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do the rest of mankind-enemies in war-in peace friends.

WE, therefore, the representatives of the United States of America in general congress assembled, appealing to the supreme Judge of the world, for the rectitude of our intentions, Do, in the name, and by the authority of the good people of these colonies, solemnly publish and declare, that these United Colonies are and of right ought to be free and independent states-That they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be totally dissolved; and that as free and independent states, they have full power to levy war, conclude peace, contract alliances, establish commerce, and to do all other acts and things, which independent states may of right do. And for the support of this declaration, with a firm reliance on the protection of Divine Providence, we mutually pledge to each other our lives, our fortunes, and our sacred honor. Signed by order and in behalf of the Congress. JOHN HANCOCK, PRESIDENT.

Attested, CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary.

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Oliver Wolcott

New York.

William Floyd

Philip Livingston

Francis Lewis

Lewis Morris

New Jersey.

Richard Stockton

John Witherspoon
Francis Hopkinson
John Hart
Abraham Clark


Robert Morris
Benjamin Rush
Benjamin Franklin
John Morton
George Clymer
James Smith

George Taylor

James Wilson

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WE, the people of the United States, in order to form a more perfect Union, establish justice, insure domestic tranquillity, provide for the common defence, promote the general welfare, and secure the blessings of liberty to ourselves and our posterity, do ordain and establish this Constitution for the United States of America. [See 1 Wheat. 324. 4 Wheat. 403.]



SECTION I. All legislative powers, herein granted, shall be vested in a Congress of the United States, which shall consist of a Senate and House Representatives.


Sect. II. 1. The House of representatives shall be composed of members chosen every second year by the people of the several states; and the electors in each state shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the state legislature.

2. No person shall be a representative, who shall not have attained to the age of twenty-five years, and been seven years a citizen of the United States,

and who shall not, when elected, be an inhabitant of that state in which he shall be chosen.

3. Representatives and direct taxes shall be apportioned, among the several states which may be included within this Union, according to their respective numbers, which shall be determined by adding to the whole number of free persons, including those bound to service for a term of years, and excluding Indians not taxed, three-fifths of all other persons. The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct. The number of representatives shall not exceed one for every thirty thousand, but each state shall have at least one representative; and, until such enumeration shall be made, the state of New Hampshire shall be entitled to choose three, Massachusetts eight, Rhode Island and Providence Plantations one, Connecticut five, New York six, New Jersey four, Pennsylvania eight, Delaware one, Maryland six, Virginia ten, North Carolina five, South Carolina five, and Georgia three. [See 5 Wheat. 317.]

4. When vacancies happen in the representation from any state, the executive authority thereof shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies.

5. The house of representatives shall choose their speaker, and other officers, and shall have the sole power of impeachment.

Sect. III. 1. The senate of the United States shall be composed of two senators from each state, chosen by the legislature thereof for six years; and each senator shall have one vote. [See 6 Wheat.

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