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as on land.
In both the United States and Great Britain regulations are laid down which, though not having the force of law, are recognized by the admiralty courts, and govern the decisions in cases of collisions. In general, they are analogous to the rules observed by pedes trians in crowded thoroughfares, and by vehicles on highways. It is at night that the danger of collision is greatest; and hence the necessity for a well-arranged system of lights and other precautions. Of 3575 casualties of all kinds on and near the coasts of the United Kingdom in 1880-81, 713 were due to collisions; of these 69 resulted in total loss. The transatlantic steamers running between Queenstown, or the Channel ports, and New York have adopted the 'lane system,' first advocated by Lieutenant Maury, U. S. N., and afterwards developed by the Hydrographic Office, U. S. Navy, and approved by the Marine Conference held at Washington in 1889. This consists in the assignment of a definite lane or track to each separate line of steamships, along which route their vessels are required to maintain their course.
It has been held by American courts that, if a collision happens without fault, and no blame can be charged to those in charge of either vessel, each party must bear its own loss. In case both parties are at fault, neither can have relief at common law; but maritime courts aggregate the damage to both vessels and their cargoes, and divide the amount equally between the two. In case of inscrutable fault, that is, by a fault of those in charge of one or both vessels, and yet under such circumstances that it is impossible to learn who is at fault, the rule of equal division is also adopted. Where the fault is on the part of one vessel and no fault on the other, the owners of the vessel at fault must bear their own loss, and are also liable for the damage to the other vessel. In some cases the personal liability of owners is limited to the value of the vessel and freight. Strict laws, rules, signals, etc., are adopted by all nations to prevent collisions. (See NAVIGATION LAWS.) But, no matter how exacting may be the rules, cases will occur when their following would result in disaster. No vessel should unnecessarily incur the probability of collision by strict adherence to the rules. If it is clearly in the power of one vessel to avoid collision by depart ing from the rules, she will be held bound to do so; but a vessel is not required to depart from the rule when she cannot do so without danger. A proper lookout must be kept; the
absence of such a lookout is in itself evidence of negligence. In some cases certain lights must be kept. Losses of a vessel injured by a collision are within the ordinary policy of insurance; but when the collision is the fault of the insured vessel, or of both vessels, the insurer is not ordinarily liable for injury done to the other vessel which may be decreed against the vessel insured, although recent policies provide that the insurer shall be liable in such case.
acid. The resulting product is washed in water and dried. The pyroxylin thus obtained is then treated with ether, to which alcohol is added until the substance is completely dissolved. The solution is a clear, colorless liquid that does not mix with water or alcohol, but readily mixes with ether; when exposed to the air it dries up, leaving a transparent film, which becomes electric by friction and may be exploded by heat, pressure, or percussion. Mixed with substances sensitive to light, collodion is extensively used in photography; the mixture is spread over a glass plate, on which it forms, when dried, a sensitive film. Collodion is also used in surgery, the tenacious and transparent film left by its evaporation preventing the access of air to the injured surface and protecting it from infection. Pills and other medicinal preparations may be coated with it so as to render them tasteless. Among the medicinal collodions that are official is blistering or vesicating collodion, which consists of cantharides dissolved in collodion; the solution is applied to the skin when it is desired to raise a blister. Wood, paper, and fabrics may be rendered waterproof by being covered with collodion. Small balloons are made from it by pouring a solution into a flask of the desired dimensions, which is then turned about so as to spread the liquid uniformly over the surface, and then inverted to allow the excess to run out. The solvent is then allowed to evaporate, and the edges of the remaining film are loosened from the glass by attachin a glass tube to the neck of the flask and withdrawing the air. whereupon the collodion balloon detaches itself, contracts, and is easily withdrawn. See also CELLULOSE.
COLLO'DION (Neo-Lat., from Gk. Kowdŋs, kollōdés, glue-like, from Kóλλa, kolla, glue + eldos, eidos, form). A solution of pyroxylin in a mixture of alcohol and ether. For its manufacture a convenient form of cellulose, such as cotton wool, is immersed in a mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid with a little water, or in a mixture of potassium nitrate with sulphuric
COL/LOIDS (from Gk. κóλλa, kolla, glue + eloos, eidos, form). A name applied by Graham to a group of substances, including ferric oxide, alumina, silicic acid, starch, dextrin, gum, albumin, gelatin, tannin, caramel, agar-agar, and others. These substances, though not by any means belonging to the same class chemically, behave alike in certain respects when obtained in solution in water or in some other solvent. In the first place, they diffuse, when dissolved, very much more slowly than most other substances ordinarily met with. In the second place, their presence in solution has scarcely any effect on the freezing-point or on the vaportension of the solvent, while most other substances have the effect of notably lowering both the freezing-point and the vapor-tension. Again, colloids often spontaneously deposit from their solutions in the form of gelatinous masses that cannot, in many cases, be re-dissolved and that usually retain mechanically a large amount of water. Such gelatinized solutions' are now used for a variety of purposes in the arts, advantage being taken of the mass being in a semisolid condition, while the liquid retained by it may be used for the same purposes as when in the free state; such masses are used in photography by the 'dry' process, in making 'dry' electric batteries, in the manufacture of certain valuable explosives, etc. In scientific researches gelatinized solutions are now used for the pur pose of studying the relative rates at which various substances diffuse in water. For this purpose it is important that the solutions should remain absolutely undisturbed for a considerable length of time, and this is accomplished best by
adding to them a certain amount of agar-agar or some other colloid, and causing them to 'gelatinize,' the 'dry' solutions thus obtained showing precisely the same rates of diffusion as ordinary aqueous solutions.
Another important property of colloids is their incapacity of traversing parchment paper and animal membranes. This permits of the separation of colloids from non-colloids (called 'crystalloids') without any difficulty; process of separation being known as dialysis. Thus, to dialyze a solution containing common salt (a crystalloid) and silicic acid (a colloid), the solution may be placed in a bag of parchment paper and immersed in pure water: the salt will then readily pass through the paper, while the silicic acid will remain behind.
The properties of colloids are undoubtedly due to the comparatively very large size of their molecules. Thus, while the molecular weight of water is only 18, and that of most organic substances only a few hundred, the molecular weight of starch has been shown to be about 25,000, and that of silicic acid is at least 50,000. COLLOPH'ANITE (from Gk. Kóλλa, kolla, glue + paiver, phainein, to show). Amorphous hydrated calcium phosphate. It has a banded structure, resembling opal, and a conchoidal fracture. In color it is snow-white or yellowishwhite. This mineral is found chiefly on the island of Sombrero, having been formed in the elevated coral reef by infiltration of salts from the overlying guano.
COLLOP MONDAY. An old English term used to designate the Monday before Lent, from the custom of those days (when fasting was much stricter than at present) of cutting meat into strips or collops and salting it to keep until Lent was over.
(Paris, 1885-86); Morse-Stephens, The French Revolution (London, 1891), and Statesmen and Orators of the French Revolution (Oxford, 1892).
COLLOT D'HERBOIS, kō'lo' dâr'bwä', JEAN MARIE (1750-96). A French Revolutionist. He was born in Paris, and passed his early life as an actor. After visiting Holland and acting as the director of a troupe at Geneva, d'Herbois took to play-writing. Most of his productions were adaptations from English and Spanish, and one, Le paysan magistrat (1777), was popular for a time. In 1789 d'Herbois, who was then living in Paris, wrote La famille patriote ou la fédération, a revolutionary drama, and followed up this success by bringing out the Almanach du Père Gérard, for which he was awarded a prize by the Jacobin Club. Elected as the third deputy from Paris to the Convention in 1792, he became, in the following year, president of that body, and a member of the Committee of Public Safety. In November, 1793, he was sent to Lyons to complete the work of pacification begun by Couthon. There he showed himself merciless in the service of the Republic, and caused 1600 persons to be put to death. On returning to Paris he found himself, owing to his popularity, an object of suspicion to Robespierre, and, after an attempt to assassinate him had failed, Robes pierre's jealousy increased. Collot d'Herbois took part in the conspiracy which led to Robespierre's downfall, but the reaction was fatal to himself. He was expelled from the National Convention, and in April, 1795, was sentenced to deportation to Cayenne, where he died of fever, January 8, 1796. Consult: Aulard, Les orateurs de la Législative et de la Convention
COLLUSION (Lat. collusio, from colludere; to defraud, to play together, from con-, together + ludere, to play). In law, a species of fraud (q.v.), and consisting in an agreement between two or more persons to defraud a third, or to accomplish some illegal purpose; thus, it is collusion for a failing debtor to transfer property to another, who receives it to enable him to defraud some or all of his creditors; or for husband and wife, by mutual agreement or understanding, to institute a suit to procure a divorce without legal cause. Such transactions or proceedings are voidable because of their fraudulent character.
COLLU’THUS (Lat., from Gk. Kóλovoos, Kollouthos). A Greek poet of the fifth century; a native of Lycopolis in Upper Egypt. He is believed to have been the author of a poem in 392 verses, entitled, 'EXévns 'Apraλh, Helenés Harpale, or the Rape of Helen, which was discovered by Cardinal Bessarion, in Calabria. The text has been edited by Lehrs, in the Didot collection (1841). No other of his poems is extant.
COLL/YER, ROBERT (1823-). An American clergyman of the Unitarian Church. He was born at Keighley, Yorkshire, England; at eight years of age he was a mill-hand; at fourteen, a blacksmith; and in 1849 became a local preacher of the Methodist Church. In 1850 he came to America and began work as a hammer-maker, at Shoemakertown, Pa. At the same time he continued to officiate as a local preacher. In 1859 he formally joined the Unitarian Church, in the same year went to Chicago as a missionary of that denomination, and shortly after organized and became pastor of Unity Church. He was called in 1879 to assume charge of the Church of the Messiah, New York City, of which, after a long and successful active pastorate, he became senior associate minister. His publications include two volumes of sermons, Nature and Life (1865; 11th ed., 1882) and The Life that Now Is (1871; 10th ed., 1882), written in a style noteworthy for its effective use of an Anglo-Saxon vocabulary. The Single Horsefall Turner), and Things New and Old Truth (1877), History of Ilkley (1883; with (1893), may also be mentioned.
COLMAN, kōlman, BENJAMIN (1673-1747). An American Congregational clergyman, prominent in the Colonial period. He was born in Boston, graduated at Harvard in 1692, preached and studied theology for three years, and spent the years 1695-99 in England. After his return he became first pastor of the newly organized Brattle Street Church, a position which he filled until his death. He exercised a great influence
both in religious and secular affairs, and, in spite of his slightly heterodox views, was widely popular as a preacher. In 1724 he refused the presidency of Harvard College. Besides a collection of sermons, in three volumes (1707-22), he published a number of poems and a pamphlet advocating inoculation for the smallpox. Consult Turell, Life and Character of Benjamin Colman (Boston, 1749).
COLMAN, GEORGE, called THE ELDER (173294.) An English dramatic author and theatrical
manager. He was born in Florence, was educated at Oxford, and was called to the bar in 1755, but soon abandoned law for literature. In 1760 his first dramatic piece, entitled Polly Honeycomb, was produced at Drury Lane with great success. This comedy was followed the next year with The Jealous Wife, and in 1766 with The Clandestine Marriage, written in conjunction with Garrick. In 1767 he became one of the purchasers of the Covent Garden Theatre, and held the office of acting manager for seven years. In 1777 he purchased the Haymarket Theatre. Colman wrote and adapted upward of thirty dramatic pieces. He also translated Terence, edited Beaumont and Fletcher, and wrote considerable other verse and prose. Consult Peake, Memoirs of the Colman Family (London, 1841).
COLMAN, GEORGE, called THE YOUNGER (17621836.) An English dramatist, son of George Colman. His bent lay in the same direction as his father's, during whose last years he acted as manager of the Haymarket Theatre, and on the death of the elder Colman George III. transferred the patent to his son. After 1824 Colman held the office of examiner of plays. In industry he rivaled his father, and he received large sums for his plays, of which the best known are John Bull and The Heir-at-Law.
wrote many humorous verses, among which were Broad Grins (1802) and Poetical Vagaries (1812). In 1830 he published an amusing autobiography, Random Recollections.
COLMAN, NORMAN J. (1827-). The first Secretary of Agriculture of the United States. He was born on a farm near Richfield Springs, N. Y., May 16, 1827. In 1847 he removed to Louisville, Ky., and he afterwards practiced law in New Albany, Ind., and in Saint Louis, Mo. He served in the Union army during the Civil War as lieutenant-colonel of volunteers. In 1874 he was elected Lieutenant-Governor of Missouri, and in 1885 was appointed United States Commissioner of Agriculture. Toward the end of his term he was appointed Secretary of Agriculture, under the law reorganizing the Department of Agriculture.
COLMAN, SAMUEL (1832-). An American landscape painter. He was born in Portland, Maine, and studied first in New York and later in France, Italy, and London. After traveling extensively, he returned to New York and was one of the founders of the American Water Color Society, and its first president (1866-67). As an artist, Colman is noted for American and foreign landscapes in oil and water colors, and for vigorous etchings.
COLMAR'. See KOLMAR.
COLNE, köln. A market town of Lancashire, England, on the Colne, near the Leeds and Liverpool Canal, 32 miles north of Manchester, at the junction of the Lancashire and Yorkshire and Midland railways (Map: England, D 3). Colne was incorporated in 1895, but long before had obtained control of its gas and water supply. It has established an excellent modern system of sewage disposal, and maintains a public library, markets, and slaughter-houses. It has manufactures of cotton, calicoes, and mousselines-delaine. There are also numerous collieries and stone quarries in the vicinity. Population, in
1891, 16,800; in 1901, 23,000. Colne is an ancient place, by some supposed to be the Colunio of the Romans.
COL'OCA'SIA. See Cocco.
COʻLOCO LO. A wildcat of South America, related to the ocelot (q.v.).
COʻLOCOTRO'NIS. See KOLOKOTRONIS.
COL'OCYNTH (OF. coloquinte, from Lat. colocynthis, from Gk. Koλoкvveis, kolokynthis,
colocynth, from Koλokúvoŋ, kolokynthe, pumpkin), or BITTER APPLE. A well-known medicine, much used as a purgative. It is the dried pulp of the colocynth gourd, colquintida, bitter apple, or bitter cucumber, a globose fruit about the size of an orange, of a uniform yellow color, with a smooth, thin, solid rind. The plant which produces it, Citrullus colocynthis, is allied to the cucumber (q.v.). It is common in Turkey, the Grecian Archipelago, various parts of Asia, and in Africa and Spain. which last country supplies no small part of the colocynth of commerce. The fruit is gathered when it begins to turn yellow, peeled, and dried quickly either in a stove or in the sun. It is chiefly in the form of a dry extract that it is used in medicine. It owes its properties to a bitter principle called colocynthin, a glucoside. It is a curious, though not unique, fact that the seeds of the colocynthplant, produced in the midst of its medicinal pulp, are perfectly bland, and they even form an important article of food in the north of Africa. The name false colocynth is sometimes given to the orange gourd (Cucurbita aurantia), sometimes cultivated as mental plant in our gardens, on account of its globose, deep orange fruit. The pulp of the fruit possesses the properties of colocynth, but in a milder degree. Colocynth is generally administered in the form of pills, in which the extract is associated with aloes, scammony, and in some cases with calomel, or with extract of hyoscyamus. In small doses colocynth acts as a safe and useful purgative; and, when accompanied by hyoscyamus, the latter prevents much of the pain and griping which are attendant on the use of colocynth by itself. It is a drastic purgative, acting upon the whole intestine, and is used only in obstinate cases of chronic constipation. Colocynth is an ingredient of some powders for destroying moths. In large doses colocynth is a poison, causing severe inflam
mation of the stomach and intestine. medicinal dose of colocynth is from 2 to 8 grains; that of the official extract of colocynth, from 2 to 2 grains; that of the compound extract of colocynth, from to 15 grains. It is sometimes administered in the form of pills.
COLOGNE, kô-lōn' (Ger. Köln; the Colonia Agrippina of the Romans). The largest city of Rhenish Prussia, on the left bank of the Rhine, in latitude 50° 56' N., longitude 6° 58′ E. (Map: Prussia, B 3). Cologne is a fortress of the first rank, its fortifications forming a semicircle, with the Rhine as its chord, and the former town of Deutz (now included in Cologne) on the opposite bank, as a tête-de-pont. It is connected with this suburb by a bridge of boats and a fine iron bridge 1362 feet in length, for railway and carriage traffic. In the old quarter the streets are narrow and crooked, but the main residential quarter presents a thoroughly modern aspect.