« AnteriorContinuar »
ing what Macaulay repeats in his spirited Lays of Ancient Rome, "How well Horatius kept the bridge, in the brave days of old."
COCOA, kōkō. See CACAO.
COCOA BUTTER. A pure white solid fat, obtained from the seeds of Theobroma Cacao, having a specific gravity of .945 to .952 at 15°C. It is used in cosmetics and other pharmaceutical preparations, and in the manufacture of confectionery. See CACAO; OILS.
ogy Bulletin 4, new series (Washington, 1896); also Miall and Denny, The Structure and Life History of the Cockroach (London, 1887).
COCKS, RICHARD. A grocer and merchantadventurer of Coventry, England. He was one of the charter members of the East India Com
pany (1600), merchant at Bayonne, France (160308), and one of the seven Englishmen who accompanied Capt. John Saris to Japan, on the first voyage of Englishmen thither. He established the British factory on the island of Hirado in 1613, and began June 1, 1615, to keep a journal, which is now of the greatest value as a contribution to the history of Japan and the foreigners there during the first quarter of the century, and as a picture of manners and customs. The Diary ends March 24, 1622. The great hope of the English was to open commerce with China, but they could not successfully compete with the Dutch, who undersold them, and in the end starved them out of the country. In April, 1623, the dissolution of the English factory was decided upon, and Cocks and the other Englishmen arrived at Batavia January 27, 1624. Cocks made many travels through Japan, even to Yedo, meeting Iyeyasu and many native notables and the Korean Embassy. He introduced white potatoes into Japan from Java, and Java potato' is still the name applied to this tuber by the Japanese. The diary of Richard Cocks, carefully edited and annotated by Edward Maunde Thompson, with introduction and index, was published in two handsome volumes by the Hakluyt Society (London, 1883).
COCKSCOMB (from its crest, resembling the comb of a cock), Celosia cristata. An annual plant of the natural order Amarantaceæ, a native of the tropics, and formerly much grown in greenhouses and gardens. It grows with an upright stem, which becomes flattened upward, divides, expands, and forms a sort of wavy crest, covered with pointed bracts, and bearing on its surface many very small flowers. There are both tall and dwarf forms, and a number of colors of each. The plant is of easy cultivation. See AMARANTH.
COCK'TON, HENRY (1807-53). An English humorous novelist, born in London. His works, of which Valentine Vox, the Ventriloquist (1840), is the best, were very successful in their day. Stanley Thorne was illustrated by so distinguished a trio as George Cruikshank, Alfred Crowquill, and John Leech.
See ORCHARD Grass. See BUR GRASS.
COCLES, ko'klēz, HORATIUS, 'the one-eyed.' One of the mythical heroes of ancient Rome. Aided by Lartius and Herminius, he defended the Sublician Bridge against a great army under Lars Porsena, keeping the enemy at bay until the Romans behind them destroyed the bridge. When the bridge was about to fall, Cocles sent his two companions back; and when it had fallen, sheath ing his sword and praying the river to favor him, he plunged in and swam safely to the shore. He received for a reward as much land as he could draw a plow around in a day, and a statue in the Comitium. No hero was held in higher honor, and Roman writers never wearied of tell
on the west coast of Central and
COCOANUT, or COCONUT (Fr. coco, Gk. KOûк, kouki, cocoa-tree, from Anc. Egypt. kuku, cocoa-tree). The well-known fruit of a species of palm (Cocos nucifera), perhaps originally a native of the Indian coasts and South Sea Islands, although there is evidence of its prehistoric occurrence South America. (For illustration, see Plate of PALMS.) It is now diffused over all tropical regions. The cocoanut palm belongs to genus having pinnate leaves, and male and female flowers on the same tree, the female flowers at the base of each spadix. There are about 30 known species, nearly all of which are natives of South America. Many of the species prefer dry and somewhat elevated districts. The cocoanut palm, on the contrary, is seldom found at any considerable distance from the seacoast, except where it has been introduced by man, and generally succeeds best in sandy soil near the sea. It is always one of the first of the larger plants to establish itself in the low islands of the Pacific Ocean, as soon as there is soil enough. It has a cylindrical stem, about a foot in diameter, and from 60 to 100 feet high, with many rings marking the place of former leaves, and bearing at its summit a crown of from 16 to 20 leaves, which generally curve downward, and are from 12 to 20 feet in length, with proceed from within a large pointed spathe; the numerous leaflets, 2 to 3 feet long. The flowers fruit grows in short racemes, which bear, in favorable situations, from 5 to 15 nuts; and 10 or 12 of these racemes in different stages may be seen at once on a tree, about 80 or 100 nuts being its ordinary annual yield. The tree bears fruit in from four to eight years from the time of planting, and continues productive for seventy or eighty years. Of the three round, black scars at one end of the shell, the largest one through which an opening is commonly made to get out the milk is the destined outlet of the germinating embryo, which is situated there, the kernel consisting generally of the endosperm destined
for its nourishment. The thick husk is remark. ably adapted to the preservation of the seed, while the nut is tossed about by the waves,
until it reaches some shore far distant from that on which it grew.
The cocoanut affords to the inhabitants of many tropical coasts and islands a great part of their food; it is not only eaten as it comes from the tree, both ripe and unripe, being filled in a young state with a pleasant, milky fluid, but is also prepared in a variety of ways, as in curries, etc.
The kernel of the cocoanut contains more than 70 per cent. of a fixed oil, called cocoanut oil, or cocoanut butter. The oil is itself an important article of commerce, being much employed for the manufacture of 'stearin candles,' and also of a 'marine soap' which forms a lather with
sea-water. It is also employed as an article of food, so long as it remains free from rancidity -to which, however, it is very liable. It is obtained by pressure of the bruised kernel, or by boiling over a slow fire, and skimming off the oil as it floats on the surface. A quart, it is said, may be obtained from seven or eight cocoanuts. It is liquid at the ordinary temperature of tropical countries, but in colder climates becomes a white, solid, butter-like oil. It becomes liquid about 74° F. It can be separated by compression into a liquid portion called 'olein,' and & more solid part termed 'stearin,' or 'cocosin,' which is of complex constitution. The cake resulting from the pressure of the endosperm for its oil is an important cattle-food. The dried kernel, known as copra, forms an important article of export from the South Sea Islands, etc.
The root of the cocoanut palm possesses narcotic properties, and is sometimes chewed instead of the areca-nut. When the stem is young, its central part is sweet and edible; but when old, this is a mass of hard fibre. The terminal bud (palm-cabbage) is esteemed a delicacy, and trees are often cut down for the sake of it. The saccharine sap of the flower-spathes before they open is a source of toddy and palm wine, and by distillation the liquor arrack. In the East Indies the juice is often boiled down to yield sugar (jaggery).
The dried leaves of the cocoanut palm are much used for thatch, and for many other purposes, as the making of mats, screens, baskets, etc., by plaiting the leaflets. The midribs of the leaves supply the natives of tropical coasts with oars. The wood of the lower part of the stem is very hard, takes a beautiful polish, and is employed for a great variety of purposes, under the name of porcupine-wood. The fibrous centre of old stems is made into cordage. By far the most important fibrous product of the cocoanut-tree is coir (q.v.), the fibre of the husk of the somewhat immature nut. If the nuts are allowed to ripen, the coir is coarser and more brittle. The husk of the ripe nut is used for fuel, and also, when cut across, for polishing furniture, scrubbing floors, etc. The shell of the cocoanut is made into cups, goblets, ladles, etc., and is often finely polished and elaborately ornamented by carving. Cocos butyracea, one of the South American species of this genus, is a very large tree, and its nut abounds in an oil and butter of similar quality to that obtained from the cocoanut. The double cocoanut of the Seychelles Islands is the fruit of a palm of a different genus (Lodoicea sechellarum). Cocos Weddellianum is the species most commonly cultivated in greenhouses and in the open as an ornamental. For illustration, see PALMS.
breaking a man's arm." Its flesh is edible. It digs and inhabits burrows and long tunnels, lined with fibres stripped from cocoanuts. In these it lurks during the day, going abroad, as a rule, only at night. It feeds mainly upon fallen cocoanuts, not gathering them from the trees, as has been asserted, although it often climbs into the palms. "To get at the contents of the nut, the crab first tears away the fibre overlying the three 'eyes,' and then hammers away with its claws at the latter until a hole is made, when it extracts the kernel by means of its smaller pincers." This crab has its gills so modified as to function as lungs. It occasionally visits the water, and periodically resorts to the sea to spawn, where the young pass through their developmental stages in the water like other crabs. Several species are known. Consult: Darwin, A Naturalist's Voyage (London, 1860); Forbes, A Natu ralist's Wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago (New York, 1885). See Plate of CRABS.
COCOANUT or ROBBER CRAB. A large terrestrial macrurous crab (Birgus latro), of the East Indies, which feeds on cocoanuts. Although allied to the hermit, it has the abdomen symmetrical and covered above, with a series of horny plates, so that it requires no borrowed shell or other artificial protection. It is found in the islands of the Indian and South Pacific oceans, and may reach a size larger than that of any other land crab, enabling it to handle the largest nuts; and Forbes says that "one of its pincer claws is developed into an organ of extraordinary power, capable, when the creature is enraged, of
COCOA-PLUM. An edible drupaceous fruit growing on a shrub (Chrysobalanus Icaco) of the order Rosacea, in Florida and the West Indies. It is yellow, purple, or black, and is much like a large plum in appearance. The skin is thin, and the sweet white pulp adheres firmly to the stone.
COCOA-ROOT. See Cocco.
developed about the middle of the eighteenth COCOA-TREE CLUB, THE. A London club, century from the Tory Cocoa-Tree Chocolate House, which flourished during the reign of Queen Anne. It was a gathering place of Jacobites, and was frequented by many leading men of the day.
COCOMA, kô-kō'má. An important tribe of Tupian stock, anciently living at the junction of the Huallaga and Marañon (Amazon), but now lower down at Nauta, at the entrance of the Ucayali, northeastern Peru. Before the Jesuits established missions among them, about 1680, they had the custom of eating their dead relatives and grinding their bones to powder to drink in a native liquor, assigning as a reason that "it was better to be inside a friend They are described as shrewd, provident, and than to be swallowed up in the cold earth." industrious, good boatmen, and braver fighters than most of the civilized Indians.
COCONUT. See CocoANUT.
COCOON' (from Fr. cocon, dim. of coque, shell, from Lat. concha, shell). The pupa-case of an insect. See INSECT; BUTTERFLIES AND MOTHS; and ANT.
COCO/PA. An agricultural tribe, supposed to be of Yuman stock, formerly holding the country about the mouth of the Colorado River and the head of the Gulf of California, in Mexico, and sometimes ranging northward into Arizona. They still number about 500, but are rapidly wasting away from contact with American civilization. Their present habitat is on the Colorado River from the Gila to its mouth.
CO'CO RIVER, WANKS, or SEGOVIA. A river in Central America, forming a portion of the boundary line between Honduras and Nicaragua (Map: Central America, M 5). It runs in a generally northeasterly direction, and enters the sea at Cape Gracias a Dios. Its total length is about 300 miles, and it is navigable through a portion of the course.
COCY'TUS (Lat., from Gk. KwкUTÓS, Kōkytos, river of wailing, from Kwкvew, kōkyein, to wail, Skt. kū, to cry). A tributary of the Acheron in Epirus. now called Bwßós. Bobos. Cocytus was also the name of a river of the infernal regions, a branch of the Styx.
COD (origin obscure; possibly from cod, shell, husk, or from Flem. kodde, club, from the rounded shape of the fish). A fish (Gadus callarias) of the family Gadida, which almost rivals the herring in its importance to mankind. The body is elongate, slightly compressed, and tapers toward the tail, so that with the rather large head it appears heavy anteriorly. The body is covered with small scales. There are three dorsal and two anal fins. From the end of the lower jaw hangs a well-developed barbel. The general color varies greatly, being greenish, brownish, or even yellowish and reddish. The back and sides have numerous round, reddishbrown spots. The fins are dark. It will attain a weight of four to five pounds in about three years, and may ultimately reach a weight of 150 to 200 pounds, but the usual weight of large specimens is from 15 to 30 pounds.
The home of this fish is in the shallower parts of northern seas. "The southern limit of the species," on the American side of the Atlantic, according to Goode, "may safely be considered to be Cape Hatteras, in latitude 35° 10′. Along the coast of the Middle States, New England, and British North America, and upon all the offshore banks of this region, cod are usually found in great abundance during part of the year at least, and it is more than probable that they occur in the waters of the Arctic Sea to the north of the American continent." It no doubt extends around the northern shore of the continent to Bering's Strait, and thence into the North Pacific, for the cod of the coastal waters and shallows off Alaska, Siberia, and thence down to Vancouver Island and Japan are the same in appearance and habits, and probably specifically identical. On the European side of the Atlantic it frequents the Scandinavian and Spitzbergen coasts, the North Sea, and the waters about Great Britain and Iceland. Its favorite haunts are the ocean banks, down to about 120 fathoms, but it frequently approaches close to the coast, enters bays, and ascends the estuaries of large rivers. It is a powerful swimmer, predatory; having strong teeth upon the vomer, and one of the most voracious denizens of the sea. It eats anything and everything it can, capturing other fishes, squids, etc., in large numbers, and devouring great quantities of deep-sea clams, which it swallows whole. The stomachs of cods have supplied to conchologists great numbers of rare
shells, and before the days of deep dredging many conchological specimens were obtainable only in this way.
These fish are very prolific, 9,000,000 eggs having been taken from a single female weighing 75 pounds. The spawning season lasts from October to April, but the eggs of any given female do not all ripen at once. "Impelled by the spawning instinct, the cods seek the shoal waters of the coast or banks in shoals consisting of both sexes." Here the eggs are extruded, float to the surface, and toss about until they hatch, and the fry escape to become the prey of innumerable foes. It appears, however, that many (some say most) cod void their eggs in deep
water, whence they rise and drift toward the shore. The destruction of eggs and young through various agencies must be very large; since, in spite of the enormous numbers produced, comparatively few reach maturity, so that the number of cod is limited, and liable to be materially reduced by persistent fishing. This diminution began to be felt, in fact, long ago, the cod almost disappearing from easily accessible inshore resorts, so that the fishermen have been obliged to go to the more distant oceanic banks. To compensate for this loss, the species has long been extensively propagated, both in Europe and America, more than 100,000,000 fry having been hatched and planted during the year 1897 alone by the United States Fish Commission. For the methods and results of these efforts, see FISH-CULTURE; for the methods, extent, and value of the products of codfishing, see FISHERIES; and for portraits of important species, see Plate of CODFISH AND ALLIES.
Several other species, important as food, belong to this family, such as tomcod, haddock, ling, etc., which are elsewhere described. The 'codfish' of the San Francisco markets, however, is an entirely different fish, a chirid (Ophiodon elongatus), for which see CULTUS-COD.
CODAZZI, kô-dät'së, AGOSTINO (1792-1859). An Italian traveler, engineer, and geographer, born at Lugo, near Ferrara. He entered the army as a volunteer, and afterwards set up as a merchant at Constantinople, whence he made extensive journeys through Europe. In 1817 he went to the United States. He served in the Venezuelan Revolutionary Army, and later entered the Colombian service, in which he rose in 1826 to be a lieutenant-colonel. From Venezuela, being compelled, for the purpose of 1831 to 1838 he prepared maps of the State of topographical surveys, to explore the deserts of Guiana, and to penetrate nearly to the sources of the Orinoco. The results of this undertaking he published in Paris in 1841, under the title Resumen de la geografía de Venezuela (with an atlas). He subsequently made surveys of the Isthmus of Panama, with reference to the pos
sibility of an interoceanic ship-canal.
CODDE, kod'de, PIETER (c.1598-1678). Dutch painter, born in Amsterdam. He is of the school of Frans Hals, and is known to have completed one of the latter's pictures. His subjects, generally groups of people drinking, singing, or dancing, are brilliantly painted and have much spirit. The best of them is "The Ball" (1633). His treatment of costume is especially good. It is only recently that his works have been clearly identified and their value understood.
COD'DINGTON, WILLIAM (1601-78). One of the founders, and the first Governor, of the Colony of Rhode Island. He was born in Boston,