneum (q.v.). Its structure is essentially the same as that of the rest of the intestinal canal, which is described in the article DIGESTION, ORGANS AND PROCESS OF; but in consequence of a peculiar arrangement of the longitudinal muscular fibres, the interior of the colon is divided into sacculi, which serve to retain its contents for a longer period than if were a uniform tube, and thus, by extracting water from them, to reduce them to a more solid consistence, such as is possessed by normal excrement. It is also devoid of villi, and it is of much greater size than the small intestine. In some animals, as in the horse and sheep, the shape of the fæces is completely molded in these cells.

COLON BACIL'LUS, or BACILLUS COLI COMMUNIS. A micro-organism discovered by Escherich in 1885, and since demonstrated to be a normal inhabitant of the intestinal tract in man and some of the domestic animals. It is a short bacillus with rounded ends, is somewhat motile, has a few flagellæ, and does not form spores. The main interest which attaches to this organism at present is due to its close resemblance to the typhoid bacillus, with which it is morphologically identical, but from which it may be distinguished by its biological peculiarities. Some investigations made within the last few years tend to show that this bacillus, while of normal occurrence in the healthy intestine, may, under certain conditions, migrate to other organs of the body, and there be associated with pathological processes.

COLONEL, ker'nel (originally coronel, coronell, from Sp. coronel, colonel, It. colonello, Fr. colonel, colonnel, from Sp. colonello, column at the head of a regiment, dim. of colonna, column, from Lat. columna, column; the first lis changed to r either through dissimilation, or through popular confusion with Lat. corona, crown). A military title, ranking in the United States Army between lieutenant-colonel and brigadier-general. The command appropriate to the grade is a regiment. In Europe the title has more of an honorary than a practical value, it being in most instances an honorary distinction bestowed upon royal and other distinguished personages. In England, the custom prior to 1888 was to give the appointment of colonel to retired general officers as a reward for long service. Since that date no officer can obtain the rank except as a brevet, and then only for distinguished service, or on such appointments as the colonel commanding a territorial district depôt. See RANK AND COMMAND.

COLONEL CHABERT, LE, le kô'lô'něl' shå’bâr'. A story by Balzac (1832), the tale of a soldier of the Grand Army, who comes back from the wars to find his wife married to another.

COLONEL JACK, HISTORY OF. A novel by Defoe (1722). Beginning life as a thief, the hero goes to Virginia, and finally becomes a respectable planter and slave-owner.

COLONIA, kô-lō'nê-ȧ (Sp., colony). The capital of the department of the same name, Uruguay, on the Rio de la Plata, nearly opposite Buenos Ayres. It has a good harbor, docks, and a dry dock, and is a place of some commerce, particularly with Buenos Ayres (Map: Uruguay, founded by the Portuguese about 1680 under the Colonia was F10). Population, about 1500. named Colonia del Sacramento. Owing to its nearness to Buenos Ayres, it gave rise to many conflicts for its possession between the Spanish and the Portuguese. In the course of one of these struggles it was almost totally destroyed in 1777. In 1806 the English, in a desperate attempt to secure the La Plata region, captured Colonia and held it for some months.

The Roman

COLO'NIA AG'RIPPI'NA. name of Cologne (q.v.).

COLONIAL ARCHITECTURE. See ARCHITECTURE, paragraph "Colonial Architecture."

COLONIAL CORPS. A term formerly applied specifically to colonial troops of the British Empire, but now in general use as referring to similar troops of other nations. They are usually raised for service in the colony to which they belong, and not for foreign operations. An exception is the use made of the West Indian regiments of Great Britain, in the frequent punitive expeditions on the west coast of Africa. Colonial corps are officered by the regular army officers of the nation to which the colony ject. English colonial corps are the British Central Africa Rifles, the West African regiments (negroes), the Hong Kong Regiment, and Chinese Regiment (at Wei-hai-wei). In Madagascar onehalf the total number of troops are native colonial The Philippine Scouts serve a similar corps. purpose in the United States army. COLONIAL DAMES OF AMERICA, NAA women's patriotic TIONAL SOCIETY OF THE. society, organized in Wilmington, Del., in 1892.


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