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The Ringstrasse, a stately boulevard four miles long, occupies the site of the ancient walls, dismantled in 1881-85. A new line of fortifications established beyond the Ringstrasse covers 1000 acres, and has doubled the city's area.

The

Among the public buildings the churches claim the greatest share of attention, the splendid specimens of the Romanesque period being more numerous than in any other city in the world. The oldest is the Church of Saint Gereon, said to have been founded by the Empress Helena; the choir, with its two square towers, was added in the eleventh century, and the decagonal nave dates from 1219-27. Saint Maria im Capitol, consecrated in 1409, is a crueiform basilica of imposing appearance. interior is decorated with fine frescoes. The Apostles' Church, a remarkably fine basilica, presents the best specimen of the highly developed style of architecture, in which the ecclesiastical enthusiasm and civic love of splendor found expression toward the end of the twelfth century; and the Church of Saint Cunibert, dating from the middle of the thirteenth century, is a prominent example of the transition style. The Church of Gross Saint Martin was consecrated in 1172; its massive eastern portion has an imposing tower, 270 feet high. The Jesuits' Church, erected in 1618-29, may be mentioned as an excellent specimen of the mingled style peculiar to that order. The Church of Saint Peter is celebrated for the altar-piece of the crucifixion of Saint Peter by Rubens, and that of the Minorites for containing the tomb of the famous scholastic Duns Scotus. Saint Ursula is another church of historic interest. Most of these edifices underwent complete restoration during the nineteenth century.

cathedral has a length of 443 feet and a width of 200 feet; the height of the roof is 201 feet, that of the central tower over the crossing 357 feet, and of the two main towers 512 feet.

The chief object of interest in the city, however, as well as its greatest ornament, is the cathedral, the noblest specimen of Gothic architecture in Europe. It is said to have had its origin in a structure erected at the beginning of the ninth century, by Archbishop Hildebold. This was burned in 1248, and the present cathedral was begun in the same year. The choir, the first part completed, was consecrated in 1322. The work was carried on. sometimes more actively, sometimes more slowly, till the era of the Reformation, when it was suspended, and, during the subsequent centuries, not only was nothing done to advance it, but the uncompleted structure was suffered to decay. In the beginning of the nineteenth century, however, attention was attracted to its unrivaled beauties, and it became the subject of an enthusiasm extending over all Germany, giving birth to a multitude of associations for the supply of the necessary funds to repair and complete it according to the original designs. Funds were also forthcoming from other parts of Europe. On September 4, 1842, the King of Prussia, who had contributed largely to the funds, laid the foundation stone of the transept, from which time great progress was made. The naves, aisles and transepts were opened in 1848. The magnificent south portal was completed in 1859, and in 1860 the iron central spire was added. With the exception of the towers, the whole was finally completed in October, 1863. The towers were finished in 1880, and on the 15th of October the completion of this grand work was celebrated with great splendor in the presence of Emperor William I. and most of the Sovereign princes of the German Empire The

VOL. V.-11.

The most noteworthy secular edifices are: the Rathaus, the central and oldest portion of which dates from the fourteenth century and contains the handsomely restored Hansa Saal, in which the first general meeting of the Hanseatic League was held in 1367. The graceful portico in Renaissance style, and the splendid five-storied tower, deserve attention. South of the Rathaus rises the imposing structure of the Gürzenich, erected in 1441-52 as a festive hall for the entertainment of distinguished guests by the City Council, and first used for that purpose at the grand festival held in honor of Emperor Frederick III. in 1475. Thoroughly renovated in 1856, it is now the most splendid among the old secular structures, and since 1875 was used as the Stock Exchange. The Templars' Lodge, once the residence of the Overstolzen, a distinguished family of medieval Cologne, is a fine Romanesque building of the twelfth or thirteenth century, now used by the Chamber of Commerce. Of the numerous modern publie buildings the most prominent are: the palatial Government buildings (1830); the Municipal Museum (1855-61); the Stadttheater (1872); the Court of Justice (1886-93), an extensive Renaissance structure, with an impressive façade and handsome staircase; the imposing new PostOffice (1893); and the Reichsbank (1897).

Cologne is administered by an Oberbürgermeister, appointed for a period of twelve years and assisted by twelve assessors. The municipality operates successfully its own gas and water works, as well as an electric-lighting plant. The street railways are operated by a private company, whose franchise expires in 1916, when the lines will be turned over to the municipality without compensation. The munici pality also owns and maintains a pawnshop and slaughter-houses. The educational establishments of Cologne include three gymnasia, one oberrealschule, a theological and a teachers' seminary, and a conservatory of music, supported by the municipality. The municipal library contains 185,000 volumes, and the museum has a number of valuable collections. Cologne has a fine municipal theatre. The zoological garden is one of the finest in Europe. The industries of Cologne are extensive and varied. The industrial establishments include sugar refineries, tanneries, machine-shops, paper-mills, flourmills, breweries, distilleries, and several factories producing the celebrated eau de Cologne. The commerce, both by rail and by Rhine steamboats, is very great. A fine modern harbor, with extensive quayage, has been constructed since 1897. The population of Cologne has greatly increased since 1888, when outlying districts be gan to be annexed to the city. In that year the population numbered 144,772; it rose to 281,681 in 1890, 372,229 in 1900, and 428,722 in 1905.

Cologne was originally a town of the German tribe of the Ubii (Oppidum Ubiorum). It received the name of Colonia Agrippina, A.D. 50, when Agrippina, the wife of the Emperor Claudius, planted a colony of Roman veterans on the spot, which was her native place. It grew to be an important city under the Romans, and retained its prominence under the Frankish sway. The

Bishopric of Cologne, instituted in Roman times, was elevated to the rank of an archiepiscopal see by Charles the Great in 785. At this time the city was a busy seat of commerce. It entered the league of the Hansa towns in the beginning of the thirteenth century, and contended with Lübeck for the first rank. The archbishops acquired considerable territory, and some of them distinguished themselves as politicians and warriors. They took their places among the great princes and electors of the Empire, but were involved in a protracted contest with the citizens of Cologne, who successfully asserted against them the independence of the city. Within the city a bitter contest was carried on all through the Middle Ages between the small number of merchant princes and the trade guilds. The Reformation made little progress in Cologne, and the Protestants were treated with intolerance. With the sixteenth century began a process of steady decline, which remained unchecked till after the end of the Napoleonic wars, when a new period of industrial prosperity set in. In the course of the wars of the Revolution the city lost its independence, to become part of France, and on the downfall of Napoleon it was annexed to Prussia. The archbishopric was secularized in 1801-03, and the Congress of Vienna assigned all of its territories to Prussia. A new archiepiscopal see was created in 1824. Consult: Heldmann, Der Kölngau und die Civitas Köln (Halle, 1900): Paget, "Cologne, the Rome of the Rhine," in 116: 235, Temple Bar (London, 1899).

COLOGNE, EAU DE. See EAU DE COLOGNE. COLOGNE, THE THREE KINGS OF. The three wise men, or magi, by name Melchior, Kaspar, and Balthazar, who followed the star from the East to where it rested above the new-born Jesus. Their bones are said to have been placed in Cologne Cathedral, and their skulls were exhibited there as late as the eighteenth century. Those who touched them were supposed to be healed of their diseases. The names of the three kings were also used as a charm.

"Ye three holy Kings,

Kaspar, Melchior, and Balthazar,

Pray for us now, and in the hour of death," was written on a paper found on the body of a dead murderer at Chichester, England, in 1749.

COLOGNE YELLOW. A yellow pigment made by precipitating a mixture of lead and calcium nitrates with sodium sulphate and potassium chromate. It is essentially a chrome yellow in which the intensity of the color is lessened by the calcium salt.

COLOM'BA. A story of Corsica, by Prosper Mérimée (1840). It is considered his masterpiece.

COLOMBAT DE L'ISÈRE, kö'lôN'bå' de lé'zar (1798-1851). A French physician, born at Vienne, Department of Isère. He devoted himself to the study of defects of speech and established in Paris an institute for the correction of stuttering, on the principle of rhythmic pronunciation. His best-known work, entitled, Traité de tous les vices de la parole et en particulier du bégaiement (1830), passed through several editions. In recognition of his fruitful services, the Academy of Sciences awarded him a prize of 50,000 francs.

COLOMBES, ko'lônb'. A town in the Department of Seine, France, suburban to Paris, three

miles northwest of the city-walls. It has manufactures of starch, gelatin, and woolens; there are also petroleum-refineries, etc. Population, in 1901, 23,061.

COLOMBIA (so called in honor of Christopher Columbus). A republic in South America, occupying the northwest corner of the continent and bounded by the Caribbean Sea and Venezuela on the north, Venezuela and Brazil on the east, Ecuador on the south, and the Pacific and Costa Rica on the west. It lies between latitudes 3° S. and 12° 30' N., and between longitudes 67° 30′ and 83° W. The area is variously estimated at from 438,436 to 465,700 square miles. It is the only South American country bordering on both

oceans.

TOPOGRAPHY. The bulk of Colombia may be divided into two physiographic regions, the Andean Cordilleras, and the great plains or llanos of the east. The highlands of Panama and Darien are only indirectly connected with the Andes. Entering Colombia from Ecuador, the Cordilleras are continued in a general northerly direction by three diverging ranges, which spread out

over the entire western section of the country. The Western Cordillera constitutes long mountain ridge, with summits 10,000

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to 11,000 feet in altitude, which is defined on the east by the valley of the Cauca River. In the northern part the chain is flanked on the west by the Cordillera del Chocó. The Central Cordillera, the continuation of the Eastern Cordillera of Ecuador, contains the highest peaks in Colombia, including the volcanoes Huila, Puracé, and Tolima, the last reaching an altitude of over 18,000 feet. The Eastern Cordillera, separated from the central range by the Magdalena River, attains an extreme elevation of about 16,000 feet, and has great table-lands that are the most thickly populated regions in the Republic. This chain divides at the north, the eastern range extending into Venezuela, and the western, known as the Sierra de Perijá, running northward and merging into the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, near the coast. The llanos east of the Cordilleras have a surface tilted toward the Atlantic. Here there are great stretches of nearly level ground, covered with luxuriant growths of grasses in the north and heavily forested in the south.

Colombia has a coast line of over 3600 miles, of which more than 1600 miles are on the Pacific. The shores are very irregular and form a number of good harbors both on the west and north. The region abounds in long navigable rivers. northward through almost its entire length, The Magdalena traverses the country

and receives numerous tributaries. The Atrato also flows north not far from the west coast and enters the Gulf of Darien. The eastern plain belonging to the basins of the Orinoco (which forms part of the eastern boundary) and the Amazon is crossed by many long rivers. The chief affluents of the Orinoco are the Guaviare and the Meta; of the Amazon, the Uaupés, and the Japurá (or Caquetá).

In the Cordilleras the climate is moderate in the upper regions, but very hot in the valleys.

The llanos have an exceedingly hot climate, while on the Pacific coast the temperature is greatly modified by sea-breezes. On the tablelands of the Cordilleras the mercury occasionally falls as low as 44°. In the mountainous parts

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