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THE NEW INTERNATIONAL ENCYCLOPEDIA
LAS'SIS (Lat., assembly). In the Reformed Church of Holland and America, the name of an ecclesiastical body, made up of ministers and elders representative of churches, corresponding to a presbytery. The Classis hears appeals from the consistories, which are the official boards of local churches, and the Synod hears appeals from the Classis. The Classis also confirms and dissolves pastoral connections, ordains and deposes ministers, and sends delegates to the local and general synods. See REFORMED CHURCH IN AMERICA, THE.
CLASTIC ROCKS (Fr. clastique, from Gk. Kλaorós, klastos, broken, from κλāv, klan, to break), or FRAGMENTAL ROCKS. A petrographic division which includes all rocks composed of fragmental materials. See EOLIAN ACCUMULAJONS; AQUEOUS ROCKS; BRECCIA.
CLAT'SOP. An Amerind tribe of the Chinookan stock. See CHINOOK.
CLAUDE, klöd, JEAN (1619-87). A French Protestant preacher and controversialist. He was born at La Sauvetat-du-Droit, southwest France (ancient District of Agenais). He studied at Montauban, became pastor at Nîmes in 1654, and was also professor of theology in the Protestant college there, where in 1661 he was forbidden to preach, on account of his opposition to the proposed union with the Roman Catholics. In the next year he obtained a post at Montauban, but was removed from it also. He then went to Paris, and was pastor at Charenton from 1666 until 1685. On the revocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685), he was ordered to leave France within twenty-four hours, and being welcomed by William of Orange, preached at The Hague until his death, January 13, 1687. He was the greatest leader of the French Reformed churches, their ablest disputant, their favorite preacher, and their truest representative. He is especially notable for the polemic he carried on against the school of Port-Royal. His works include: A Defense of the Reformation (1671, English translation, 1815), written in reply to an attack on the Calvinistic faith by Pierre Nicole, the celebrated Jansenist writer; Complaints and Cruel Prosecutions of the Protestants (1686; English translation, 1707); and especially, as more familiar to English readers, Essay on the Composition of a Sermon (1778-79, 2
vols.)- -a much-used manual of homiletics, frequently reprinted, from the edition of Charles Siméon. His son published Œuvres posthumes de Jean Claude (5 vols., Amsterdam, 1688). Consult Ladevèze (Amsterdam, 1687).
CLAUDE LORRAIN, klỏd lôrʼrǎn'. See GELEE, CLAUDE.
CLAUDIA GENS (Lat., Claudian family). A patrician and plebeian clan in Rome, of Sabine origin. The names of the patrician families, distinguished for their arrogance and pride, are Cæcus, Caudex, Centho, Crassus, Pulcher, Regillensis, and Sabinus. The plebeian names are Asellus, Canina, Centumalus, Cicero, Flamen, and Marcellus. Consult Mommsen, "Die patricischen Claudier," in Römische Forschungen (Berlin, 1865). See APPIUS CLAUDIUS Crassus.
CLAUDIAN HARBOR. A harbor at the mouth of the Tiber, two miles west of Ostia, constructed in the face of great natural difficulties by the Emperor Claudius. Its area exceeded 6,000,000 square feet with a depth of 15 feet to 18 feet, and was inclosed by two jetties 2400 feet long. The massive breakwater was constructed by filling with concrete the great ship which had transported the Vatican obelisk from Egypt, sinking her, and from this foundation building above the level of the water. On the breakwater rose a lighthouse 200 feet high, built in imitation of the Pharos of Alexandria. In time the Claudian harbor became inadequate to the needs of the city and an inner harbor was constructed by Trajan, now two miles inland. The Claudian harbor, which is now inaccessible on account of the marshes, is depicted on a basrelief discovered in 1863.
CLAU'DIA'NUS, CLAUDIUS. A Latin poet who lived in the end of the fourth and the beginning of the fifth century, born at Alexandria. He came to Rome in the year 395 and there secured the patronage of Stilicho and, through him, of the Emperor Honorius. For the great Vandal leader the poet entertained a love and admiration which is voiced in a number of his minor poems. He wrote first in Greek, which appears to have been his native tongue (though he was originally of Roman extraction); but, as Gibbon says, he "assumed in his mature age the familiar use and absolute command of the Latin language; soared above the heads of his
feeble contemporaries; and placed himself, after an interval of 300 years, among the poets of ancient Rome." His poems brought him into such repute that, at the request of the Senate, the emperors Arcadius and Honorius erected a statue in his honor in the Forum of Trajan. The productions of Claudianus that have come down to us consist of two epic poems-The Rape of Proserpine, and the incomplete Battle of the Giants, besides panegyrics on Honorius, idyls, epigrams, and occasional poems. Claudianus displays a brilliant fancy and rich coloring, with variety and distinctness in his pictures; but he is often deficient in taste and gracefulness. There are several manuscripts of The Rape of Prosperine, of which two, from the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, are in the Laurentine Library at Florence. The best editions are by Birt (Berlin, 1892) and Koch (Leipzig, 1893). poor English translation was executed by Hawkins (London, 1817). Consult Hodgkin, Claudian; The Last of the Roman Poets (London, 1875).
CLAUDIANUS MAMERTUS (?-c.474). A Christian poet and philosopher. A younger brother of Saint Mamertus, Bishop of Vienne, he was consecrated by the latter to the priesthood, and became his assistant. He systematized the liturgy, and was the author of the hymns known as the Small Liturgies, sometimes heard in Catholic churches during the services preceding Ascension Day. The hymns Contra Poetas Varios and Pange lingua gloriosi lauream certaminis have also been ascribed to him. In his famous philosophical treatise, De Statu Anima (published by Mosellanus, Basel, 1520, and, with notes, by C. Barth, Zwickau, 1655), he shows that "thought is inseparable from the essence of the soul, and that its spiritual activity is indestructible" (Neander, History of Dogmas). His complete works were edited by Engelbrecht, and published in Corpus Scriptorum Ecclesias ticorum Latinorum, vol. xi. (Vienna, 1885). Consult Engelbrecht, Untersuchungen über die Sprache des Claudianus Mamertus (ib., 1885).
CLAUDIA QUINʼTA. A Roman woman who disproved the charge of unchasteness brought against her, when the ship carrying the image of Cybele was brought to Rome from Pessimus in B.C. 204. The vessel grounded on a shoal at the mouth of the Tiber, and when the soothsayers declared that it could be moved only by a pure woman, Claudia came forward and, seizing the rope, towed the ship to Rome.
CLAUDIO. (1) In Shakespeare's Much Ado About Nothing, a young Florentine lord. He is in love with Hero; but his affection is not strong enough to prevent his believing the scandal against her. (2) In Shakespeare's Measure for Measure, the lover of Juliet.
CLAUDIUS. (1) In Shakespeare's Hamlet, the King of Denmark, who poisons his brother, Hamlet's father, and marries the widow. He is slain by Hamlet, when the Queen, by mistake, drinks the poisoned wine. (2) A servant whom Brutus accuses of calling out in his sleep, after the appearance of the ghost of Cæsar, in Shakespeare's tragedy Julius Cæsar.
CLAUDIUS I. (TIBERIUS CLAUDIUS NERO DRUSUS; officially TI. CLAUDIUS CESAR AUGUSTUS GERMANICUS) (B.C. 10-A.D. 54.) Roman Emperor (A.D. 41-54). He was the youngest son of Nero Claudius Drusus, stepson of the Emperor Augustus, and was born at Lugdunum
(Lyons), B.C. 10. Being naturally sickly and infirm, his education was neglected, or left to be cared for by women and freedmen. His supposed imbecility saved him from the cruelty of Caligula; but Claudius, in his privacy, had made considerable progress in the study of history, and wrote in Latin and Greek several extensive works now lost. After the assassination of Caligula, Claudius was found by the soldiers in a corner of the palace, where, in dread, he had concealed himself. The Pretorians carried him forth, proclaimed him Emperor, and compelled his recognition by the Senate and many citizens who had hoped to restore the Republic. By his payment of the troops, who had raised him to the throne, Claudius I. gave the first example of the baneful practice which subjected Rome to a military despotism under the succeeding emperors. The first acts of his reign seemed to give promise of mild and just government; but in the year 42, when a conspiracy against his life was detected, his timidity led him to yield himself entirely to the guidance of his infamous wife, Messalina, who, in concert with the freedmen Pallas and Narcissus, practiced cruelties and extortions without restraint. Claudius meanwhile lived in retirement, partly occupied in studies, and expended enormous sums in building, especially in the construction of the famous Claudian Aqueduct, Aqua Claudia. This great work occupied 30,000 laborers during 11 years. Abroad, the armies of Claudius were victorious. Mauretania was made a Roman province, the conquest of Britain was commenced under the personal command of the Emperor, and some progress was made in Germany. After the execution of Messalina, Claudius married his niece, Agrippina (q.v.), who exercised as unlimited influence over him as had his former wife. Under her inspiration he deprived his son Britannicus of the succession to the Imperial power and adopted Domitius Ahenobarbus Nero, the son of Agrippina by Gnæus Domitius Ahenobarbus. When Claudius showed some inclination to deprive Nero of the succession Agrippina caused him to After be poisoned with a dish of mushrooms. his death, Claudius was deified, giving occasion to Seneca's bitter satire, Apocolocyntosis, or Gourdification.
CLAUDIUS II. (MARCUS AURELIUS CLAUDIUS, better known as Claudius Gothicus) (214270), Roman Emperor (268-270). He had been Governor of Illyria, and, after the death of Gallienus, in 268, was proclaimed Emperor by the soldiers. In the same year he overthrew his rival, Aureolus, and conquered the Alemanni; in the following year he defeated a great host of Goths that menaced Mosia, and 50.000 of them perished in battle, whence the title Gothicus. Claudius died of the pest, at Sirmium, April, 270.
CLAUDIUS, ARCH OF. A triumphal arch at Rome, erected in A.D. 43 on the Via Lata, to commemorate the victories of Claudius in Britain. It was destroyed in the seventeenth century.
CLAUDIUS, MATTHIAS (1740-1815). A German poet and author, known as 'Asmus,' or 'Der Wandsbecker Bote,' born at Reinfeld, Holstein. He studied from 1759 to 1763 at the University of Jena; from 1771 to 1775 was editor, under the name of 'Asmus,' of the newly established Wandsbecker Bote (whence his surnames), and in 1776 of the Landzeitung, at Darmstadt. In the following year he returned
to Wandsbeck, where he henceforth lived. was appointed in 1778 auditor of the provincial bank of Altona, by the Crown Prince Frederick of Denmark, who also, in 1785, granted him a small annuity. His collected works, published in 1775-1812 (eight parts), with the quaint title Asmus Omnia Sua Secum Portans, were in great part taken from his contributions to the Wandsbecker Bote. His prose is shrewd, aphoristic, with a certain naïve humor; his verse, now buoyantly merry, now patriotic, now in the best sense religious, is always fresh, simple, and sincere. Many of his lyrics, such as Der Mond ist aufgegangen and the Rheinweinlied ('Bekränzt mit Laub'), have continued to be popular favorites throughout Germany. He also translated into German Fénelon and other writers, French and English. The collected works have been excellently edited by Redlich (12th ed., Gotha, 1882). For his biography, consult Herbst (Gotha, 1878) and Gerok (Darmstadt, 1881).
CLAUDIUS CÆ CUS, APPIUS. A Roman patrician of the fourth and third centuries B.C. When censor, in B.C. 312, he gained many adherents by invading the traditional rights of the patricians, and admitting men of low birth to senatorial rank; but his nominations were quickly set aside. He is more memorable for having at the same time undertaken the construction of the great Appian Way from Rome to Capua, and also of the first aqueduct (Aqua Appia) to bring a supply of water into the city. In order to complete these works, he arbitrarily continued his censorship beyond the legal limits. He was elected consul in B.C. 307 and 296, and met with success in several campaigns against the Samnites and Etruscans. When Pyrrhus of Epirus sent Cineas to Rome with terms of peace unfavorable to Roman greatness, it was only the eloquence of the aged Claudius that prevented the Senate from accepting them. In his old age Claudius is said to have become blind, whence his cognomen, "Cæcus." Consult: Mommsen, "Die patrici-. schen Claudier," Römische Forschungen, vol. i. (Berlin, 1864); also article "Claudius," Pauly Wissowa, Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft (Stuttgart, 1899).
CLAUDIUS CRAS'SUS, APPIUS. See APPIUS CLAUDIUS CRASSUS.
CLAUDIUS NERO. See NERO.
CLAUDIUS OF TU'RIN (Lat. Claudius Turinensis) (?-839). A Spanish-Italian bishop. At first a preacher at the Court of Louis the Pious, he became Bishop of Turin in 820. He was one of the most radical iconoclasts of his
time, and protested against the use of images, the invocation of saints, and the veneration of relics. His attitude kept him in constant controversy with Pope Paschal I. Claudius wrote an Apologeticum, directed against the Abbot Theodemir, of the Convent of Psalmody, near Nimes. The abbot's part was taken by Dungall, an Irish scholar and teacher, who called upon the King to "crush the tail of the serpent in Claudius, as Charlemagne had so well crushed the head in his master, Felix of Urgel." Jonas of Orleans, at the request of the Emperor, also wrote against Claudius, but both Louis and Claudius died before the publication of his work.
He studied the natural sciences in Giessen, under Leuckart; in 1863 became professor of zoology in Marburg, in 1870 in Göttingen, and in 1873 in Vienna. He was also director of the zoological station at Triest. He was very active in the investigation of the Crustacea, and is also widely known because of his Text-Book of Zoology. Of his numerous works, the following are important: Die freilebenden Copepoden (1863); Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Ostracoden (1868); Grundzüge der Zoologie (1868); Ueber den Bau und die Entwicklung der Cumaceen (1870); Die Metamorphose der Squilliden (1872); Ueber die Entwicklung, Organisation und systematische Stellung der Arguliden (1875); Lehrbuch der Zoologie (6th ed., 1897; trans. into English, under the title of Text-Book of Zoology, by Claus and Sedgwick, London, 1897).
CLAUS, klous, KARL FRIEDRICH WILHELM (1835-99). A German zoölogist, born in Cassel.
CLAUSEL, klö'zěl', BERTRAND (1772-1842). A French marshal, born at Mirepoix, in the Department of Ariège, December 12, 1772. He entered the army at an early age, and commanded a brigade in the Italian campaign of 1799. He was made a general of division of the Army of the North, in 1804; distinguished himself in the campaign of 1809 against Austria and subsequently in the war in Spain, where, after the battle of Salamanca, July 22, 1812, he succeeded Marmont in the chief command. He conducted the very difficult retreat from Portugal, with the greatest circumspection, fighting a succession of battles. Although he stood by Napoleon to the last, Louis XVIII., in 1814, named him inspector-general of infantry. When Napoleon returned to France in 1815, Clausel immediately declared for him, was made a peer, and received the command of the Army of the Pyrenees. On the return of the Bourbons he was declared a traitor. He escaped to the United States, and lived several years at Mobile, where he wrote his Exposé justificatif. During his absence he was condemned to death, but was subsequently permitted to return to France, was elected Deputy in 1827 and 1830, and after the July Revolution was put in command of the troops in Algeria. For his services in that capacity he was made marshal of France in 1831, but was soon afterwards recalled. He was appointed Governor-General of Algeria in 1835, and once more recalled in 1837. He returned to France and defended himself. though not quite successfully, both through the press and from the tribune, against the attacks made He died near Toulouse, April 21, upon him. 1842. See ALGERIA.
CLAUSEN, klouʼzen, THOMAS (1801-85). A German astronomer, born at Nübel, in Schleswig. He early devoted himself to the study of astron omy, was for several years assistant at the observatory of Altona, and from 1842 to 1872 was connected with the Observatory of Dorpat (now Yuryev), first in the capacity of observer, later as director. During his scientific career Clausen made many important contributions to astronomy, and carried out elaborate calculations of the paths of comets.
CLAUSENBURG, klouʼzen-burk. See KLau
CLAUSEWITZ, klou'-ze-vits, KARL VON (1780-1831). A Prussian general and eminent military writer, born at Burg. He entered the army in 1792, took part in the campaigns on
the Rhine in 1793-94, and attended the Berlin Academy for young officers in 1801-03, when he attracted the attention and won the favor of Scharnhorst. He was adjutant to Prince Augustus in 1806, was captured with him by the French at Prenzlau, and, after being exchanged, served until 1812 as major in the Prussian General Staff, being employed after 1809 in the Ministry of War, under Scharnhorst. In 1810-12 he was also military instructor to the Crown Prince of Prussia, and to Prince Frederick of the Netherlands. At the outbreak of the Russian War in 1812, he entered the Russian service, and aided Diebitsch in concluding the convention of Tauroggen. He accompanied Blücher as Russian staff officer during the campaign of 1813, the history of which he wrote, at the instance of Gneisenau. He reëntered the service of Prussia in 1814, was appointed chief of staff under Thielmann in the following year, and remained in that position at Coblenz until 1818, when he was made major-general and director of the 'Allgemeine Kriegsschule.' Finally, he was appointed, in 1831, chief of staff to Field-Marshal Gneisenau, and served first in Berlin, then on the Polish frontier. His writings are of great value, and have led to a considerable change in the theory of war. They were published after his death as Hinterlassene Werke über Krieg und Kriegführung (10 vols., 1832-37), of which the most noteworthy are: Vom Kriege; Der Feldzug von 1796 in Italien; Uebersicht des Feldzuges von 1813; Der Feldzug von 1815; Ueber das Leben und den Charakter von Scharnhorst.
CLAUSIUS, klou❜zê-us, RUDOLF JULIUS EMANUEL (1822-88). A German physicist, born at Köslin. In 1855 he became professor in the Polytechnic Institute of Zurich, in 1867 professor in the University of Würzburg, and in 1869 professor at Bonn. Clausius is one of
the founders of the modern science of thermodynamics (q.v.), and in a paper before the Berlin Academy of Sciences (1850) stated the second law of thermodynamics, that "heat cannot of itself pass from a colder to a hotter body." The theory of electrolysis advanced by Clausius has also played a conspicuous part in electricity. He assumed that the ions are not in complete union, but that a part of them are free to unite with other ions. These uncombined ions, accordingly, are brought together under the action of the current at the anode and cathode. Clausius was one of the most celebrated mathematical physicists of the nineteenth century, and his researches and writings in heat, electricity, and molecular physics were of the greatest value. His most important works are: Die mechanische Wärmetheorie (1876); Die Potentialfunktion und das Potential (1859); and Ueber das Wesen der Wärme, verglichen mit Licht und Schall (1857). For a biography of Clausius, consult Riecke, Rudolf Clausius (Göttingen, 1889).
CLAUSON-KAAS, klouʼzon-käs', ADOLF VON (1826—). A Danish promoter of manual training. He was born near Altona, Prussia, of Danish parents, and after serving in the Danish cavalry devoted himself entirely to the advancement of education. In 1870 he founded the Danish Clubs for Home Industry. On the occasion of the international expositions of 1873 and 1878, he gave a series of public lectures on manual training in several cities of Germany, Holland, Russia, France, and elsewhere, and also
established a series of teachers' courses. In this way he encouraged the revival of working-schools for boys, his primary aim being the mechanical development of the hand and of the eye in association with mental training. He conducted a number of training-schools in Saxony, and introduced a course of modeling and drawing in the institution for the blind at Dresden.
CLAUSTHAL, klous'tål (Ger., closed valley, from Lat. clausum, p.p. of cludere, to close + Ger. Thal, valley). An important mining town in the Prussian Province of Hanover, situated on a plateau of the Upper Harz, about 1800 feet above sea-level, and 25 miles northeast of Göttingen (Map: Prussia, D 3). Among its public buildings the most noteworthy is the Church of the Holy Ghost, the largest structure of its kind in the world. The mines of Clausthal yield silver, lead, copper, iron, and zinc, and are among the most valuable and productive in Germany. In 1903 they employed 3270 miners. They are owned and operated by the Prussian Government which has established in connection therewith a mining academy, with an experimental laboratory, model workshop, and a library of over 30,000 volumes; the number of its students in 1905 was 160. The greater portion of the male population finds employment in the mines and smelting-works, while the women are occupied in the knitting-mills. Population, in 1900, 8565; in 1905, 8632. Clausthal was founded by the Dukes of Brunswick, in the Sixteenth Century.
clava, club). A genus of fungi of the division CLAVAʼRIA (Neo-Lat. nom. pl., from Lat. Hymenomycetes, subdivision Clavati. The spores are produced equally on all parts of the surface. The species are numerous, some of them simple and club-shaped, some branched. Clavaria botrytis, a species common in oak and beech woods in Germany, growing on the ground among moss, grass, heath, etc., is gathered when young, and used as food, having a very agreeable sweetish taste. It ceases to be edible when it becomes old. which grows on sandy ground in fir-woods, is Another German species, Clavaria flava, used in the same way. Other species appear to them to contain the saccharine substance called possess similar properties, and Liebig found mannite. Clavaria botrytis is the Keulenpilz, and Clavaria flava the Ziegenbart (goat's-beard) of the Germans. See Colored Plate of EDIBLE
CLAVERACK, klǎv'-ĕr-ak. A town in Columbia County, N. Y., 30 miles south of Albany, and 3 miles east-southeast of Hudson, its banking point, on the Boston and Albany Railroad. Among the points of interest are a Dutch Reformed church, built in 1767, and an old courthouse, erected in 1784. The chief industries are agriculture and the manufacture of flour and farm implements. Settled as early as 1660, Claverack (named Klauver Rachen, "clover reaches," by the Dutch) was organized as a town in 1778, and was the county-seat from 1786 to 1806. The government is administered by town meetings, held every two years. Population, 1900, 4416; 1905, 4459.
CLA/VERHOUSE. See GRAHAM, JOHN.
CLAVICHORD, klǎv'i-kôrd (Fr. clavicorde, Med. Lat. clavichordium, from Lat. clavis, key + chorda, string). An instrument of the harpsichord family, and an important step in the evo