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ERRATA.

Page 5, line 31, read “and in these only invaded to the extent," &c.
Page 38, line 39, read “whose religious tenets do not bring them,” &c.
Page 38, line 51, read “during the ante revolutionary period,” &c.

Page 56, line 53, read “Captain and Provost Marshal” in place of “Captain and Provost Marshal General."

Pages 78 and 79; for completion of column of men furnished, see table 3, Doc. 6, appendix.

Page 91, line 42, read “ to enlist or conscript disabled men," &c.

REPORT

OF

THE PROVOST MARSHAL GENERAL.

War DePARTMENT,
PROVOST MARSHAL GENERAL'S BUREAU,

Washington, D. C., March 17, 1866. SIR: The act of Congress creating the office of Provost Marshal General was approved March 3, 1863. I was appointed to it March 17, 1863.,

Within a few weeks from that date the network of organization adopted under the law was extended over the loyal States and the counties and towns of the same, and the principal duties of the bureau, to wit: the arrest of deserters, the enrolment of the national forces for draft, and the enlistment of volunteers, had been commenced.

When the bureau was put in operation the strength of the army was deemed inadequate for offensive operations. Nearly four hundred thousand recruits were required to bring the regiments and companies then in service up to the legal and necessary standard. Disaster had been succeeded by inactivity, and the safety of the country depended on speedy and continued re-enforcement of the army. The insufficiency of the system of recruitment previously pursued had been demonstrated, and the army was diminishing by the ordinary casualties of war, but more rapidly by the expiration of the terms for which the troops had engaged to serve. To meet the emergency a new system of recruitment was inaugurated. The general government, through this bureau, assumed direct control of the business which had heretofore been transacted mainly by the State governments. The provost marshals of the several congressional districts, aided by a commissioner and surgeon in each, were made recruiting officers. Springing directly from the people, and at the same time exercising the authority and representing the necessities and wishes of the government, they reached the masses, and were able, without abating the requirements of the conscription, to promote volunteering and to examine, enlist, muster, clothe and forward recruits as fast as they could be obtained. The quotas of districts and sub-districts were made known, each locality was advised of the number it was required to furnish, and that, in the event of failure, the draft would follow.

This system (though administered under difficulties and discouragements further alluded to in the accompanying report) met the wants of the service ; recruits were rapidly obtained by voluntary enlistment or draft, and such strict regard was paid to their physical fitness, before accepting them, as to greatly reduce the enormous loss on account of discharges for physical disability, which had prevailed during the first two years of the war.

The following is a condensed summary of the results of the operations of this bureau from its organization to the close of the war :

1. By means of a full and exact enrolment of all persons liable to conscription under the law of March 3, and its amendments, a complete exhibit of the military resources of the loyal States in men was made, showing an aggregate

number of two million two hundred and fifty-four thousand and sixty-three (2,254,063) men, not including one million five hundred and sixteen (1,000,516) soldiers actually under arms when hostilities ceased.

2.. One million, one hundred and twenty thousand six hundred and twentyone (1,120,621*) men were raised at an average cost (on account of recruitment exclusive of bounties) of nine dollars and eighty-four cents ($9 84) per man; while the cost of recruiting the one million three hundred and fifty-six thousand five hundred and ninety-three (1,356,593) raised prior to the organization of the bureau was thirty-four dollars and one cent ($34 01) per man. A saving of over seventy (70) cents on the dollar in the cost of raising troops was thus effected under this bureau, notwithstanding the increase in the price of subsistence, transportation, rents, &c., during the last two years of the war.

3. Seventy-six thousand five hundred and twenty-six (76,526) deserters were arrested and returned to the army.

The vigilance and energy of the officers of the bureau in this branch of business put an effectual check to the wide-spread evil of desertion, which at one time impaired so seriously the numerical strength and efficiency of the army.

4. The quotas of men furnished by the various parts of the country were equalized, and a proportionate share of military service secured from each, thus removing the very serious inequality of recruitment which had arisen during the first two years of the war, and which, when the bureau was organized, had become an almost insuperable obstacle to further progress in raising troops.

15. Records were completed, showing minutely the physical condition of one million and fourteen thousand seven hundred and seventy-six (1,014,776) ot' the men examined, and tables of great scientific and professional value have been compiled from these data.

6. The casualties in the entire military force of the nation during the war of the rebellion, as shown by the official muster rolls and monthly returns, have been compiled, showing, among other items, 5,221 commissioned officers, and 90,868 enlisted men killed in action, or died of wounds while in service ; 2,321 commissioned officers, and 182,329 enlisted men who died from disease or accident; making an aggregate of $ 280,739 (two hundred and eighty thousand seven hundred and thirty-nine) officers and men of the army who lost their lives in service.

7. The system of recruitment established by the bureau under the laws of Congress, if permanently adopted, with such improvements as experience may suggest, will be capable of maintaining the numerical strength and improving the character of the army in time of peace, or of promptly and economically rendering available the national forces to any required extent in time of war.

8. Through the instrumentality of the bureau there was disseminated throughout the loyal States a knowledge of the routine of business in the various bureaus of the War Department, which was essential to intelligent and effective co-operation in the recruitment, through popular effort, of the armies of the republic.

The extension of the bureau over the country brought together the govern-, ment and the people by closer ties, nurtured that mutual confidence and reliance

* This number does not embrace the naval credits, allowed under the 8th section of the act of July 4, 1864, nor credits for drafted men who paid commutation, the recruits for the regular army, nor the credits allowed by the Adjutant General subsequent to May 25, 1863, for men raised prior to that date.

+ The results of the earlier examination of recruits by the medical officers of the bureau were not obtained in detail.

# These figures have been carefully compiled from the complete official file of muster-rolls and monthly returns, but yet entire accuracy is not claimed for them, as errors and omissions to some extent, doubtless, prevailed in the rolls and returns. Deaths (from wounds or disease contracted in service) which occurred after the men left the army are not included in

through which the civil war was conducted to a successful termination, and devel. oped a consciousness of national strength which will promote future peace and prosperity.

9. The results, under the act for enrolment and draft, were attained without cost to the government; the bureau never asked or required an appropriation of money for these purposes. Twenty-six million three hundred and sixtysix thousand three hundred and sixteen dollars and seventy-eight cents (826,366,316 78) were raised by its own operations in conformity to law. Out of this sum all of the expenses of enrolment and draft, and additional ones called for by special laws were met. A balance of no less than nine million three hundred and ninety thousand one hundred and five dollars and sixtyfour cents (89,390,105 64) remains (January 1, 1866) to the credit of the bureau in the treasury of the United States.

The foundations of the success of the bureau which I have controlled, under your orders and supervision, have been

1. The hearty co-operation of the civil officers of the different States, sustained by the devoted loyalty and earnestness of the masses of the people.

2. The judicious legislation of Congress.

3. The just, faithful, intelligent, industrious, and unflinching performance of duty on the part of the subordinate officers of the bureau.

I deem it my duty, as it is my pleasure, to refer by name to the last-mentioned public servants, whose merits would not otherwise be as fully known as they deserve.

I'he officers immediately associated with me in the conduct of the business, and to whom I am particularly indebted, are the following:

Colonel George D. Ruggles, aide-de-camp, assistant adjutant general, and brevet brigadier general, who served as principal assistant to the Provost Marshal General from the organization of the bureau to August 16, 1864.

Colonel N. L. Jeffries, Veteran Reserve Corps, and brevet brigadier general United States volunteers, who has served as principal assistant to the Provost Marshal General from August 17, 1864, to the present time.

Major Chauncey McKeever, assistant adjutant general: and brevet brigadier general United States army, who served in charge of deserters' branch from April 18, 1863, until August 26, 1863, and in charge of mustering and disbursing branch from August 26, 1863, until the present time.

Captain W. R. Pease, 7th United States infantry, who served in charge of deserters' branch from August 28, 1863, until April 30, 1864.

Major Henry E. Maynadier, 12th United States infantry, who served in charge of the enrolment branch from May 19, 1863, until May 20, 1864.

Major Theodore A. Dodge, Veteran Reserve Corps, and brevet colonel United States volunteers, who served in charge of the enrolment branch from May 20, 1864, until December 5, 1864, and in charge of the deserters' branch from December 5, 1864, until the present time.

Major George E. Scott, Veteran Reserve Corps, who served in charge of the deserters' branch from May 2, 1864, until December 5, 1864, and in charge of the enrolment branch from December 5, 1864, until the present time.

Major S. F. Chalfin, assistant adjutant general and brevet colonel United States army, who served as chief of the disbursing branch of this bureau from March 23, 1863, until April 7, 1864.

Major George W. Burton, assistant adjutant general of volunteers, who served as chief of the disbursing branch of this bureau from April 7, 1864, until March 8, 1865.

Brevet Major H. R. Rathbone, captain 12th United States infantry, and assistant adjutant general of volunteers, who has served as chief of the disbursing branch of this bureau from March 8, 1865, until the present time.

Colonel Richard H. Rush, 6th Pennsylvania cavalry, who served in charge

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