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used it in the enthusiasm of debate, whether by mistake or not, and thus gave it currency, first on the stage, and then among the people. This pronunciation of woond for wound is contrary to analogy and common use on the one hand, and has the authority of some lexicographers and of partial use on the other.
5. Ease of Pronunciation.-Upon this ground the words acceptable and accept' ableness should be accented as here marked, and not on the first syllables, according to the incorrect notation of WALKER.
6. Satisfaction to the Ear.-Other things being equal, sounds, either simple or combined, which are agreeable to the ear, are to be preferred to others. For this reason, if for no other, the accent on the second syllable of the word inquiry is preferable to the accent on the first, as sometimes heard.
7. Influence of the Written Language.-—When a language which has existed only in sounds is about to become a written language, the object aimed at is to adopt such a system of spelling as shall exactly represent those sounds, and the system is regarded as correct or faulty just in proportion as it accomplishes this or fails to do it. But, after a system of orthography is established, and the language has assumed its external form, not only does the orthography accommodate itself to the pronunciation, but the pronunciation is modified by accommodating itself to the orthography. This is especially the fact where the great mass of the people are readers, and get their pronunciation of many words from books, by consulting the power of the letters, rather than from conversation.
QUESTIONS UNDER CHAPTER VIII. 1. What is the derivation and meaning of orthoepy? 2. What relations does it bear compared with orthography ? 3. What is their influence on each other? 4. Mention the four errors in orthoepy in respect to the phonetic elements. 5. Mention the four errors in orthoepy in respect to syllabication. 6. Mention the two errors in orthoepy in respect to accent. 7. Mention an error in orthoepy in respect to quantity. 8. What is pronunciation, and what is included under it ? 9. Mention some of the causes and conditions of incorrect pronunciation. 10. What can you say with respect to the pronunciation of demonstrate ? of azure? of either ? of wound ? of acceptable ? of inquiry ?
11. What can you say of the influence of the written language on pronunciation ?
EXERCISES UNDER PART II.
SECTION CLXXVI.PHONETIC ANALYSIS
By PHONETIC ANALYSIS is meant that process by which each phonetic element is separated from its combination with other sounds in words, and referred to the table (Section CXVIII) for its description. It thus resolves the combined or compound sounds of an entire word into the elementary sounds of which it is composed, and exhibits each by itself.
In the analysis no notice is taken of the obscure sounds, such, for instance, as those represented by a in rival, e in brier, i in ruin, o in actor, u in the last syllable of sulphur, and y in envy. Only the distinct sounds are noticed.
1. In science, reason is the guide; in poetry, taste. The object of the one is truth, which is uniform and indivisible ; the object of the other is beauty, which is multiforni and varied. -COLTON.
The first element is that represented by i in fit (No. 7, table, Section cxviii.); the next, that represented by n in not (No. 18); the next, that represented by & in sin (No. 31). (The letter c here represents no element.) The next, that represented by i in fine (No. 35); the next, that represented by e in met (No. 6); the next, that represented by n in not (No. 18); the next, that represented by s in sin (No. 31). (The letter e here represents no element.) The next, that represented by ? in run (No. 31); the next, that represented by e in mete (No. 5); the next, that represented by z in zed (No. 32); the next, that represented by n in not (No. 18); the next, that represented by i in fit (No. 7); the next, that represented by z in zed (No. 32); the next, that represented by th in thine (No. 26); the next, that represented by e in mete (No. 5); the next, that represented by g in gun (No. 30). (The letter u here represents no element.) The next, that represented by i in fine (No. 35); the next, that represented by d in din (No. 28). (The letter e here represents no element.) The learner is expected to analyse the remainder of the sentence in like manner.
2. High on a throne of royal state, which far
Outshone the wealth of Ormus or of Ind,
To that bad eminence.—MILTON. The first element is that represented by h in hot; the next is that represented by i in fine
. (The letters gh represent no element.) The next is that represented by o in not ; the next is that represented by n in not; the next is that represented by a in fate; the next is that represented by th in thin; the next is that represented by r in run; the next is that represented by o in note ; the next is that represented by ñ in not. (The e in throne represents no element.) The next is that represented by o in not; the next is that represented by v in van; the next is that represented by g in run; the next is the diphthongal sound represented by oġ in voice; the next is that represented by a in fat ; the next is that represented by l in let; the next is that represented by s in siñ ; the next is that represented by t in tin ; the next is that represented by a in fate; the next is that represented by t in tin. (The letter e represents no element.) The next is that represented by w in wet; the next is that represented by h in hot. (These last two elements are inverted in the pronunciation.) The next is that represented by i in fit; the next is that represented by ch in chest. The learner is expected to analyse the remainder of the passage in like manner.
3. Analyse the following passage, and state,
(3) Which are cognate ; which are liquid ; which are labial ; which are dental; which are guttural or palatal ; which are nasal ; which are cerebral.
(4) Which are syllables.
Costly apparatus and splendid cabinets have no magical power to make scholars. In all circumstances, as a man is, under God, the
master of his own fortune, so is he the maker of his own mind.
The Creator has so constituted the human intellect that it can only grow from its own action, and by its own action and freewill it will certainly and necessarily grow. Every man, therefore, must educate himself. His book and teacher are but helps ; the work is his.
1. Compose a sentence in which there shall be surd elements and sonant elements, and in which there shall be at least one pair of cognate elements.
2. Compose a sentence in which there shall be explosive elements and continuous elements.
3. Compose a sentence in which there shall be at least one labial, one dental, one guttural, one nasal, one cerebral.
4. Compose a sentence in which there shall be at least one monosyllable, one dissyllable, one trisyllable, one polysyllable.
5. Compose a sentence in which there is at least one word with the radical, one with the terminational, and one with the distinctive accent.
6. Compose a sentence, or several sentences, in which there shall be a word having the accent on the last syllable ; and a word having the accent on the penult; and a word having the accent on the antepenult ; and a word having the accent on the syllable before the antepenult; and a word having a secondary accent.
7. Compose a sentence, or several sentences, in which there shall be the long sound of a and the short sound ; the long sound of e and the short sound; the long sound of i and the short sound; the long sound of o and the short sound ; the long sound of u and the short sound.
In this Second Part have been exhibited the phonetic elements of the English language, both separately and in their combinations in words and syllables. Words and syllables have been exhibited under the laws of accent, and quantity, and euphony. The natural significance of articulate sounds has also been distinctly set forth.
We are now, therefore, prepared to examine the written or orthographical forms in which these phonetic elements are expressed to the eye in a literal notation.
SECTION CLXXVII. DEFINITIONS.
ORTHOGRAPHICAL FORMS are those combinations of letters in the written language which represent to the eye the sounds which are expressed by the voice in the spoken language.
SECTION CLXXVIII.-THE PRIORITY OF ORTHOEPY.
In the order of nature and time, the spoken language must exist before the written language. In the same order, Orthoepy takes precedence of Orthography. In the early stages of a language, end aimed at by orthography is to represent to the eye, in visible marks, what orthoepy has already represented to the ear in audible signs. In the later stages of a language, the orthography governs
the orthoepy, bringing out the sounds of the letters which were once only silent or modified. The letters of the alphabet, in their original and legitimate, use, are the elements of the written language, employed to express the elements of the spoken language.
SECTION CLXXIX.-A PERFECT SYSTEM OF LITERAL NOTATION.
In a perfect system of notation by letters, the chief conditions are as follows:
1. Every phonetic element should have its own sign or letter.
2. A sign or letter appropriated to one phonetic element should never be employed to represent another.
3. Phonetic elements resembling each other should be represented by signs or letters resembling each other. Thus the sounds represented by the letters b and p resemble each other, and the letters themselves resenible each other.
4. Phonetic elements differing from each other should be represented by letters differing from each other. Thus the sounds represented by i and o differ widely from each other, and the letters also differ widely in form.
The first of these conditions will prevent a deficient notation; the second a confused one; and the four taken together will make the body of sounds and their representatives collectively commensurate with each other.
SECTION CLXXX.—THE OBJECT OF A LITERAL NOTATION. “ The purpose of a literal notation is to convey to the mind, by the agency of the eye, that which living speech communicates by means of the ear; it is, as it has often been expressed, to render sounds visible. As there is not any natural connection between forms and sounds, this combination must be originally the work of arbitrary assignment, and, previously to any compact for this purpose, any character may stand for any sound. Yet, even in arbitrary appointment, if we would avoid confusion, we must submit to certain rules; and, to render a system of literal notation completely perfect, the following circumstances are required :-1. That every articulate sound should have its own fixed and indisputable representative. 2. That a character appropriated to one sound should never be employed to represent another.”—NARE’s Orthoepy, preface.
Probably no alphabetic system whatever answers all the conditions mentioned in the last section. The Sanscrit is often mentioned as approximating the nearest to a perfect notation of the sound system of the language. The alphabetic characters usually employed in writing Sanscrit are called Devanagari, signifying the alphabet of " the city of the gods," from nagara, a city, and Deva (Deus), a god. The number of the letters is about fifty. The permutations to which Sanscrit is subjected, in conformity with the laws of euphony, are very numerous.
These extend even to Syntax, in changing the
final and even the initial letters, in order that they may be adapted to the sounds. Compared with the alphabetical sounds of other languages, taking articulation for articulation and value for value, there are ten sounds less in Russian than in Sanscrit, twelve less in Greek, fifteen less in German, and eighteen less in Latin.
The Roman and the Italian alphabetic characters are used to express the phonetic elements of the English language. By comparing this alphabet, consisting of twenty-six letters, presented to the eye, with the forty sounds, simple and compound, in the table (Section CXVIII.), presented to the ear, it is evident that it does not include the first condition mentioned above of a perfect system of notation; neither does it include the second, third, or fourth.-See Section CLXXIX.
CLASSIFICATION OF THE ELEMENTARY SIGNS
LETTERS, from the Latin litera, a mark, through the French lettre, are the signs, or representatives, of the phonetic elements, or the elementary sounds. They are classified by the same names as the sounds themselves, viz., Vowels and Consonants. They are the first elements of the written language, as the simple sounds are of the spoken language.
It should be constantly borne in mind that the names of the letters