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all who attend to the course of the vince of Holland, the states, on the conteft, that these qualities were in 6th of that month, issued a sudden no degree counterbalanced on the order, that all their troops should other lide. A great superiority in be in readiness to march at a mopolicy, and all party manœuvres, ment's warning. On the following was the necessary consequence. day they granted permission to seve.

The affairs of Utrecht had long ral bodies of armed burghers, who been a source of great embarrail. had addressed them for the purment to the ftates of Holland. It pose, to march diredly to the alliitwas essential to the views of the ance or relief of their brethren in dominant party to support that city; Utrecht; at the same time opening but the doing of it by open force their military magazine at Woerden was so flagrant a violation of the for the use of that city. anion, and would appear fo daring The day after, being the 8th of an inroad upon the rights of an the same month, in order partly to other state, which was in all re- give the greater weight and ap. spects their equal, and whose pow. pearance of folemnity to their proers of jurisdiction and government ceedings, partly to explain the were as completely and firmly esta. causes of these extraordinary meablished as their own, was so alarm- fures to the representative of the ing and hazardous a measure, that whole republic, and thereby reconit could not without much difficulty cile them to those which they inbe adopted.

tended farther to pursue, they exPretty early in the summer of hibited to the people the unusual the year 1786, the republican party spectacle of their repairing in a finding or thinking themselves fuf- body, to the amount of about fifty ficiently strong, brought this sub. persons, to the assembly of the fate's ject forward in the affembly of the general, where they represented Itates of Holland, by moving a reso. them as indispensably necessary in Jution, that they should by force of the present critical itate of affairs, arms resist all attempts of coercion in order to withfand the hostile that were made against the city of proceedings and dangerous designs Utrecht. This question produced of the stadthoider. It may be nelong and vehement debates, which ceffary here to observe, that altho! were maintained with great per

no town has more than one vote, feverance, and no small degree of and that these amount in all only animofity on both sides. The par. to nineteen, in the states of Holland, ties, however, appeared so nearly yec that there is no limitation as to equal in ftrength, that neither side the number of deputies which any. feemed much disposed to bring the town may fend, who are all equally question to an absolute decision, members of that assembly, and have and it seemed to be dropped by a an equal right to fit and to debate sort of mutual tacit consent. in it; so that ability, with the

Bar in the following September, powers of argument and persuasion, when the capture of Elbourg and may be branched out into several Hattem had blown up the flame of parts, although the vote is fingle. discontent to the highest pitch, an It was not consonant to the progainst the Stadtholder in the pre- ceedings of the states general, to

give any present answer to, or to The defection of the senate of make any immediate observation Amsterdam from their


feema on these representations.

ed to be little less than a mortal The states of Holland followed fhock to the republican leaders ; op these proceedings with an order and the failure of their latė atto the troops of the province to tempts of stripping the stadtholder march immediately to the frontiers of his remaining great offices in on the fide of Utrecht; and, to ren- the province of Holland, and of inder them the more stedfait in the creasing the number of voters in the intended service, voted an augmen- · assembly of the states, could not but tation of twelve fous per week to increase their confternation and des their pay. They likewise took into fpondence. The effect produced by their service a corps of light troops, this state of things was visible for which, under the ill-founded deno- some time after the commencement mination of a legion, had been of the year 1787, by that unusual raised by a Rhingrave of Salm, spirit of moderation which appaduring the late contest with the rently prevailed in their canduct: emperor, for the service of the re. But they were soon to experience public in that season of apparent a more sensible shock than even the danger. The suppression of this loss of Amsterdam. corps, which had been intended a This was no less than a .revolulong with other military reductions tion of sentiment and conduct in the of the fame nature, had long been assembly of the states of Holland. prevented through the influence of Indeed the change which had taken the republican leaders, on account place in the senate of Amsterdam, of the violent part which their com considering the lead which that city mander took, or affected to take, in had always taken in public affairs; behalf of that party. The states and the almost unbounded influence general having, however, at length which she had ever maintained in discharged them from the service of the assembly of the provincial states, the republic, those of Holland took afforded alarming indications of the them into the immediate pay of that consequences which were likely to province, in order to their being ensue. From that period the flates employed in the war of Utrecht.

had visibly grown more indecisive We have, in our history of the in their conduct; the republican year 1786, taken notice of the sub- zeal seemed much lackened, and sequent measures pursued by the the numbers ran closer on every ftates of Holland against the stadt, division. holder previous to Monf. de Ray It seemed to be a capital error neval's negociations particularly in the republican party, to admit bis suspension fom the office of cap- the appointment of the celebrated tain-general, the discharging the Van Berkel, the first pensionary of troops from their military oath to Amsterdam, to the office of reprehim, and their forbidding that title senting the republic as minister to to be applied to him in the public the new states of America. This prayers of the churches. We like- man had long been the leader, orawisé took notice of the strong pro- cle, and it may be said, the foul of teft made by the prince againit these that, party j and no man was eveç proceedings.


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better calculated for such a fiţua- habitations; and thus virtually withtion. His ambition was boundless ; drew the protection which they had but he possessed all the great qua- so lately granted: lities necessary to its support and Nothing could have been more gratification in as unlimited a de- highly resented by the adverse gree. His love of money, however, party than this dereliction of thie balanced his love of power, and refugees; nor could any thing apseemed to preponderate on this oc pear more dreadful to themselves casion of facrificing his prospects at than the change in condition and , home to the American employment. character which they were to unPerhaps he was encouraged in this dergo;. to be driven from all the project by some of the leaders on fweets of an idle and plentiful life, his own fide, who wished to be his from the pleasure of being idolized successor ; and wlio would not be as the forward champions and willieve that his popularity and power ling victims to a righteous cause, were the effect of superior talents, then to return to their customary laHowever that was, it is certain that bours and native obscurity, and to Van Berkel's absence was now se- appear in the garb of suppliants and verely felt by the party; and it is penitents to their natural rulers, highly probable that neither the de was a transition almost intolerable féčtion in Amsterdam, nor the con to humanity. fequent change in the affembly of Nothing could accordingly exceed the states, would have taken place the exclamations raised against the if he had been present.

states of Holland, and the indignaAfter some weeks seeming hefita- tion expressed at their conduct. To tion, the assembly of the states of give up the fugitives to the mercy Holland afforded an unequivocal of their enemies in Guelderland, proof of the change which had taken was not only represented as a molt place in their sentiments, by partly flagrant and glaring violation of reversing and partly altering a for- good faith, but as an act of direct March 30th

mer resolution of their and shameless treachery. Several 1787

own, upon a motion of the mof factious cities, in this

made for that purpose spirit, took up the cause of the reby the friends of the prince of O. fugees, and determined, so far as range. This was followed by another they were capable, to remedy the measure not less convincing. The evil; by voting their protection to refugees from Hattem and Elburg, them, offering them all the priviwho were considered as martyrs to lcges of burghership, and promifthe republican party, were treated ing them every other accommodaby them nearly with the reverence tion which it should be in their suited to that character, and had power to confer. early received the protection of the Thus was the door opening to a states of Holland ; but they now new and strange face of things in passed a resolution, recommending the province of Holland; and it these refugees to the clemency of was foon to reveal aspects still more the states of Guelderland, and re- novel and unexpected. questing that they might be per In the mean time numberless mitted to return to their respective clubs and associations were formed, Vol. XXIX.



and large sums of money, it was all farther temporising with the faid, subscribed, for the preserva- democratical parties must be at an tion of the antient constitution, and end ; that the aristocracies must the stadtholder's rights; while every Dow cordially admit their claims; new measure or incident on either and that they had no other alternafide increased the animosity on the tive than that of submission to the other, until nothing could exceed prince of Orange ; an idea more the virulence of their mutual re- dreadful than even that of a foreign proach and accusation ; the Atadt- conqueft. It was accordingly deholder's friends openly charging termined that the armed burghers the republican party with having should be the instruments of rebeen long the betrayers of their forming the state and government ; country to French gold, and these and that when they had effectually, retorting, that their

adversaries succeeded in subverting the old, wanted to overthrow the free con- their order should be entitled to ftitution of the republic, and to efta- such a share in the new constitution, blish a regal despotism, though at as they might hereafter agree upon. firk perhaps without the name, in It was not to be supposed, that the person of the prince of Orange. the burghers would be flack in em

The situation of the republican bracing an opportunity of fulfilling party became exceedingly critical. their own purposes, and attaining They had been foiled in all their those objects which they had long late attempts ; they had loft their so eagerly fought. They had some principal and supposed impregnable time before entered into a combie fortress in Amsterdam. In the next nation for introducing a democratigreat city, that of Rotterdam, they cal revolution in the city of Rotterwere entirely mastered ; a majority dam; and petitioned the states of Holof the provinces, those of Fries- land for their sanction in new-modelland, Zealand, Utrecht, and Guel- ling the senate, by increasing the derland, were decidedly against number from twenty-four, the present them; and they had now finally loft establishment, to forty persons. But their infuence in the assembly of this petition was received very un- the states of Holland ; so that the favourably by the states, who retwo small and weak provinces of ferred them back to their own maGroningen and Overyfiel were all gistracy; and these immediately that continued firmly on their fide. published a declaration, in which

It was then evident, that nothing they strongly infifted, that the sense less than the most prompt and de- of the different towns of the repubcisive measures could retain or re lic could not be legally known or trieve any part of their power and communicated through any other consequence as a party. These medium than that of their respective could not but be hazardous and fenates, and that consequently the dangerous, but it was the latt stake, states of Holland had no right or and all things must be risqued ; authority to take any petition from if fortune favoured, success would their citizens into consideration. afford a fufficient sanction to the Notwithftanding this dcfeat, which proceedings. They saw, at the same took place about the close of the time, that in such circumstances, past, or the commencement of the


present year, the inceffant efforts of legal representatives of their city, the democratic party to overturn, the new ones being usurpers brought and the resistance of their opposers in by force and violence; but the to preserve inviolate the established provincial assembly itself being by. constitution and government, had that time garbled, had likewise fince kept that city in a constant changed its nature, and, pretending ftate of tumult and disorder. In that they had no right to interfere this course of domestic warfare, in the private disputes of any city, counter associations were formed received the new deputies withouc and subscribed to by the contend. regard to the complaints or rights ing parties, when it soon appeared of the old. that the number of those who unit On the very same day that the ed in favour of the prince, more than senate of Rotterdam was purged in doubled that of their antagonists.

this manner by the armed burghers, But the new and powerful energy similar measures were pursued by which was at length communicat- their brethren at Amsterdam. They ed, the confidence derived from surrounded the senate-house betimes having arms in their hands, and in the morning, and the affrighted the courage inspired by the cor- magistrates entered into a negociarespondence and advice received tion with them, which was spun out from their brethren in other places, until the evening, when finding that rendered the burghers regardless of they had no alternative, they were the superior number of their adver- obliged to submit to the demands faries, and induced them fearlessly of the burghers, by declaring that to proceed to the last extremities. nine members of their body, who April 23d.

In this determination were those nominated to them, had

they rrounded the se. abdicated their offices. Among these 1787.

nate-house, compelled victims to the revolution, were three the senate to depose seven such deputies to the affembly of the members of their body as they con. provincial states, who had lately fidered the most adverse to their voted on some occasion on the fide designs, and, under the form of a of the stadtholder. At the same time mock election, had their places in that they were clearing the senate ftantly filled up with seven of the of their adversaries, the four comost violent of their own party. lonels of the city militia, and conThe deputies of the city in the af- fequently the only legal comman. sembly of the provincial states be- ders of the burghers, were doomed ing among the degraded fenators, to undergo their persecution, and the representation of Rotterdam obliged to send in their resignawas of course totally changed. It tions. was to little purpose that the in About the same time the city of jured fenators appealed to the laws, Utrecht, proud in its wealth, and to the constitution, and to the states confident in the circumstance of its of Holland ; no redress was any contributing as much or more towhere to be obtained. The depu- wards the public expence than the ties at the Hague had the courage rest of the province, determined at to endeavour to keep their seats, once to Mew its superiority, and to alledging that they were the only reduce the states at Amersfort to

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