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of the fact, and was, of course, very tion of 1856, in the platform of princordially received. After his return ciples framed and adopted by it, alluto Washington, he wrote o to his friend ded to this subject as follows: and constituent, Hon. S. R. Adams,

Resolved, That the highwayman's plea an account of his interview, mainly that might makes right, embodied in the devoted to a report of Mr. Buchan- Ostend Circular, was in every respect un woran's sayings on that occasion.

thy of American diplomacy, and would bring Of

shame and dishonor on any government or these, the material portion is as fol people that gave it their sanction." lows:

At the last Democratic National “After thus speaking of Kansas and the Slavery issu:e, Mr. Buchanan passed to our Convention, which met at Charleston, foreign policy. He approved, in general April 23, 1860, while discord reignterins, of the Cincinnati resolutions on this subject, but said that, while enforcing our ed with regard to candidates and the own policy, we must at all times scrupulous- domestic planks of their platform, ly regard the just rights and proper policy of there was one topic whereon a perfect other nations. He was not opposed to territorial extension. All our acquisitions had unanimity was demonstrated. In the been fairly and honorably made. Our neces- brief platform of the majority was sities might require us to make other acquisitions. He regarded the acquisition of Cu- embodied the following: ba as very desirable now, and it was likely to become a National necessity. Whenever

Resolved, That the Democratic party are we could obtain the island on fair, honora- in favor of the acquisition of the island of ble terms, he was for taking it. But, he Cuba, on such terms as shall be honorable to added, it must be a terrible necessity that ourselves and just to Spain.” would induce me to sanction any movement that would bring reproach upon us, or tar

This resolve was first reported to nish the honor and glory of our beloved the Convention by Mr. Avery, of N. country.

“ After the formal interview was over, Mr. C., from the majority of the grand Buchanan said playfully, but in the presence Committee, was accepted on of the whole audience, "If I can be instru- hands, and was unanimously adopted mental in settling the Slavery question upon the terms I have mentioned, and then add by the bolting, or Breckinridge, as Cuba to the Union, I shall, if President, be well as by the Douglas, or majority, willing to give up the ghost, and let Breckinridge take the Government.' Could there Convention. It thus forms about the be a more noble ambition ?

only surviving and authentic article In my judgment, he is as worthy of South of the Democratic creed, and may ern confidence and Southern votes as ever Mr. Calhoun was." 31

serve as the nucleus of a grand “reThe Republican National Conven- construction." 30 June 18, 1856.

to that country, and help open it to civilization

and niggers. I could get strong recommendations 31 Among the letters found by the Union sol. from the President's special friends in Pennsyldiers at the residence of Jefferson Davis, in Mis- vania for the place were the mission vacant, and, sissippi, when in 1863 they advanced, under I think, I would prove a live Minister. Gen. Grant, into the heart of that State, was the

"I am tired of being a white slave at the North, following from a prominent Democratic politician and long for a home in the sunny South. of Pennsylvania:

“Please let me hear from you when you have

leisure. “PHILADELPHIA, March 7, 1850. "Mrs. Brodhead joins me in sending kind re“MR. JEFFERSON Davis, — My Dear Sir: Can membrances to Mrs. Davis and yourself

. you tell me if Gen. Larmon is likely to remain "Sincerely and gratefully your friend, much longer in Nicaragua ? I should like to go

“JOHN BRODHEAD."

*

*

JOHN BROWN AT HARPER'S FERRY.

279

XX.

JOHN BROWN.

On the 17th of October, 1859, this affirmed by further advices. A later discountry was bewildered and astound- patch, received at the railroad office, says

the affair has been greatly exaggerated. ed, while the fifteen Slave States The reports had their foundation in a diftiwere convulsed with fear, rage, and culty at the Armory, with which negroes hate, by telegraphic dispatches from

had nothing to do.

“BALTIMORE, 10 o'clock. Baltimore and Washington, announc "It is apprehended that the affair at Haring the outbreak, at Harper's Ferry, per's Ferry is more serious than our citizens of a conspiracy of Abolitionists and Harper's Ferry are cut, and consequently

seem willing to believe. The wires from negroes, having for its object the de we have no telegraphic communication with vastation and ruin of the South, and Monocacy Station. The southern train,

which was due here at an early hour this the massacre of her white inhabitants. morning, has not yet arrived. It is rumorA report that President Buchanan ed that there is a stampede of negroes from had been proclaimed Emperor and this state. There are many other wild

rumors, but nothing authentic as yet. Autocrat of the North American

“BALTIMORE, Monday, Oct. 17—2 P. M. continent, and had quietly arrested “Another account, received by train, and imprisoned all the members of says the bridge across the Potomac was

filled with insurgents, all armed. Every Congress and Judges of the Supreme light in the town was extinguished, and the Court, by way of strengthening his hotels closed. All the streets were in the usurpation, would not have seemed lane leading thereto barricaded and guard

possession of the mob, and every road and more essentially incredible, nor have ed. Men were seen in every quarter with aroused a more intense excitement. citizens, and impressed them into the ser

muskets and bayonets, who arrested the Here follow the dispatches which vice, including many negroes. This done, gave the first tidings of this auda- the United States Arsenal and Government cious and amazing demonstration:

Pay-house, in which was said to be a large

amount of money, and all other public “IXSURRECTION AT HARPER'S FERRY ! works, were seized by the mob. Some were “To the Associated Press :

of the opinion that the object was entirely * BALTIMORE, Monday, Oct. 17, 1859. plunder, and to rob the Government of the "A dispatch just received here from funds deposited on Saturday at the PayFrederick, and dated this morning, states house. During the night, the mob made a that an insurrection has broken out at demand on the Wager Hotel for provisions, Harper's Ferry, where an armed band of and enforced the claim by a body of armed Abolitionists have full possession of the

The citizens were in a terrible state Government Arsenal. The express train of alarm, and the insurgents have threatened going east was twice fired into, and one of to burn the town. the railroad hands and a negro killed, while “The following has just been received they were endeavoring to get the train from Monocacy, this side of Harper's Ferry: through the town. The insurrectionists "The Mail Agent on the western-bound stopped and arrested two men, who had train has returned, and reports that the come to town with a load of wheat, and, train was unable to get through. The seizing their wagon, loaded it with rifles, town is in possession of the negroes, who and sent them into Maryland. The insur- arrest every one they can catch and imrectionists number about 250 whites, and prison. The train due here at 3 p. m., are aided by a gang of negroes. At last could not get through, and the Agent came accounts, fighting was going on.

down on an empty engine.'" “ The above is given just as it was received here. It seems very improbable, and should be received with great caution, until Probably the more prevalent sen

men.

age, ac

sation at first excited by this intelli- , mie, son of Owen and Ruth Brown, gence was that of blank incredulity. was born in Torrington, Conn., May Harper's Ferry being the seat of a 9, 1800. On his mother's side, he National Armory, at which a large was descended from Peter Miles, an number of mechanics and artisans emigrant from Holland, who settled were usually employed by the Gov- at Bloomfield, Conn., about 1700; ernment, it was supposed by many and his grandfather on this side, that some collision respecting wages Gideon Mills, also served in the or hours of labor had occurred be- Revolutionary war, and attained the tween the officers and the workmen, rank of lieutenant. which had provoked a popular tu

When John was but five years old, mult, and perhaps a stoppage of the his father migrated to Hudson, Ohio, trains passing through that village where he died a few years since, aged on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad; eighty-seven. He was engaged, durand that this, magnified by rumor ing the last war, in furnishing beef and alarm, had afforded a basis for cattle to our forces on the northern these monstrous exaggerations. Yet, frontier; and his son, John, then as time wore on, further advices, with twelve to fourteen years

of particulars and circumstances, left no companied him as a cattle-driver, and, room to doubt the substantial truth in that capacity, witnessed Hull's surof the original report. An attempt render at Detroit, in 1812. He was had actually been made to excite a so disgusted with what he saw of milslave insurrection in Northern Vir- itary life that he utterly refused, when ginia, and the one man in America of suitable age, to train or drill in to whom such an enterprise would the militia, but paid fines or evaded not seem utter insanity and suicide, service during his entire liability to was at the head of it.

military duty. In an autobiograph

ical fragment,written by him in 1857, John BROWN was sixth in descent for a child who had evinced a deep from Peter Brown, a carpenter by interest in his Kansas efforts, speaking trade, and a Puritan by intense con- of himself in the third person, he says: viction, who was one of the glorious

“During the war with England, a circumcompany who came over in the May- stance occurred that in the end made him a flower, and landed at Plymouth Rock, most determined Abolitionist, and led him to on that memorable 22d of December, He was staying, for a short time, with a

declare, or swear, eternal war with Slavery. 1620. The fourth in descent from very gentlemanly landlord, once a United Peter the pilgrim, was John Brown, his own age, active, intelligent, and good

States Marshal, who held a slave-boy near born in 1728, who was captain of feeling, and to whom John was under conthe West Simsbury (Connecticut) siderable obligation for numerous little acts

of kindness. The inaster made a great pet train-band, and in that capacity of John, brought him to table with his joined the Continental Army at New first company and friends called their attenYork in the Spring of 1776, and, tion to every little smart thing he said or did,

and to the fact of his being more than a hunafter two months' service, fell a vic- dred miles from home with a drove of cattle tim to camp-fever, dying in a barn a alone ; while the negro boy (who was fully, few miles north of the city. His if not more than, his equal,) was badly

clothed, poorly fed and lodged in cold weathgrandson, John Brown, of Osawato- l er, and beaten before his eyes with iron

THE EARLIER LIFE OF JOHN BROWN.

281

shovels or any other thing that came first to ings of slaves. So early as 1839, hand. This brought John to reflect on the the idea of becoming himself a libewretched, hopeless condition of fatherless and motherless slave children; for such cbil- rator of the unhappy race was cherdren have neither fathers nor mothers to ished by him. From 1835 to 1846, protect and provide for them. He sometimes would raise the question, Is God their he lived once more in northern Ohio, Father ?"

removing thence to Springfield, Mass., Young John had very little of where he engaged in wool-dealing what is called education; poverty under the firm of Perkins & Brown, and hard work being his principal selling wool extensively on commisteachers. At sixteen years of age, sion for growers along the southern he joined the Congregational Church shore of Lake Erie, and undertaking in Hudson; and from fifteen to twen- to dictate prices and a system of gra ty he learned the trade of tanner and ding wools to the manufacturers of currier. He returned to New Eng- New England, with whom he came land while still a minor, and com to an open rupture, which induced menced, at Plainfield, Mass., a course him at length to ship two hundred of study with a view to the Christian thousand pounds of wool to London, ministry; but, being attacked with and go thither to sell it. This bold inflammation of the eyes, which ulti- experiment proved a failure, wool mately became chronic, he relin bringing far higher prices in this quished this pursuit and returned to country than in any other. He final. Ohio, where he married his first wife, ly sold at a fearful loss and came Dianthe Lusk, when a little more home a bankrupt. But, meantime, than twenty years of age. By her, he had traveled considerably over he had seven children; the last of Europe, and learned something of whom, born in 1832, was buried with the ways of the world. her three days after its birth. He next In 1849, he removed with his famyear married Mary A. Day (who sur- ily to North Elba, Essex County, New vives him), by whom he had thirteen York, to some land given him by Gerchildren, of whom three sons were rit Smith. He went thither expresswith him at Harper's Ferry, two of ly to counsel and benefit the negroes whom lost their lives there, and the settled in that vicinity, on lands likethird escaped. Eight of his children wise bestowed upon them by our nowere living at the time of his death. blest philanthropist. The location

Brown worked for himself as was a hard one, high up among the tanner and farmer five or six years in glens of the Adirondack Mountains, northern Ohio, and, for nine or ten rugged, cold, and bleak. The negroes years thereafter, in Crawford County, generally became discouraged, in view Pennsylvania, enjoying general re- of the incessant toil, privation, and spect as a sincere, earnest, upright, hardships, involved in hewing a farm pious man. One who knew him in and a habitation out of the primitive those days remembers that the wrong wilderness, in a secluded, sterile reof Slavery was a favorite topic with gion, and gave over in despair after him, and that, though stern in man a brief trial; but John Brown and ner, he was often affected to tears his sons persevered, ultimately makwhen depicting the unmerited suffering homes for themselves, which,

a

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though not luxurious nor inviting, | intimate follower and admiring biogtheir families retain. In 1851, the rapher, Redpath, says of him: father returned with his family to

“It bas been asserted that he was a memAkron, Ohio, where he once more

ber of the Republican party. It is false.

He despised the Republican party. It is true carried on the wool business and man that, like every Abolitionist, he was opposed aged the farm of a friend; but, in 1855, to the extension of Slavery: and, like the on starting for Kansas, he moved his of organized political action against it

. But

majority of anti-Slavery men, in favor, also, family back to their own home at he was too earnest a man, and too devout a North Elba, where they remain, with Christian, to rest satisfied with the only ac

tion against Slavery consistent with one's his grave in the midst of them.

duty as a citizen, according to the usual ReIn 1854, his four elder sons—all by publican interpretation of the Federal Conhis first wife, and all living in Ohio stitution. It teaches that we must content

ourselves with resisting the extension of determined to migrate to Kansas. Slavery. Where the Republicans said, They went thither, primarily, to Halt!' John Brown shouted, ' Forward! to

the rescue!' He was an Abolitionist of the make that a Free State; secondly, to Bunker Hill school. He followed neither make homes for themselves and their Garrison nor Seward, Gerrit Smith nor families. They went unarmed, hav- Wendell Phillips; but the Golden Rulo and ing a very inadequate idea of the spirit of the Hebrew warriors, and in the nature and spirit of the fiend they God-applauded mode that they adopted. were defying. They settled in Ly who betrayed him, ' had manifestly a great

* The Bible story of Gideon,' records a man kins County, southern Kansas, about influence on his actions.' He believed in hueight miles distant from the present man brotherhood and in the God of Battles; village of Osawatomie, and not far equally with George Washington, the white from the Missouri border. Here they American deliverer. He could not see that were soon so harassed, threatened,

it was heroic to fight against a petty tax on

tea, and war seven long years for a political insulted, and plundered, by gangs of principle, yet wrong to restore, by force of marauding ruffians from Missouri, arms, to an outraged race, the rights with

which their Maker had endowed them, but that they found it impossible to re

of which the South, for two centuries, had main without arms, and they wrote to robbed them. The old man distrusted the their father to procure such as they

Republican leaders. He thought that their

success in 1860 would be a serious check to needed. He obtained them; and, to the cause he loved." His reason was that the make sure work of it, went with them. people had confidence in these leaders, and

would believe that, by their action in ConNearly all others went to Kansas in

gress, they would peacefully and speedily the hope of thereby improving their abolish Slavery. That the people would worldly condition, or, at least, of be deceived—that the Republicans would

become as conservative of Slavery as the making homes there. John Brown Democrats themselves—he sincerely and went there for the sole purpose of prophetically believed. Apathy to the welfighting, if need were, for Liberty. to avert this moral and national calamity,

fare of the slave would follow; and hence, He left his family behind him, for he he hurried on to Harper's Ferry. had no intention of making Kansas "He was no politician. Ple despised that his home. He was no politician, in determined nature. He was too large a man

class with all the energy of his earnest and the current acceptation of the term, to stand on any party platform. He plante having taken little or no interest in ed his feet on the Rock of Ages—the Eter

nal Truth—and was therefore never shaken party contests for many years. His in his policy or principles.”

I "'The Republicans of 1858 will be the Dem the manuscripts at Harper's Ferry—is a brief ocrats of 1860'

-a pithy prophecy, found among and clear statement of John Brown's ideas."

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