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THE MUSIC PUBLISHING INDUSTRY HAS NOT ONLY BEATEN INFLATION BY
Thanks to the revolution in recording technology and in
In order to reach an informed, not to say a fair judgment concerning the statutory mechanical royalty rate and whether it should be increased, one really must recognize and take under advisement some basic facts as to the nature and attraction of modern-day recorded music and the economics of the recording industry.
Recordings in 1909.
Seen from our present-day perspecti:e, che recordings of .909 .. when Congress thought it fair that copyright owners should get as much as ?t per recorded tune -- seen naive and quaint, both artistically and technically. Recordings were made mechanically through an inverted zegaphone and the this and scratchy results were physically pressed on one side of a "wax disc, one Cune per disc. Or a nechanical reproduc
tion of sheet music was produced through perforations in a roll of paper. The experience of listening to such music -- miraculous in its day, no doubt -- bears little relationship to the experience of listening to modern recorded music, popular or classical.
Recorded Music Today.
The technology of recording sound has advanced tremendously. Fidelity -- range, responsiveness, and freedom from distortion -- is only one aspect of this advance. Many and varied sound and musical effects may now be created through use of multiple microphones and amplifiers, and multi-channel recording tapes controlled througn 1. tricate electronic consoles.
This advancing technology nakes extraordinary kinds and ranges of musical expression come alive through artistry of performance, arrangenents, musical concepts, and through sound as something to be experienced for itself.
A tune, alone, a configuration of musical notes indicated on a sheet of paper, makes no music, let alone a musical experience. To become music, the tune at least must be hummed or picked out with one finger on a piano. A musical experience -- far beyond the tune itself -- is in large ne asure a natter of musical arrangement that reflects a concept. It is in very large neasure a matter of the artistry, personality, and emotion of performance. In recorded music, today, the extra dimension of the artists and technology of the generation and recording of sound is added, ind it is often this ingredient that makes for a demorable musical experience.
in less than a generation, the recording industy has gone from "L?" to Hi-Fi" to stereopnonic -9. quadrmonic sound: izom "microgroove'' : 3-channel, Sequency-sc:sened and corrected -ades.
These facts about modern recorded music are coming to be recognized and appreciated. An article in The Wall Street Journal described "How Record Producers Use Electronic Gear to Create Big Sellers".*
Each instrument has its own microphone leading to its own
Even a president of the American Guild of Authors and Composers has acknowledged that the popularity of tunes and songs is founded almost entirely upon successful recordings created and marketed by recording companies. He said:
Years ago a publisher bought a song, plugged it and zot
Benefits From, and Contributions to Recorded Music: Recording
Overview. In Parts A, B, and C of Exhibit 5, estimates are given
Growth in Record Re:11: Sales. Between !955 and 1994, st:sateu record saius 15 902. ..30 cos cose son .ess than $280 billion to about $2.: 51:1ion. These estimated Detail sales are based on !ist prices, which has been one common standard for estimating re:11: sales over time. 3ecause 308€ recoriings 189 suid it . s::e0ie discount, low
Foreign fee income and other aiscellaneous Incone are not included in pet sales. Foreign fee income is from the licensing of U.S. record masters for pressing overseas, and is estimated to be roughly one-half of the total figure shown. The remainder is from domestic fees from record and tape clubs, inventory adjustments, other one time itess, interest, and rent. They are erpressed as a percentage of net sales to show how much they contribute to the profits recording finas make on their recording
This assumption is supported by the prices
Recording firms sales are estimated to be about half of retail sales at list prices. the surveyed record fires reported charging for their various types of recordings.
Ret sales figures are from RIAA. They are based on sales at list prices. Because sales are commonly made at these days, actual retail sales are about 20-251 lower than the figures given.
sinable di sount
SOURCE: CAI surveys of recording companies are described in Exhibit S. The actual statistics reported by the surveyed
companies appear in the Technical Appendix. The figures supplied by these companies are for their U.S. operations only.