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Ore tic teases; that only those se tro stiptions and photocopying) WO se d o peteased costs.

srod would require no work on 3. 4. departments of publishers. i nove the charges for photopying wo ****.mal in this part of a library's bud:

Iitta.ble that libraries could obtain Dos a ry for this method.

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B. Caveat re Information Arailable:

In order to place the advantages and disadvantages of both proerdures abu in better perspective, this Committee is aware of the absence of reta! sary information and the need for some study of the impact of bb 'r the future operations of libraries, on the business of publishers, and be semination of knowledge. The advantages and disadvantages as listed det necessarily imply their relative importance.

C. Variable PricingAdrantages:

(1) Libraries would know, in advance, their cost of serials for buriet." purposes.

(2) If limited to a single varied price level; the varied subscript n'r could be collected/paid to a normal subscription agency.

(3) Libraries would not be called upon to do any additional work or try keeping

(4) Libraries would not need to distinguish between typpe of material los photocopied-provided that all subscriptions placed by a library were al in price-lerel applicable to photocopying.

(5) Would cost the least administratively for both publisher and litraning

(6) Publishers would receive revenue which they might otherwise not p767 from unsupervised copying machines. Tariable Pricing-Disadrantages:

(1) Prices of subscriptions to libraries under a variable pricing polices ! by and large, undergo greater increases than they would under a trana* system.

(2) If multiple levels of pricing-according to photocopying reage and federal or intended-were in effect, both publisher and library would be in viated. some analysis (perhaps statistical sampling) of the amount of typing

(a) The publisher so as to set appropriate rates; and

(b) The library so as to determine at what rate they would select for a subscription.

(3) If there were more than one level of pricing, subscriptions and pasmet might not be handled by a subscription agency.

(4) Even if only one additional or separate level were instituted it! 1 a normal rate for libra ries or users without intended photocopying, and (oor ni for those with intended photocopsing), this would in smaller or TIP #. libraries make it necessary for the library photocopier to know frutas periodicals the photocopying rate had been paid and for which it bud fje paid, and cause additional work with regard to requests for photorenhof periodicals for which the higher rate had not been paid

(5) Cause additional work for both publisher and librarian If the past! is to know the extent of photoxising either within a particular ulrary of a particular serial,' assuming that such information he made available

(6) Without statistical information make it imposible for pull-bers to judge the financial sneres of a particular journal.

17) There is no necessary relation between the subscription price and the amount of photocopying. Therefore a single photocopying subw"Tipp pc causes libraries preparing few photoxupies to subsidize the libraria purgar many photocopies. Some publishers may be under flated and caftorte a lishers may be erercompensated.

IN Parment would be required in front," i e as payment when the strip tion is started or renewed.

(9) Would eliminate applicability of "fair use"

(10) The publisher mas establish prices that are so high as to restrict war of the material.

D. Transaction or rixage Charger--Adrvantages:

(1) Payment for photorupsing tinage would be diely related to the *** of <pring done

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to limit price increases; that only those serials' with a reduction in total income (subscriptions and photoopying) would require price increases other than those due to increased costs.

(6) This method would require no work on the part of subscription agencies or subscription departments of publishers.

(7) Since the charges for photowying would be specified item by item, the costs incurred in this part of a library's budget could be determinable.

(8) It is possible that libraries (ould obtain other useful by-products from any mechanism necessiry for this method.

(9) Libraries would know for which serials or periodicals photocopying privileges are available.

(10) Payment would not be required “in front," i.e. it would be charged after the event.

(11) This method would lend itself to some reduction in unit charges to high usage libraries when a certain volume was reached.

Transaction or ('sage Charges-Disadvantages

(1) Additional record-keeping would be required by libraries: minimally-80 far as the publisher is concerned--the making of a second copy of the first page or other record to be sent to a clearing house. So far as the library's own requirements are concerned-depending on method of audit or record keepinga further copy or other record may be required internally.

(2) In large or complex library organizations, correct reporting, and verification of payments, etc. will impose a burden on such libraries.

(3) The person making the copy would have to distinguish between royalty. payable and royalty-not-payable types of material.

(4) Problems will arise in regard to the making of copies of only sections of an article, and the method of computing charges would require definition.

(5) The library would initially not be able to estimate its budgeting require ments

(0) The clearing house or other authority would have to establish a library account number,

(7) There would be substantial administrative costs which would diminish the income to publishers unless offset by increased charges to libraries,

(8) The method requires clarification of "fair use" so as not to eliminate the concept of "fair use."

(9) The publisher may establish prices that are so high as to restrict usage of material.


New York, April 1, 1975. To: Working Group Conference on Resolution of Copyright Issues From : Committee to consider Definition of Serials (Periodicals).

The Committee (J. Barsky, Mr. Harris, J. Marke and F. E. McKenna) met for the second time on March 31, 1975 at Special Libraries Association, New York (2:15 1:15 p.m.).

The first meeting of the committee had brought to light differences in usage regarding words such as "serials" and "periodicals" in the library community and in the publishing community. At the second meeting consideration focussed on finding a definition that already had been recognized in a national or international effort for standardizations with such adjustments that would appear to be appropriate for copyright discussions.

The American National Standards Institute (ANSI formerly (SASI) had adopted and published American National Standard ASSI 239.9-1971, "Identification Number for Serial Publications." This number is referred to as SSN (Standard Serial Number). Thru the cooperation of ANSI and ISO (Interna. tional Organization for Standardization), the addition of a cole for the country of publication converts the SSN to ISSN (International Standard Serials Number). The ISSN is a series parallel to the ISBX for books. For a more detailed discussion of the evolution, adoption and use of ISSX, there is attached as Appendix d a copy of p. xi xiii (as well as p. vii) from Irregular Serials et Annuals, 2. ed. Bowker, N.Y. 1972.

For additional background there is attached as Appendir B a copy of p. vil of Ulrich's International Periodicals Directory 15th ed., 1973-1974, Bowker, N.Y. 1973.

1 The definition of "serial" is heing considered by another ('ommittee: and the wo has not yet reached a consensus on the types of serials to be covered. This footnote applies to each use of the word ''serial" in this document.


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A copy of ANSI Z39.9-1971 is attached to this report as Appendiz (Era tory material is presented in the Foreword (p. 3 & 5). A footnote on p. 324. am that the definition of “serials used is from Anglo-American Cataloging ku Chicago, ALA, 1967. p. 346.

The definition as presented on p.5 of ANSI 239.9 1971 is:

Serial. A publication issued in successive parts bearing numerical or elden ogical desiguations and intended to be contin ned indefinitely.

The above definition in the ANSI Standard is the first of two senteurs ** Anglo-American ('ataloging Rules (p.346) :

Serial. A publication issued in successive parts bearing numerical or elde ogical designations and intended to be continued indefinitely. Serials in periodicals, newspapers, annuals (reports, yearbooks, etc.), the journal, trol proceedings, transactions, etc., of societies, and numbered monographic sene

The committee considered the two statements above and agreed to modit • of the AAC definition by two subtractions and one addition. The (LLER presents to the Working Group the following:

Recommendation 1.--That the following definition of serial be acarpled tree in discussions of the Working Group:

Serial. A publication issued in sucressive parts bearing numerical or she ogical designations, which is intended to be continued indefinitely and wtort identified by an ISSN. Serials include periodicals, newspapers, and the forta memoirs, proceedings, transactions, etc. of societies. Serials are xobjart ta se scription prices paid in advance. (This eliminates publications that apyrat as nually or less frequently.)

Rerommendation 2.That the Working Group recommend the use of the al te definition to the Conference.

During the committee's discussions, it was recognized that whaterer det: *, or variant is agreed on at this time, that of necessity the definition may bure to be changed from time to time to reflect on-going changes by both inden and librarians, as well as to reflect experience gained from whatever initiai sro are attempted.


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ini authority in charge of the IS r ing the cataloging rules, definition I'Bolted in spliis, mergers, title chan

INTERNATIONAL STANDARD SYRIAL WEMBERINO (ISSN Since publication of the first edition of Irregular Serials and Annuala in C significant movements toward standardization have been implemented Three changes provide for more eficient compilation, storage, and disarminative werials bibliographic data. (hief among these changes is the intriwortjent the International Standard Serial Numbers, which have been assigned to tities liked in the Bowker Serials Bibliography.

la murcing the 18SXs, bibliographic cent
** , bial numbering: subscription ag

:. * they could identify titles by
arterers uiry would be coded with a
Way by be Library of Congress for Y
familias ibe country code printed befor

*** M1019 The country code is not
Bring an international country code st
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elation that includes ISSN
r i bed in three segments: Volume
1. Podusis Directory, issued in a new

nogular serials and Annuals: An
S in in 1972. Volume III cont

userery entry in Volumes I, IT L

i en made to include alls man wad are currently abstracted and

. ripa abstracting and inde W arto the Barras Serials Bibliogra ** e with the Library of Congress

*** to titles not represented in 15 mil published periodically,

**Shipmuch publication listed in ti 24 squally designed form to the

on the cover of each issue


The Standard Serial Numbering (SSN) plan was prepared by Satuwt..* 20 of the American National Standards Institute ('ommittee 22 stata tion in the field of library work, documentation, and related publishing ('ommittee 739), organized under the pr xectures of the American Nathinai 14 ards Institute (ANSI), is sponsored by the Council of National Litran Associations


Va brals Titles (SST) cumula
* ! * Dent large database to
pompe sisted in 1972. The
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At the 1970 Oslo moting, the International Organization for Standards Tehnical ('ommittee 46 (ISO TC 461, Working Group No. 1, approred the print 739 SSAN the basis for an international standard serial dumbering In The ISO TC 46 plenary meeting in Lisbon, May 1971, approved this mendation

Following this meeting, ISO TC 46 akuigned a block of ISSN numlwn to the I'nited States the R R Bowker (ompany's Nerial. Bibliography Ale i selected

the starting point for the implementation of the ISSN

The SSX *n* formally approa and published by AXSI as 14:11 Vumber for Arrial Publirattu (739) INI. $ 5 per copp) The INSS to be with aprot, has not yet been published by INO) TY 46 Honeter for portal et *****, in order to a rold later rhang" in the format (this (rund when the

BN **me the ISBN), and in order to enfourn to the autent of the Rwkef Seriais Billigraphy, which is international. the abbreviation und from the beginning will be ISSN


I***, p in for serialu what the It

r up bww that is, thes
**** A ny and the librarian
M iha micimum of error. TY
* It

States, the major
* ** nt alltwriodical sulare
*** ter beorier By using ISS
11 18 will aid in ordering

DESCRIPTION OF THE STANDARD The definition for "serial" used in the serial standard is from the AngloAmerican cataloging rule: "A publication issued in successive parts bearing numbered or chronological designations and intended to be published indefintely."

The purpose of the standard is to define the structure of a concise, unique, and unambiguous code for serial publications. This code is solely for identification of serials. The assignment of the code numbers must be centrally administered. While International Standard Book Sumbering is decentralized, a centralized system for serials numbering is required because of the large number of serials publishers throughout the world. Some 13,000 publishers are represented by the 70.00 publications now being numbered in the Bowker Serials Bibliography.

The registration number of the ISSN is seven numerical digits plus an eighth, the check digit. (See procedure for calculating check digits near end of article.) An example of an ISSN is 1234–5679. All digits must be printed. The hyphen is a recognition aid.

A unique correspondence exists between each assigned ISSX and the serial to which it is assigned. For each serial there is only one code number and for each code number there is only one serial

The central authority in charge of the ISSN assignment is responsible for interpreting the cataloging rules, definitions, and distinctions between serial entities involved in splits, mergers, title changes, and other problems,


In assigning the ISSNs, bibliographic centers and some libraries requested a purely sequential numbering; subscription agencies wanted assignment by blocks of numbers so they could identify titles by country. A solution was worked out in which every entry would be coded with a two-digit country code. The country code in use by the Library of Congress for MARC II is applied for this purpose. Every title has the country code printed before the ISSN, in the following format: IS ISSN 00000019. The country code is not part of the standard. When the ISO approves an international country code standard, the country code will be modified accordingly.

PUBLICATION OF THE 18SN The first publication that includes ISSNs is the Bowker Serials Bibliography, which is published in three segments: Volumes I and II, entitled Ulrich', Interna. tional Periodicals Directory, issued in a new 14th edition in 1971; and Volume III, entitled Irregular Serials and Annuals: An International Directory. published in its 2nd edition in 1972. Volume III contains a combined alphabetical index with ISSNs for every entry in Voluines I, II, and III.

Every effort has been made to include all serials that are subscribed to by major libraries and are currently abstracted and indexed. At the request of libraries, subscription agencies, abstracting and indexing services, and others using the ISSN system, the Bowker Serials Bibliography Department, in cooperation and coordination with the Library of Congress, ANSI Z39 (ISO), and ISDS, will assign numbers to titles not represented in its database. Listings of newly as. signed ISS.Ns will be published periodically.

The ISSN for each publication listed in this database will be sent by computer mailing on a specially designed form to the publisher with the request that the number be printed on the cover of each issue.

The New Serials Titles (NST) cumulative for 1950-1970, currently being developed, is the next large database to which ISSNs will be assigned. It is scheduled to be published in 1972. The NST cumulative file together with the Bowker Serials Bibliography file will represent the largest computerized database for serial users.

URES OF ISSN ISSNs will do for serials what the International Standard Book Number (ISBN) is doing for books-that is, they will provide the serials publisher, the subscription agency, and the librarian with a tool for communicating basic information with a minimum of error. The advantages of such standardization are many. In the United States, the major subscription agencies handle approxi. mately 85 percent of all periodical subscriptions and 60 percent of all irregular serials orders from libraries. By using ISSNs, no publication will be mistaken for another; the ISSN will aid in ordering. shipping. issue claiming, and billing.

I te the constant weighting factors associated *** Inter

1 Mala ple each dixit by its associated weighting fac

Cataloging will be facilitated, and circulation and interlibrary loan syatems an become more efficient. It will open the possibility of creating regional business for improved interlibrary cooperation; and, since the Standard Numbering Art at Bowker is involved in both book and serials numbering, the task of desing overlap of serials and monographs can be undertaken and resolved, prurid. * librarian with concise bibliographic information.

Specifically, the ISSN can be used by abstracting and indexing series us unique code and a means to bridge the gap between the ALA entry (as of in the Anglo-American cataloging rules) and the title as it appears on tbe *** and the title citation; by subscription agencies who will use it for conta . billing, inventory, claims, announcements, etc.; by authors for priebe M publishers for inventory, ordering, billing, and announcements; and "2 4 location of the item in the library-linking the citation to the title It mi used in library processing for identification (ID) countrol on acquisti , cias ing, binding, accessioning, shelving, monitor-in process control, cowpertire a's loging, circulation, inventory, updating holdings, developing local and 0-3 holdings; in library reference for retrieval/request identification, linkages. with citation, interlibrary loan, etc. In machine use the 188x will fulgii ibe od for file update and linkage, retrieval and transmittal of data.

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o te than three years from the beginnin * C lee 3 00 serials until ISSN became an posts tard is realized only when it is implemer wenn wuid tuily understands it and uses it fo 17 a t The established rules and principles o ! Irlaufis. unimportant as they may seei L'edatiger the final success of the standard.

i of the libraries seeking to adapt coi
gan? erat qurations shown that serial record m:
S a n Standardization offers a key
i r nep fumard standardization was taken
ma'. CA. : dard serial Numbering.

Wed step las pow been taken; it is this
Juras. International Standard Serial Num
b ed in part from the Boucker Annual, 1
braatering (ISSN)," by Emery Koltay.)

Before arriving at this ISSN code, Subcommittee 20 are consideration to. ** alternate codes proposed, the Coden and the Ruly code, but they decided INY At the ISO Oxlo meeting ISSN was again chosen in preference to the way are Since serial titles are in all languages and alphabets, only a universally a re set of symbols such as a numeric system with arabic numerals, comte tv : alphabets as well as to all computing machinery, could fulfll a wrial ser hun code requirement. To solve the problem of converting the (oden to ISSN is a project under study to develop a translation table for the title pro'y abstracted and indexed, indicating the corresponding ISSN for the go! used Coden.

INTERNATIONAL SERIALS DATA BYSTEM At the ISO plenary meeting in Lisbon, May 1971, when the

standard was in the final stage of becoming an international standard, ONESTOTNINNT requested and made a formal proposal to the Iso that they became the ide. istering center for the ISSN, under the name of ISDS (International STI Data System). This proposal was backed by financial commitments from ONEST! and the French government.

In October 1971 an agreement for cooperation and coordination had be reached among the International Serials Inta Sistem, the the nization for Standardization, the Library of Congo, and the RR Company. The l’nited States will go ahead with the in:retentation et il., * system with an international content until I'NISIST INDS efforts to arrafe IN! materialize, and ISIS becomes capable of taking over and handling the task of a signing ISSN:

Years of hard work and effort are behind the ISSX arrumplishment Rese the members of ANSI 739 Sulxcommittee 20. many people fro the bo and library and information science world hare mantributed at the natural international levels to the development of this standard Spial thanks E* go to Dr. Jernald Orne (hairman of the ANSI Committee 7.29, wholm! ISO plenars meeting in Stockholm: Ford ('rolton of the Library of te (hairman of Subcommittee 20 for Standard Refint Vumbering: Lawren. lol Inputon at the l'ouncil of Library Hour Namur Tarn ( of ***** Division. Library of Congre*; and Dyr Inns Jurut Ehler ve Getruny, we chaired the work of the In) MY 46 Working Group.Volan ISSN

Jawy qu'er Serials and Annuals: An Internatione
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