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Variate Manufacturing and Shipping Cost.
- Vatiale Sing. l'romotion, and General Coats
AIR, Stadio, teenring, and Talent Costa
potre... 1. Break Even in Terms of Average
se roots are charged to the records which are manufactured before the tape.. Topes are produced only when
Po l a***13 ** given by the resorting company of why a negative number wa. given for "fixed manufacturing
. *Orrorost. fut cias..cal tape it mo figure was given for fixed depreciation conta" for such tapes. ... ** 19'*v*p of rune mpanies
Exhibit 14 -- RECORD RETURAS, 1969-1974
The industry has long had a practice of allowing free returns of unsold merchandise to manufacturers. This exhibit summarized the dollar magnitude of this activity.
Exhibit 15 .. CONCENTRATION IN THE PHONOGRAPH
RICURO INDUSTRY 1947-1990
The exhibit shows clearly that the trend toward reduced concentration which began at the end of World War II has continued since the 1965 hearings. Concentration in the recording industry is declining.
Exhibits 16-21 -DISTRIBUTION OF ROYALTY RATES
PATI TI TOPVETES Y TIEF
The final six exhibits provide specific, new information on what has come to be known as the "ceiling vs. rate" issue.
To obtain the data contained in these exhibits, CRI undertook a comprehensive study of all licenses issued in 1974 by two companies and for which data were available at the time of the study. The nature of the study is spelled out in detail in pp. 82-118 of the main report.
As an aid to understanding this section of the report, the following guide to the exhibits might prove useful:
Basically, the exhibits fall into two main groups • (1) tabular
Looking at the total of tunes studies, the frequency dis-
Lahibit 18-on page 94 demonstrates explicitly the standard
A study of licensing needs to be based upon a sample of licenses. Studies based on repies of records sold are interesting but they are not directly relo**** * ** :nating of the licensing process. For example: in * **udy of 1.: 150 licenses are avamined; 9a are at le, and 2 are at 1.54. The parter of licensing rates derived is quite different than 18 the sample were ta p ted by the fact that one of the 1.54 licensed recordings was a par Ty outstanding seller.
Dny event, licensing routinely occurs before anyone knows what the
of we will be for # particular licensed recording. consequently, the or a.ty for sales volume (which comes after) to affect the pricing of ..eu trasaction (which comes before) is highiy limited.
e tage distribution of various rate categories reported from the a: study of licenses has not been distorted by weighting for sales volume. to prw. congrehensive picture, all licenses signed by two leading firms er, *t of 1994 were included in the study.
e ***.mate at the two operatie termi p ari.* **!d over 50
******1. 19 , more thar 1 !! total is! !r in se pers 1*. * is experier.es ex*i£18in the same da's are rosso any w *****:mily trial of instry practice.
Dr. GLOVER. If we may turn to exhibit A, this summarizes the first part of our presentation. We will show that, in fact, copyright owners' income has outpaced inflation by a very substantial margin, and
re shall show that an increased statutory rate would hurt consumers recording artists, musicians, and recordmakers without any just cause. We shall show that their income has increased faster than the consumer price index and another very common measure of economie welfare, which is median family income.
A number of effects would take place under an increased statutory rate. One would be the pressure to increase prices. If the total effert of this increase in royalty took itself out in the form of increased prices, it would raise the ultimate cost of the 2-cent increase as proposed in the section to over $100 million. As Mr. Gortikov said, if it went to trents, it would be roughly doubled.
The profits of recordmakers would be under great, not minor, pres. Lures. In fact, the proposed increase is equal to about the profits which are made by the record companies on the manufacture and sale of recards in the l'nited States.
Recor making is a very risky business, as I am sure you are all aware. We hear a great deal about the hits. We do not liear a great deal about the failures. In fact, as I shall show, a large frartion of the records do not even cover their costs, let alone make any profits, le cordingly, this would raise the break-even point and increase the chance of risk, with a depressing effect on the offerings of new, experi. mental, and high-risk music.
In consequence, the employment in the industry would fall for artists, musicians, sound technicians, studio personnel, manufaturing personnel, and would have a grave impact, as I said, on the entire industry; and indeed, even on neer and unknown composers whose works would present a partirularly higher risk.
If we may turn to exhibit B, when the statutory rate was set in 1909.
Mr. Gortikor waid, the manufacturer's price was about 40 cents for that reel that he showed you. It that point, the 2 cents repre. sented exactly 5 percent of the record price. The record company receives about 2 cents per tune now, and out of that, the copyright owner still receives his 2 cents. And that represents, now, 71., perrent.
So, in terms of shares over the years. ('ongress felt that 5 percent was not a bad share in 1819. Ind now, copyright owners are, in fact, getting a larur share of those process than they did then.
If we can turn to look at the total in exhibit ('. just in recent year, these are the futimated merbanical royalties that have been paid. They have gone up from a million to ST9 million. In fact, a better finir than the $9 million is probably somewhere in the neighborhood of S3 million, and if you round it off to Sw) million, you can see that, in fait.the rovalties in those year have more than doubled.
In wondering the income revived by copyright owners. I think it is entirely appropriate to take into account not only the mechanical rates that they get directly from the phonograph records, but the 1*rformance royalties that they art,p ecially from radio broadcast sluch are alw) Viry sulmtantial, and from wluch, of course, the record rompanied derive nomrome whatever under the provint copyright Jaw. The art performance for, I might al.) av, in background music, which is a growth industry.
We will now turn to the direct comparison of publisher incomes with price indexes. As you can see, the consumer price index has gone up by 45 percent in roughly that 10- or 11-year period. The median family income has gone up about 93 percent. The proceeds to copyright owners from mechanical royalties alone have substantially more than doubled-and this, I would like to emphasize again, excludes their income from performance royalties from phonograph records, whether it be on radio, television, or whatever.
Another way of looking at this, if we can have the next exhibit, is to see this is on the basis of per tune. Lest it be argued that the increase does not take into account that there are more composers or such, this exhibit shows what has happened per released tune.
There are 50,000 released tunes per year, roughly. For every single band on that record that Mr. Gortikov showed you, there was a separate released tune. If this record is put onto a tape, there is another series of 10 or 12 released tunes. If it is put on quadraphonic sound, there are more released tunes and so on. There are roughly 50,000 released tunes a year.
The income per released tune has gone up from $656 per released tune in 1963 to almost $1,400 in 1972. We were not able to get a later year to give you those figures, but again, you can see that it has gone upeven faster; that it has gone up by over 200 percent.
Mr. Wiggins. Excuse me. So that I can understand the chart, is a record album a single release, or is it a series of 10 releases?
Dr. GLOVER. Ten or twelve, depending on how many there are on there. Each band is a separate released tune and for each form of recording, again, it often requires a separate release.
Mr. DANIELSON. I have a supplemental followup question there. You have a better than doubling there on the mechanical royalty. Is it proper to infer that each tune is released more times, or are there more tunes being released ?
Dr. GLOVER. You mean over time?
Mr. DANIELSON. In line with Mr. Gortikov's showing of that, some tune got 91, for example?
Dr. GLOVER. Yes. There are more releases per tune.
Mr. DANIELSON. As you have more tunes per mechanical device, per record or tape, the same tunes get used, becom: fixed more times. Is that the idea ?
Dr. GLOVER. Yes, sir. You have more artists and more forms of recording. And then there are followups. Again, as you are well aware if you are a record fancier, or if you watch television, you will see that there are reissues-Nat King Cole's records and so on-which is sort of like a paperback. And again, those alsoeach one of those represents an additional release.
Mr. DANIELSON. I think what you are trying to tell us is that a given work, a given composition, is released more times at the present. Its probability of being released is greater at the present than it was years ago.
Dr. GLOVER. That is right. Which is not to say that everyone who has a tune will succeed in getting it recorded or that it will then be sold. In fact, many records,