Imágenes de páginas
PDF
EPUB

THE BELL-EVERETT PARTY IN 1860.

325

But the salient feature of the can- ciples by nominating him for the vass was the hearty accord of the Presidency. That party was mainly coälesced parties North of the Poto- composed of admiring disciples of mac, in attributing to the Republican Clay and Webster, who had sternly platform and to Mr. Lincoln appre- resisted Nullification on grounds of hended consequences that were, by principle, and had united in the the South, attributed to Douglas and enthusiastic acclaim which had “Squatter Sovereignty.” The De- hailed Webster as

as the triumphmocratic National Convention and ant shampion of our Nationality, the party had been broken up, not be “great expounder of the Constitucause of any suspicion of Republican- tion,” in his forensic struggle with ism affecting either faction, but be- Hayne. It had proudly pointed to cause the South would not abide the such men as William Gaston, of doctrine of Mr. Douglas, with regard North Carolina, Sergeant S. Prento Slavery in the Territories. Yet tiss, of Mississippi, Edward Bates, of here were his supporters appealing to Missouri, George W. Summers, of the people from every stump to vote Virginia, John J. Crittenden, of Kenthe coälition ticket, in order to concil. tucky, and James L. Petigru, of South iate the South, and save the country Carolina, as the exponents of its prinfrom the pangs of dissolution! It ciples, the jewels of its crown. It was not easy to realize that the Pughs, had nominated and supported Bell Paynes, Richardsons, Churches, etc., and Everett on a platform which who had so determinedly bearded meaningly proclaimed fidelity to the South at Charleston and at Balti- “ The Union, the Constitution, and more, defying threats of disruption the Enforcement of the Laws," as its and disunion, were the very men who distinctive ground. To say that it now exhorted the People to vote the meant by this to stand by the Union coalition Electoral tickets, in order until some other party should, in its to dispel the very dangers which they judgment, violate the Constitution, is had persistently invoked, by support- to set the human understanding at ing the Payne-Samuels platform, and defiance. It either meant to cling to nominating Douglas for President. the Constitution and Union at all

It is more difficult to treat calmly hazards and under all circumstances, the conduct of the “American," and to insist that the laws should be “Conservative,” “Union," or Bell- enforced throughout the country, or Everett party of the South; or, more it was guilty of seeking votes under accurately, to reconcile its chosen false pretenses. Unlike the Douglas attitude and professions in the canvass Democracy, it was a distinct, wellwith the course taken by thousands established party, which had a definiof its members immediately on the tive existence, and at least a semannouncement of the result, with the blance of organization in every Slave ultimate concurrence of many more, State but South Carolina. It had including even the eminent and polled a majority of the Southern hitherto moderate and loyal Tennes-vote for Harrison in 1840, for Taylor sean whom it had deliberately pre- in 1848, had just polled nearly forty sented as an embodiment of its prin- per cent. of that vote for Bell, and

might boast its full share of the licans. They had begun by carrying property, and more than its share of New Hampshire by 4,443—a satisfacthe intelligence and respectability, of tory majority; but were next beaten the South. This party had but to be in Rhode Island—an independent courageously faithful to its cardinal ticket, headed by William Sprague for principle and to its abiding convic- Governor, carrying the State over tions to avert the storm of civil war. theirs, by 1,460 majority. In ConnecHad its leaders, its orators, its presses, ticut, Gov. Buckingham had been respoken out promptly, decidedly, un elected by barely 541 majority, in nearconditionally, for the Union at all ly 80,000 votes—the heaviest poll ever hazards, and for settling our differ- had there at & State Election. It ences in Congress, in the Courts, and was evident that harmony at Charlesat the ballot-box, it would have pre ton would have rendered the election vented the effusion of rivers of pre- of a Democratic President morally cious blood. It was perfectly aware certain. But, after the disruption that the Republicans and their Presi- there, things were bravely altered. dent elect were powerless, even if Maine, early in September, elected a disposed, to do the South any wrong; Republican Governor by 18,091 mathat the result of the elections already jority; Vermont directly followed, held had secured" an anti-Republi- with a Republican majority of can majority in either branch of the 22,370; but when Pennsylvania and ensuing Congress; that the Supreme Indiana, early in October, declared Court was decidedly and, for a con- unmistakably for Lincoln—the forsiderable period, unchangeably on mer choosing Andrew G. Curtin her the same side. In the worst con- Governor by 32,164 majority over ceivable event of the elections yet Henry D. Foster, who had the hearty to come, no bill could pass respect support of all three opposing parties; ing the Territories, or anything else, while Indiana chose Gen. Henry S. which the “Conservatives” should Lane by 9,757 over T. A. Hendricks, see fit unitedly to oppose. And yet, his only competitor, with seven out South Carolina had scarcely indica- of eleven Representatives in Conted unmistakably her purpose, when gress, and a Republican Legislature many Bell-Unionists of Georgia, Ala- —it was manifest that only a miracle bama, and other Southern States, be- could prevent the success of Lincoln gan to clamor and shout for Secession. and Hamlin the next month. They seemed so absorbingly intent Yet the mercantile fears of conon getting, for once, on the stronger vulsion and civil war, as results of Mr. side, that they forgot the controlling Lincoln's election, were so vivid and fact that the side on which God is earnest that the contest at the North has always at last the majority. was still prosecuted by his combined

adversaries with the energy of desThe early State Elections of 1860 peration. New York, especially, was had not been favorable to the Repub- the arena of a struggle as intense, as

17 New York had chosen 10; Pennsylvania 7; rendering it morally certain that, but for SecesNew Jersey 3; Ohio 8; Indiana 4; Illinois 5; sion, Mr. Lincoln would have had to face an Op and Missouri 6 anti-Republicans to the House; I position Congress from the start.

GOV. SEWARD CLOSING THE CANVASS OF 1860.

327

vehement, and energetic, as had ever | low the music of the clanging bells; and, been known. Her drawn battle of strange to say, they will als bring you into

one common chamber. When you get there, the year before, and the perfect ac you will hear only this emotion of the hucord in this contest of the anti-Re- man heart appealed to, Fear,-fear that, if

you elect a President of the United States publican parties, gave grounds for according to the Constitution and the laws hope, if not confidence, that she tomorrow, you will wake up next day, and might now be carried against Lin- find that you have no country for him to

preside over! Is not that a strange motive coln, especially as the City was ex for an American patriot to appeal to ? And, pected to give a far larger majority in that same hall

, amid the jargon of three

discordant members of the 'Fusion' party, for “Fusion” than she had ever

you will hear one argument; and that arguyet given for any man or party. ment is, that, so sure as you are so perverso Abundance of money

for
every pur-

as to cast your vote singly, lawfully, honest

ly, as you ought to do, for one candidato pose doubtless contributed to the ani- for the Presidency, instead of scattering it mation of the struggle on this side, among three candidates, so that no Presiwhile painful apprehensions of South-down over your heads

, involving you and

dent may be elected, this Union shall come ern revolt, in case Lincoln should be

us in a common ruin ! elected, rendered the

the "merchant “Fellow-citizens, it is time, high time,

that we know whether this is a Constituprinces,” whose wealth was largely, tional government under which we live. It if not wholly, locked up in the shape is high time that we know, since the Union of Southern indebtedness, ready to is threatened, who are its friends, and who

are its enemies. The Republican party, who bleed freely for even a hope of pre- propose, in the old, appointed, constitutional venting a result they so dreaded as way, to choose a President, are every man fatal to their business, their prosperi- ists, wherever they may be, are those who

of them loyal to the Union. The disloyalty, and their affluence.

are opposed to the Republican party, and Gov. Seward—who had made a po- attempt to prevent the election of a Presilitical tour through the North-West neighbors—(Heaven knows I have cause to during the Autumn, wherein his respect, and esteem, and honor, and love speeches in behalf of the Republican them, as I do; for such neighbors as even

my Democratic neighbors, no other man cause and candidates were of

re

ever had)-I know that they do not avow, markably high order, alike in origin- nor do they mean to support, or think they

are supporting, disunionists. But I tell them, ality, dignity, and perspicuity-closed that he who proposes

to lay hold of the pilthe canvass, the night before Elec- lars of the Union, and bring it down into tion, in an address to his townsmen at ruin, is a disunionist; and that every man

who quotes him, and uses his threats and Auburn, which concluded with these his menaces as an argument against our extruthful and memorable words: ercise of our duty, is an abettor, unconscious

though he may be, of disunion; and that, “Now here is the trinity in unity and when tomorrow's sun shall have set, and unity in trinity of the political church, just the next morning's sun shall have risen on now come to us by the light of a new reve the American people, rejoicing in the eleolation, and christened 'Fusion. And this tion of Abraham Lincoln to the Presidency, *Fusion' party, what is the motive to which those men who to-day sympathize with, upit appeals ? You may go with me into the hold, support, and excuse the disunionists, streets to-night, and follow the 'Little will have to make a sudden choice, and Giants,' who go with their torchlights, and choose whether, in the language of the their faunting banners of Popular Sover- Senator from Georgia, they will go for trea eignty;' or you may go with the smaller and son, and so make it respectable, or whether more select and modest band, who go for they will go with us for Freedom, for the Breckinridge and Slavery; or you may fol- | Constitution, and for eternal Union.”

XXII.

SECESSION.

STATE,

FREE STATES.

LINCOLN Douglas. Brockinridge. Bell. 62,811 26,693 6,368 2,046 87,519 25,881 2,113 441 106,353 84,872 5,939 22.331 12,244 *4,000 *1.000 2,707 43,972 15,522 14,641 8,291 83,808 6,549 218 1,969 853,804 *203,329 *50,000 *50,000

324 *80,000 *30.000 *2,501 268.030 *78,571 +100,000 12,776 231,610 187,232 11,405 19,194 189,083 115,509 12,295 5,306 172.161 160,215 2,404 4,918 88.450 65,057 805 86.110 65,021 898 161 22,069 11,920 743 70,409

55,111 1,043 1,745 39,173 88,016 84,834 6,517 5,270 8,951 5,006 183

Indiana.....
Illinois,

405

The choice of Presidential Elec- those of Missouri (9) and 3, as aforetors, which formerly took place at said, from New Jersey. But, though the discretion of the several States nowhere in the Electoral, Mr. Dougwithin a limited range, is now re- las was second in the Popular, vote, quired, by act of Congress, to be as will be seen by the following made on the same day throughout- table, wherein the “Fusion" vote is namely, on the Tuesday next suc- divided between the parties which ceeding the first Monday in Novem- contributed to it, according to the ber. This fell, in 1860, on the 6th best estimate that can now be made of the month; and it was known, be- of their strength respectively: fore that day had fully expired, that ABRAHAM LINCOLN had been clearly Maine.... designated by the People for their Nassachukettbro next President, through the choice by Rhode Island.... his supporters of a majority of the vernpork: whole number of Electors. Every Pewnderemie Free State but New Jersey had cho- Ohio Ben the entire Lincoln Electoral tick.

Michigan. et; and in New Jersey the refusal of part of the Douglas men to sup. California. port the “Fusion” ticket (composed Oregon... of three Douglas, two Bell, and two

Total Free States..1,831,180 1,128,049 279,211 130,151 Breckinridge men), had allowed four * " Fusion" voto apportioned according to the estima

ted strength of the several contributing parties, of the Lincoln Electors to slip in over the two Bell and the two Breck

Douglas. Breekinridge. Bell

Delaware....... inridge Electors on the regular Dem- Maryland.. ocratic ticket. The three Lincoln North Carolina... (no ticket)

[Chosen by the Legislature.) Electors who had to confront the full Georgia... (no ticket)

(no ticket) vote of the coalesced anti-Republican Mississippi (no ticket)

1,861 parties were defeated by about 4,500 Tennessee (no ticket) majority. And, although this was

(no ticket)
(no ticket)

7,625
not ascertained that night, nor yet Florida.... (no ticket)
the fact that California and Oregon

(no ticket) (no ticket) 47,548 +15,483

26,430 163,525 570,871 515,973 had gone with the other free States,

Grand Totul......1,857,610 1,291,874 850,052646,124 yet there were 169 Lincoln Electors

+ This apti-Breckinridge vote was cast for a "Fusion" chosen (out of 303) outside of these

Electoral ticket, but almost entirely by old ·Whigs' or three States; with these, Mr. Lincoln

Lincoln over Douglas, 566,036; Do. over Bell, 1,211,456; had 180, to 123 for all others. Of

do, over Breckinridge, 1,007,528.

Lincoln has less than all his opponents combined, by these, Breckinridge had 72; Bell 39 930,170,

Breckinridge had in the Slave States over Bell, 54,893; (from Virginia, Kentucky, and Ten do. over Douglas, 407,346; do, over Douglas and Linnessee); and Douglas barely 12–

Breckinridge lacks of a majority in the Slavo States, 135,057.

Wisconsin.
Minnesota.

STATEL

SLAVE STATES.

LINCOLN,
8,815 1,023
2,294 6,966
1,929 16,290

2,701

7,337 42,452 74.323 48,339

3,364 41.760 74.691 44,990

South Carolina...

Alabama..

11.090
13,651

8,283
25,651
11.350
58,601
5,227

51,559 491 40,797 53,143 64,209 81,817 28.132 22,651 8,543

42.886 27, S75 25.040 66,033 69.274 25372 20.0094 20.204 5,437

17,028

Missouri..
Arkansas.
Lonisiana

867

Texas

Total Slave States..

Bell men

coln, 850.916.

THE SOUTH ON LINCOLN'S ELECTION.

329

From an early stage of the can- | events, throughout the Slave States vass, the Republicans could not help -next to the all but impossible sucseeing that they had the potent aid, cess of their own candidate-preferin their efforts, of the good wishes red that of the Republicans.' In for their success of at least a large the Senate throughout the preceding proportion of the advocates of Breck- Session, at Charleston, at Baltimore, inridge and Lane. The toasts drunk and ever since, they had acted prewith most enthusiasm at the Fourth- cisely as they would have done, had of-July celebrations throughout South they preëminently desired Mr. LinCarolina pointed to the probable coln's success, and determined to do election of Mr. Lincoln as the neces their best to secure it. sary prelude to movements whereon

And now, a large majority of Linthe hearts of all Carolinians were incoln Electors had been carried, rentent. Southern “Fire-Eaters” can- dering morally certain his choice by vassed the Northern States in behalf the Electoral Colleges next month, of Breckinridge and Lane, but very and his inauguration on the 4th of much to the satisfaction of the friends March ensuing. So the result conof Lincoln and Hamlin. The “Fu- templated and labored for by at sion"

arrangements, whereby it was least two of the four contending parhoped, at all events, to defeat Lin- ties in the canvass had been secured. coln, were not generally favored by What next? the “Fire-Eaters" who visited the North, whether intent on politics, In October, 1856, a Convention of business, or pleasure; and, in some Southern Governors was held at Rainstances, those who sought to com- leigh, N. C., at the invitation of Gov. mend themselves to the favor of their Wise, of Virginia. This gathering Southern patrons or customers, by was kept secret at the time; but it an exhibition of zeal in the “Fusion" was afterward proclaimed by Gov. cause, were quietly told: "What you wise that, had Fremont been elected, are doing looks not to the end we de- he would have marched at the head sire : we want Lincoln elected.” In of twenty thousand men to Washingno Slave State did the supporters of ton, and taken possession of the CapiBreckinridge unite in any “Fusion" tol, preventing by force Fremont's movement whatever; and it was a inauguration at that place. very open secret that the friends In the same spirit, a meeting of of Breckinridge generally—at all the prominent politicians of South

· The Washington Star, then a Breckinridge ism, as being far more dangerous to the South organ, noticing, in September, 1860, the conver than the election of Lincoln; because it seeks to sion of Senator Clingman, of North Carolina,

create a Free-Soil party there; while, if Lin

coln triumphs, the result cannot fail to be a from the support of Douglas to that of Breckin

South united in her own defense—the only key ridge, said:

to a full and—we sincerely believe-a peaceful " While we congratulate him on the fact that and happy solution of the political problem of his eyes are at length open to the (to the South) the Slavery question." dangerous tendency of the labors of Douglas,

Columns like the above might be quoted from we hail his conversion as an evidence of the truth of our oft-repeated declaration, that, ere

the Breckinridge journals of the South, showthe first Monday in November, every honest

ing that they regarded the success of Douglas and unselfish Democrat throughout the South as the great peril, to be defeated at all hazwill be found arrayed against Douglas-Freesoil. | ards.

« AnteriorContinuar »