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ed in their conduct with respect to “ the misfortunes of this contest, the city of Hoorn. For the burgh " that, through the seven independCrs at that place having adopted the “ ent states of which the republic new scheme of reform, and the ma “ is composed, there is not one, that gistracy appealing to the states, the “ has been firm and unanimous in latter found means, under the forms “ its attachment, either to the either of the conftitution or of their « ftadtholder or his enemies *." own body, to procrastinate the af. A circumstance that little accords fair in such a manner, that it never with the cool determined firmness, was brought to an absolute decision. and the inflexible obstinacy, ascribIn Dort, and some other places, ed to that people. where the republican spirit was very A remarkable instance of this in, ftrong, and the animosity to the constancy took place in the province prince of Orange great, the scheme of Frieseland." The Frilons had of reform was completed among ever valued themselves upon bethemselves, without any application ing, and had for many ages been to the states. But the defeat which contidered by others, among the the popular party met at Rotter- foremost and the boldest affertors of dam was not to be compensated by liberty. In the present contests, small successes. One of the magi- they seemed studious to preserve or Itrates there, deserting his own par. to renew their antient character, ty and immediate interefts, placed and the states of that province were himself at the head of the reform- among the earliest and the most ers, and actually commenced his ftrenuous of any in their opposition scheme of innovation. But the ma. to the Itadtholder. Yet, as if there gistracy were too firm, and the bulk had been some invisible

power, of the people too much on their fide, which irresistibly spread its influence to admit the project to succeed. The over men's minds and dispositions, refractory magistrate was displaced, they suddenly ilackened their pace his proceedings annulled, and the in the midft of the course; thewed peace and quiet of that wealthy and strong symptoms at first of doubt powerful city restored with little and irresolution, but in a little time trouble.

appeared decidedly in favour of the The difficulty of comprehending tadtholder. the true state of things was conti The first indubitable instance of nually increased by the unaccoun, this change, was given by their table changes which took place, not abolishing the free corps in that only in the great towns, but in the province, which had been raised conduct of the states of the respec- there, as every where else, for the tive provinces, and even of the states fole purpose of appofing or congeneral themselves. This was so trouling the Orange interest They, lignal and striking, that a writer, however, seemed afterwards to acwho evidently leans not a țittle to cord with Holland in certain meathe republican fide, declares with fures; but so peevifh a course of regret," that it had been one of controversy and altercation arosa

Hitory of the Vaited Provinces, &c. 1787. p. 253.


EUROPE. (11 afterwards between them upon fome puties of Amsterdam in the states others, that the states of the latter of Holland, to restore the prince of put an end at once to the corre- Orange to the command of the garspondence by the incurable resolu. rison of the Hague ; which went at tion, " that filent contempt was the once to remove one of the principal

only manner in which the argu- points in contention, and would inments of the Frisons fhould be deed have opened the way

in a very " treated.” This passionate and great measure to an easy reconcilia, contemptuous measure fixed at least tion. Being defeated in this ata majority of the states of Friesland tempt, through the opposition of a in the interests of the stadtholder, majority of the provincial states, which was a material addition to the fenate of Amiterdam wrote cirhis strength. The towns of that cular letters to all the towns of the province, like those of all others, province, strongly urging them, and were divided in their sentiments; using every possible argument to some being violently in his interest, enforce the desire, to revise the inand others more so in their animofi- ftructions to their deputies in the ty; but perfect unanimity in any, assembly of the states, and to cowould have been in vain fought for operate with themselves in promotin the present times.

ing the salutary work of conciliaSimilar, and still more unexpect. tion.-Thus was Amsterdam laed conversions, took place in other bouring to overthrow, in a single provinces ; nor was it uncommon instant, all the effects of thofe meafor the converts to relapse again to lures which she had so long and so their former sentiments. The city ardently pursued ! of Amsterdam had from the begin This revolution of sentiment and ning been the bitterest and most conduct, 'if not of prisciple, took implacable of all the stadtholder's place about the middle of 1786, and enemies; so that it seemed as if all we shall foon have occasion to ob. the violent measures pursued against serve others, fcarcely less surprizhim had originated in the pride, ing. malice, and power of that people. The defection of Amsterdam could Mr. de Rendorp, lord of Mar not but excite an universal alarm quette, had long been one of the among the leaders of the republican principal leaders of the popular party, and urge them to the adopparty, and was considered as the in- tion of every measure that could itigator of the most violent and pre- poslibly tend to counteract its effect. cipitate measures which the senate Although they had hitherto preof that city had adopted. This served a majority in the assembly man, to the astonishment of all who of the states of Holland, yet that were not initiated in the deepest majority was by no means disposed mysteries of party marreuvres and blindly and servilely to follow their politics, suddenly changed fides, di&tates in all cases without discrimiand carried over along with him a nation; on the contrary, that party majority of the senate to that of the had been obliged to withdraw sefastholder.

veral of their most violent propofi, The first fruit of this revolution tions, without venturing to bring yas a direct proposal from the de- the questions to a decision, when they


augured, from the countenance of the principal citizens and burgh. their usual supporters, the danger of ers; and would therefore have it a defeat. The great object now considered as the genuine and unthen was to procure such a decided equivocal sense of the capital. But majority in that assembly as were the contrary to these affertions bewilling to go with them in all cases ing then known to be the real state whatever, and would thereby ena- of things, and indeed soon after inble them to proceed to such extre- controvertibly established, this at. mities against the stadtholder as they tempt at deception added no rewished and intended.

putation to the cause, and lessened The first attempt, tending to this, the opinion of its strength. purpose, was to obtain addresses Yet these addresses seem to have from the towns of the province to encouraged the republican party to the assembly, which they had them. bring forward a bold and decisive felves dictated, in order to induce measure, which, though a favourite the present members to depart en- in contemplation, had not yet been tirely from that system of modera- ventured upon. This was the suftion which had hitherto proved so penfion of the prince of Orange from troublesome a restraint to their pro- his offices of Itadtholder and admiceedings, and to adopt all those ral general, in the fame manner they measures of violence which they had already fucceeded in suspend were ready to bring forward, as soon ing him from that of captain geneas the occasion Tould offer a pro- ral. This question was brought for{pe&t of fùccess. The general scope ward on the 10th of January 1787, of these addresses was returning and occasioned the warmest and thanks to the states for the efforts most violent debates, for two sucthey had already made in oppofing ceeding days, that had been known the alarming progress of despotism, in that affembly The proposers, a trong recommendation to pro- however, found the opposition so ceed with vigour in their exertions formidable, and the aspect of the to its final extermination, and a independent members fo doubtful, promise to support them with their that they did not choose to hazard lives and fortunes in the pursuit of the decision of a vote on the quesall such farther measures as they tion. should judge necessary for the ac Thus defeated, the only resource complishment of that purpose. seemingly left for procuring a fure

Though these addresses were tri- majority in the assembly of the umphantly carried in Dort, Har- ftates, was that of increasing the lem, and some other towns distin- number of voters.' For the better guished for their republican spirit understanding of this business, we and present opposition, yet the at are to observe, that several towns, tempt failed in so many others, that which were only villages, or perthe party had no cause to boaft of haps not in existence, at the time of their success. In Amsterdam they the union, have fince risen to wealth procured 16,722 signatures to the and consequence, as others which address, which they pretended not were then considerable, have since only to be a majority of the inha. declined in perhaps a similar probitants, but to include the names of gregion. The former consequently

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have no representatives in the various causes and much mismanageaffembly of the provincial states, ment, loft, within a few years, a while the latter, like the decayed very considerable and alarming boroughs in England, still retain share of his popularity and influtheir representation ; and, however · ence, yet, that he pofseffed fill fo insignificant as to population or fast a hold of the affe&tions or opiproperty, preserve their rank, tho' nion of the great bulk of the people not entirely their consequence, as throughout the republic, that, were. members of the original confede- any decision by numbers to take racy and union.

place, the majority in his favour The republican party, in order, would be so vait, that the adverse as we have seen, to increase the party would appear only a mere number of votes in the assembly of handful in the comparison. The the states, procured or introduced peasantry or yeomanry, including petitions from Heusden, Woerden, in that description all the inhabiand other new towns which were tants of the open country, were, al-, grown into consideration, requiring most to a man, not only warm, but, a share in the general representa- it might be faid, violent in cheir tion. This attempt was so little attachments to him. The inhabilikely to succeed, that it seemed tants of the inferior towns, and rather the offspring of paffion and many of their magistracies, were 2 premature confidence and eagern little less fo. And even in the great ness, than the result of a cool judg- cities, where it was probably but ment and any well-founded hope, little expected even by his friends, It was accordingly so ill received it appeared, as soon as the test was by the states, that the towns soon applied, that a majority of the in. withdrew their petitions, and the habitants was on his fide. party found themselves again foil This was fully shewn in the city ed, without their being able to of Amsterdam, the great and origibring the question to an absolute nal source of all the opposition he decision.

had encountered, and of all the morWe have heretofore stated, that tification which he had endured. the two great parties for and against We have seen that the adverse parthe house of Orange, into which ty had procured near 17,000 fignathe inhabitants of the United Pro tures to an address inimical to the vinces were divided, were so nearly interests of the stadtholder, which balanced in point of number, that, they represented as being a majoif tried by the test of a poll or a rity of the inhabitants, and as congeneral vote, it would be a matter veying the unquestionable sense of of doubt on which side the majority that great city; but an affociawould appear. Our opinion was tion having been soon after entered necessarily founded on such informa- into there for supporting the rights tion as we could then obtain. This, of that prince, the subscribers in however, was so defective as to lead three days more than doubled the us, in that respect, into an error. number of the addressers, and aIt now appears from the most in- mounted to above 35,000. In Rotdubitable authority, that although terdam, it was well known that his the prince of Orange had, through friends would have been found ftill


more numerous in proportion to the count for this, it is to be observed, general number of the inhabitants. that the defect in point of number

We have heretofore rightly ob- was compensated, on the fide of the ferved, that the nobility, (or, in the party in opposition, by a great sulanguage of the country, the eques- periority with respect to wealth, of trian order) together with the army which they possessed not only more and the navy, were generally strong- than a proportionate share, but, it is ly attached to the house of Orange. probable, considerably more than a To these. orders of men we shall moiety of what was contained in the now add the clergy of the establish. whole republic; and every body ed church, a body whose opinions will allow, that the more wealth is and example must carry great weight concentrated, by being lodged in and influence in all countries where such a moderate number of hands religion is not nearly extinct; and as will not be much more than suf. who, in this, exclusive of all other ficient for its due application to any motives of attachment, had, ever given purpose, the more powerful since the days of Arminias, consider- its effects will prove. The same ed that family as their principal apparent defect will account, even Thield of protection and defence, a- independent of several other causes gainst the heterodox doctrines which which may be easily pointed out, they imputed to that visionary in. for the close union, the easy manovator. Now as many of the re- nagement, and the effective concert, publican leaders had early adopted in all cases, of that party, which apand still held these opinions, and pearing like the discipline of a well. the party were generally disposed regulated army, afforded frequent to them, it was no very difficult nor and great advantages over their unusual matter, that some consider- loose and disjointed antagonists. able Mare of that abhorrence which They were likewise in posseflion of was conceived against doctrines that most of the offices of magiftracy, were regarded as abominable, should and in many provinces of the au. be transferred to the persons and thority and name of the constitué party who adopted them ; while tional government ; a circumstance party zeal, being thus quickened of no small weight in the estimate and embittered by religious contests of political strength. The springand prejudices, the enthusiasm ex- ing up of the democratical spirit, cited by the combination could not however ruinous to the aristocracies fail to place the clergy among the in the issue, was for the present a foremoit supporters of the Orange wonderful accession of strength to cause and interests.

the adverse party, by throwing that With such supports, added to that great body of the burghers on whom of the bulk of the people, and for it operated directly into their arms. tified with such strong mounds of To all these may with justice be defence as great legal and official added, and certainly will not be powers, with a long-established au considered as an inefficient cause, ihority, it may appear almolt para- that several of the leaders of the

doxical how the fabric could have republican party were men of very - been maken as we have seen by a considerable parts and abilities; comparatively small party. To ac. while it must be acknowledged by


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