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Of Fyfe, and til Dwnsynane fare

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To byde Makbeth; for pe Thayne
Of Fyfe thowcht, or he come agayne
Til Kennawchy, pan for til bryng
Háme wyth hym a lawchful Kyng.

Til Kennawchy Makbeth come sone,
And Felny gret pare wald have done:

F 151 b Bot pis Lady wyth fayre Trettè

Hys purpos lettyde done to be.

And sone, frá scho pe Sayle wp saw,
Đan til Makbeth wyth lytil awe

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L. 179.] This "hows of defens" was perhaps Maiden Castle, the ruins of which are on the south side of the present Kennoway. There are some remains of Roman antiquity in this neighbourhood, and it is very probable that Macduff's castle stood on the site of a Roman Castellum.

D. MACPHERSON.

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Scho sayd, Makbeth, luke wp, and se
Wndyr yhon Sayle forsuth is he,

'De Thayne of Fyfe, pat pow has sowcht.
Trowe powe welle, and dowt rycht nowcht,
Gyve evyr þow sall hym se agayne,

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He sall be set in-tyl gret payne;
Syne pow wald hawe put hys Neke

• In-til þi yhoke. Now will I speke
Wyth pe ná mare: fare on pi waye,
Owpire welle, or ill, as happyne may.'
Dat passage syne wes comownly

In Scotland cald þe Erlys-ferry.

Of pat Ferry for to knaw
Báth pe Statute and þe Lawe,
A Bate suld be on ilkè syde
For to wayt, and tak pe Tyde,
Til mak pame frawcht, þat wald be
Frá land to land be-yhond pe Se.
Frá þat þe sowth Bate ware sene
De landis wndyre sayle betwene
Frá þe sowth as pan passand
Toward pe north pe trad haldand,
De north Bate suld be redy made
Towart be sowth to hald pe trade:
And pare suld náne pay mare
Dan foure pennys for pare fare,
Quha-evyr
for his frawcht wald be
For caus frawchtyd owre pat Se.

Dis Makduff pan als fast

In Ingland a-pon Cowndyt past.

Dare Dunkanys Sownnys thre he fand,

Dat ware as banysyd off Scotland,

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Quhen Makbeth-Fynlake pare Fadyr slwe,

And all be Kynryk til hym drwe.

L. 226.] Four pennies, in Wyntown's time, weighed about one eightieth part of a pound of silver: how much they were in Macbeth's time, I suppose, cannot be ascertained; but, in the reign of David Ist, they weighed one sixtieth of a pound. If we could trust to Regiam Majestatem, four pennies, in David's time, were the value of one third of a boll of wheat, or two lagene of wine, or four lagenæ of ale, or half a sheep. [Tables of Money and Prices in Ruddiman's Introduction to And. Diplo. For the quantity of the lagenæ compare VIII. xvii. 35, with Fordun, p. 990: Sc. Chr. V. II. p. 223, wherein lagena is equivalent to galown in Wyntown.] It is reasonable to suppose, that the whole of the boat was hired for this sum.

The landing place on the south side was most probably at North Berwick, which belonged to the family of Fife, who founded the nunnery there. D. MACPHERSON.

Saynt Edward Kyng of Ingland þan,
Dat wes of lyf a haly man,
Dat trettyd þir Barnys honestly,
Ressayvyd Makduff rych curtasly,
Quhen he come til hys presens,
And mád hym honowre and reverens,
As afferyd. Til þe Kyng

He tauld pe caus of hys cummyng.
De Kyng pan herd hym movyrly,
And answeryd hym all gudlykly,
And sayd, hys wyll and hys delyte

F 152 a Wes to se for pe profyte

Of þá Barnys; and hys wille

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Wes pare honowre to fullfille.

He cownsalyd pis Makduffe for-pi

To trete þá Barnys curtasly.

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And quhilk of pame wald wyth hym gá,

He suld in all pame sykkyre má,

As pai wald þame redy mak

For pare Fadyre dede to take

Revengeans, or wald þare herytage,
Dat to pame felle by rycht lynage,
He wald þame helpe in all pare rycht
With gret suppowale, fors, and mycht.
Schortly to say, pe lawchful twá
Brepire forsuke wyth hym to gá
For dowt, he put paim in pat peryle,
Dat pare Fadyre sufferyd qwhyle.
Malcolme pe thyrd, to say schortly,
Makduff cownsalyd rycht thraly,
Set he wes noucht of lauchfull bed,
As in pis Buke yhe have herd rede:
Makduff hym trettyd nevyr-pe-les
To be of stark hart and stowtnes,
And manlykly to tak on hand
To bere pe Crowne pan of Scotland:

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And bade hym pare-of hawe ná drede:

For kyng he suld be made in-dede:

And pat Traytoure he suld sla,

Dat banysyd hym and hys Bredyr twa.

L. 274.] The story of these two brothers of Malcolm, (see also c. xvi. of this book) and their refusal of the kingdom, which he, a bastard, obtained, seems to be a mere fiction. Yet, why it should have been invented, I can see no reason: surely not with intent to disgrace Malcolm, whose posterity never lost the crown, and were such eminent friends to the church. The

Dan Malcolme sayd, he had a ferly,
Dat he hym fandyde sá thraly
Of Scotland to tak pe Crowne,

Qwhill he kend hys condytyowne.

Forsuth, he sayde, pare wes náne þan
Swá lycherows a lyvand man,

As he wes; and for þat thyng
He dowtyde to be made a Kyng.
A Kyngis lyf, he sayd, suld be
Ay led in-til gret honestè:
For-pi he cowth iŵyl be a Kyng,
He sayd, þat oysyd swylk lyvyng.

Makduff pan sayd til hym agayne,
Dat þat excusatyowne wes in wayne:
For gyve he oysyd þat in-dede,
Of Women he suld have ná nede;
For of hys awyne Land suld he
Fayre Wemen have in gret plentè.
Gyve he had Conscyens of pat plycht,
Mend to God, þat has pe mycht.

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Dan Malcolme sayd, Dare is mare,
F 152 b' Dat lettis me wyth pe to fare:
Dat is, þat I am suá brynnand
In Cowatys, pat all Scotland

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transcriber of the Harleian MS. not liking this story, so derogatory to the royal family, omitted it in his transcript, and afterwards, changing his mind, added it at the end of his book. All the Scottish writers, who followed Wyntown, have carefully suppressed it.

Of Malcolm's brothers only Donald, who reigned after him, is known to the Scottish historians: but another Melmare is mentioned in Orkneyinga Saga, [p. 176,] whose son Maddad, Earl of Athol, is called son of a King Donald by the genealogists, because they knew of no other brother of Malcolm. Perhaps Melmare is the same whom Kennedy calls Oberard, and says, that on the usurpation of Macbeth he fled to Norway, (more likely to his cousin the Earl of Orknay, which was a Norwegian country,) and was progenitor of an Italian family, called Cantelmi. [Dissertation on the Family of Stuart, p. 193, where he refers to records examined reg. Car. II.] In Scala Chronica [ap. Lel. V. I. p. 529] there is a confused story of two brothers of Malcolm. These various notices seem sufficient to establish the existence of two brothers of Malcolm; but that either of them was preferable to him for age or legitimacy is extremely improbable. It is, however, proper to observe, that, in those days, bastardy was scarcely an impediment in the succession to the crown in the neighbouring kingdoms of Norway and Ireland; that Alexander, the son of this Malcolm, took a bastard for his queen; and that, in England, a victorious king, the cotemporary of Malcolm, assumed bastard as a title in his charters.

John Cumin, the competitor for the crown, who derived his right from Donald, the brother of Malcolm, knew nothing of this story, which, if true, would at least have furnished him an excellent argument.

D. MACPHERSON.

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